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age in school ten hours in a day. The question is not so much how long a child shall be kept in school, as how he shall be employed while there. He would have no young child kept still in school more 'than ten or fifteen minutes at a time, and would vary the exercises by introducing numerous gymnastic exercises adapted to the age of the children. Mr. Parish thought it would be a good plan to have two rooms for each school, one for study and one for play, with teachers qualified to teach the best modes of playing as well as of studying Mr. Putnam had not found, in his experience, that children were injured by study out of school. At any rate, the parents of his pupils, nine out of ten, desired to have their children advance more rapidly and study more.
EVENING SESSION. The large hall was crowded at the evening session, and at the opening of the meeting the audience listened with great pleasure to a patriotic glee by Prof. Wood of Albany and his friend. Hon. Anson Smyth, of Ohio, was then introduced as the lecturer of the evening, who succeeded in interesting the large audience admirably for about an hour and a half, on the subject of " Christian Education in Public Schools." Ho answered effectually the charges which have been made that the public schools inculcate no religion, or do worse by extending irreligion. These charges were the result of sectarian bigotry, which he believed was rapidly passing away, not only among Protestant sects, but also as between Protestants and Catholics.
To show the sectarian bigotry which has existed, and which has caused the objections to free schools, he quoted from a document once sent to him, and circulated in a section of Ohio, headed in this volcanic style : “Christians, rally for your children. Presbyterians, Methodists, Baptists, Episcopalians, Christians of every name, rally for your children. The common school system is proving a disastrous failure." After going on in that style, some of the special grievances were stated, among which was the complaint that the teachers said nothing about the fi. nal resurrection of the body, or free will, or necessity. To suit such men teachers must have classes in these branches, and in their order of daily exercises we should hear the classes called up-" The class in Corporeal Resurrection will now recite," &c. Such objectors are passing away.
The committee of reception have had their hands full, to provide places for all who have arrived here. The hotels and Water Cure establishments are crowded; but ev. ery one wears a smile, and no one would suppose from the aspect of things here that the very existence of our government was threatened, or that any body in the broad land was engaged in deadly hostility, were it not that here and there is seen a military cap or dress, to remind us of the lamentable struggle which ignorance and diabolism have brought upon us.
AUG. 22, 1861. The exercises of the Institute have been quite interesting to-day, commencing with a discussion as to the proper qualifications of primary school teachers, in which Messrs. Northend of Connecticut, Sherwin, Wetherell, Philbrick, and Dr. Lewis, of Boston, took part. Mr. Sherwin and Mr. Wetherell presented the desirableness of having teachers who can interest pupils in the study of nature, whether in the form of trees, leaves, flowers, rocks, or animals, including insects and even reptiles. Mr. Sherwin enforced the necessity of this knowledge on the part of teachers, at length, and, among other anecdotes, he stat. ed that a lady from Boston, on seeing the balls on potatoes, inquired if they were oats. Mr. Wetherell related an instance of a teacher, called a good one, who, in answer to the question what produced the sound, on hearing an August cricket, said it was a frog. The same lady promised,, on her return from New Hampshire, to bring back some of the blossoms of the laurel, not knowing enough of that plant to know that it blossomed in June.
Dr. Lewis claimed that an ability to train the pupils on gymnastic principles was the first qualification of a primary teacher. Mr. Philbrick protested earnestly against that view of the case, calling it an extreme one, upon which Dr. Lewis responded, reaffirming his former position, and declaring that it was not only the first in order of the qualifications of a primary teacher, but the first in importance.
Prof. Frost of Boston favored the Institute with a pat. riotic song, after which a lecture was given by H. E. Sawyer, Esq., of Concord, N. H., Principal of the High School and Editor of the New Hampshire School Journal. His subject was, “ The Privileges and Pleasures of Teachers."
This was a new subject, as teachers are more apt to speak of the duties and trials of the profession; and as it was presented by Mr. Sawyer,it afforded profitable matter for reflection, and will be likely to lead teachers to think more of the pleasures they may enjoy.
In the afternoon the report of the Treasurer was read, from which it appears that the expenses for the year have been $423,58. The total credits have been $833,78, leav. ing a balance of $410,20 to the account of the present year.
A Lecture of great interest was then given by Lewis B. Monroe, Esq., of Boston, on “ The Human Voice": which was followed by some kindred suggestions on " The Musical Voice," by Prof. Frost, of Boston. A recitation of "The Bells," a Poem by E. A. Poe, by Mr. Monroe, was listened to with breathless interest, and heartily applauded at the close. No hour of the sessions of the Institute has been more satisfactorily spent, perhaps, than that occupied by Mr. Munroe. Dr. Lewis took an entirely gymnostic view of the subject, and asserted that persons who wish to secure a strong voice must make their abdominal muscles stronger, which give four-fifths of all the powers in vocalization.
John Kneeland, Esq., of Roxbury, followed a gentleman from Boston, who had taken the platform and occu. pied considerable time in rather boisterous advocacy of the theory, which was evidently a new one to him, that " the muscles must be educated; " and in doing so, Mr. K. said he was struck with a remark made by Prof. Frost, that a man might go on all his life making sounds, while a single one of them would not be musical. The audience enjoyed and rewarded the hit with the heartiest cheers. Resuming, Mr. K. said he felt altogether out of place there, for he had no hobby to ride. This was another shot that hit more than one, and some of the former speakers had the good sense to join in the roars of laughter that followed. He did not feel half so sure of his opinions as those gentlemen who had spoken. One good thing this meeting would do, he thought; it showed how old they were. He had been living at home, where he thought he was somebody, at least as good as the average ; but he now felt that the times had gone on ahead of him; he was not up to them. But he did not believe half so much in gymnastics as those gentlemen. We have gymnastics here for
breakfast, gymnastics for dinner, and gymnastics for supper. We started off yesterday with " How many hours, &c. What was the discussion ? Nothing but gymnastics. We commenced this morning with “ The Qualifications of Primary School Teachers;" and they were—nothing but gymnastics. To-morrow we are to have an address on Universal Education, and a discussion, and that education is to be nothing but gymnastics.
Mr. Kneeland was rewarded for the happy manner in which he continued to present his own views, by witnessing an effectual gymnastic exercise of the risible muscles throughout the audience, and by the applause which he so richly deserved for the sensible considerations he urged upon the members of the Institute.
Mr. D. B. Tower of St. Louis spoke of the usefulness of declamation as an exercise in training the voice, and also as an important means of giving to boys an ease of manner in walking or appearing before an audience. He would have a boy go out to the platform and take his position for declamation, even if he did not utter a word, that he might learn to do it