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the richness and sweetness of its tone, as well as its power. We are surprised at its capacity, considering its size.

The fame of the wonderful Sawtoor, a name given to every kind of stringed instrument, has attracted many Nestorian and Mohammedan visitors, who are filled with wonder at its beautiful looks and sound. “It is like Heaven,” say some.

My Syriac teacher contrasted it with a melodeon ; and said of the latter, in his best English, “It is like a buffalo—it cannot go; but this is like a rabbit-it runs."

Among other visitors to lear it has been the Prince, Governor of this Province, accompanied by five men of rank and a train of servants.

The Piano will be no small aid in our missionary work, especially in training the undisciplined and unmusical voices of the students in our Seminary. Once a weck they come to our house to sing, with the piano accompanying. I wish the kind friend who gave it to us, could see the happiness he has conferred by it. • I cannot sufficiently express my thanks for your efforts in preparing this beautiful instrument for its long and difficult journey. But for your piano, we could never have possessed such a source of happiness in our Persian home. I feel as though I should be a Letter missionary by reason of its mellowing and cheering influence.

Wishing you much prosperity in the sale of your instruments, and in your efforts for the good of others,

I remain, very truly, yours, BENJ. LABAREE.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION. The Thirty-Second Annual Meeting of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION will be held in BRATTLEBORO', Vr., at the Town Hall, on the 21st, 22d, and 23d days of August.

The Board of Directors will meet on the 21st, at 11 o'clock, A. M. The Public Exercises will be as follows:

Wednesday, August 21st. At 2 1-2 o'clocki, P. M., the meeting will be organized for tlic transaction of business. The usual addresses of welcome having been made, the President will deliver his Annual Address; after which the following subject will be discussed :

How many hours a day ought Pupils to be confined in School ; and should they be required to prepare lessons at home?

At 8 o'clock, P. M., a Lecture by Hon. ANSON Suytu, State Commissioner of Schools of Ohio.

Thursday, August 22d. At 9 o'clock, A. M., a Discussion. Subject : The Proper Qualifications of Primary School Teachers.

At 11 o'clock, A. M., a Lecture by H. E. Sawyer, Esq., Principal of High School, Concord, N. H.

At 2 1-2 o'clock, P. M., a Lecture by Lewis B. Monroe, Esq. Subject: The Human Voice.

At 3 1-2 o'clock, P. M., a Discussion. Subject : Methods of Teaching Elocution and Reading.

At 8 o'clock, P. M., a Lecture by Calvin Pease, D. D., President of Vermont University.

Friday, August 23d. At 9 o'clock, A. M., a Discussion. Subject: Universal Education the Great Safeguard of a Republican Government,

At 11 o'clock, A. M. a Lecture by T. D. Adams, Esq., Principal High School, Newton, Mass.

At 2 1-2 o'clock, P. M., a Lecture by Prof. Edward North, of Hamilton College, N. Y. Subject: The Tuition of Amusements.

At 8 o'clock, P. M., Addresses by Representatives of the Several States.

Ladies attending the meeting, will be welcomed to the hospitalities of the citizens of Bratıleboro'. Those who purpose to be present will greatly oblige the Committee of Reception, and will avoid personal inconvenience, by sending their names, as early as possible, to Mr. Hiram Orcutt, West Brattleboro', Vt., or to the Secretary, West Newton, Mass.

It is expected that the usual reduction of fares, on the several Railroads, will be made, of which due notice will be given in the newspapers.

WM. E. SHELDON, West Newton, June 12, 1861.

Recording Secretary. VT. STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. The Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Vt. STATE TEACHERS' AssociATION will be held at Middlebury, on Aug. 19th and 20th.

To accommodate those who wish to attend the meeting of the AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF INSTRUCTION, held at Brattleboro' on the same week, the meeting of the Association will be held earlier in the week than otherwise, commencing on Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock, and closing on Tuesday evening.

The principal exercises will be as follows: Monday, P. M., Address “ Music in Common Schools ”, by Prof. C. H. CLARKE, of St. Albans; to be followed by a discussion of the same subject.

Monday evening, Address by Mr. Judau DANA of Windsor, on "The Best Mode of Teaching Arithmetic.”

Tuesday A. M., Address on “ Doral Culture in Common Schools," by Rev. Wm. SEWALL of Lunenburg.

Tuesday afternoon, Address by Prof. M. H. BUCKIAN of the University of Vt.

Tuesday evening, Address by HIRAM ORCUTT, A. M., of Brattleboro', on " the Relation of Common Schools to the General Prosperity of a Community."

S. W. BOARDMAN,
N. G. CLARK, Committee
C. B. SMITH,

on

SCHOOL JOURNAL AND FAMILY VISITOR.

VOLUME III.

SEPTEMBER, 1861.

NUMBER IX.

OUR COMMON SCHOOLS.-THEIR INFLUENCE

UPON COMMUNITY. A perfected system of common schools is at once the peculiarity and glory of New England.

The idea of educating the whole people originated under the oppression that drove our forefathers from England. It crossed the Atlantic in the Mayflower; was matured and developed as an element of prosperity, in the early history of New England society; was fought for at Concord, Lexington and Bunker Hill, and has since been expressed in the ten thousand school-houses that have sprung up on every hill-side and in every valley.

It may be assumed that a thorough system of common schools furnishes the only means of universal education. Even in our own community, a large proportion of all those who come up to assume the responsibilities of life, enjoy no other school advantages. If, therefore, we attempt to show the relation of common schools to the prosperity of the state, we have only to illustrate the importance of learning, to the whole people.

In specifying these advantages, then, we will remark,

I. The discipline of our common-schools qualifies our youth to profit by other means of public instruction.

The Newspaper, Periodical, Lyceum, Library and Lecture, are important sources of educational influence. But the intelligent reader, hearer, and the patient, accurate thinker, who alone can profit by such advantages, must have enjoyed the systematic training of the school. The Press and Associations for mutual improvement have had the most of this influence in our country within the last twenty-five years. But these are not so much the cause as the product of learning. They have grown up to feed the public taste that has been cultivated by study and recitation, and their character may always indicate, with the accuracy of a thermometer, the degree of mental and moral cultivation in any community.

Who has not marked the contrast between the European and American press, in their aim and influences ?

The Journalist in Europe writes for a select few. His readers have leisure, and the issue of the morning paper is to them what the appearance of a Quarterly is to a cultivated American reader. But the American Journalist writés literally for the million, and simply because the million have been prepared by public instruction, for such reading. Our Press only answers the demands and gratifies the taste which our common schools have created. And as we may learn the character of that audience which listened to Demosthenes, from the orations which he pronounced to them, so we may infer the degree of the early culture of the American people, from the character of the Press which they support, and the degree and kind of Reading, in which they indulge.

II. Our common schools create in a community, more general intelligence and hence a higher degree of civilization.

When the great mass of the people become intelligent, they are led to cherish more correct views of life, to discover their relations and to acknowledge their obligations to their fellow-men and to their God. In this way, they become better citizens, better neighbors, better men and women in every sphere of life. schools are the nurseries of freedom, and the only sure foundation of a free government. A cultivated and intelligent people will not acknowledge false distinctions of rank and position; cannot be made the tools of aspiring demagogues, nor the subjects of military despotism. An enslaved people are always ignorant.

And our

common

Do we need proof of this assertion? We have only to draw the painful contrast between the two great portions of our own blessed country, and it may not seem invidi. ous to do so, at the present time.

While the North, the East, and the West, have been vieing with each other in the rapid diffusion of knowledge and in preparing a well digested system of public instruction, the South has nourished the scorpion of ignorance, and gloried in her shame.

The following extract from the “Literary Southern Messenger," presents their views of Northern Institutions. “ The system of education at the North, which is being introduced among us, has been much criticised and with justice. It contains much that is bad. Indeed, contemplated in some of its aspects and relations, particularly with reference to its effects, we do not think we go farther than truth warrants, when we say that it would be a curse to any country." And they here speak of that educational system which diffuses intelligence among all classes. What their effects are upon Society, we are attempting to show. But what have been the effects of tho Southern system of education upon Southern Society ?

In consequence of neglect of culture, the mental and moral have yielded to animal force, and henoe, the whole man has been degraded. Gross ignorance, or unbalanced culture, has diffused false views of human government and political economy. As a consequence, the cursed system of African Slavery, which has polluted the earth, corrupted the morals and blinded the judgments of that whole community, has grown up and thrived on Southern soil. It has stained the Altars and perverted the princi. ples of our holy religion, and has already proclaimed itself the corner stone of a new republic, and raised the yellow flug of oppression and treason, on the very temple of Liberty. Had knowledge been universally diffused at

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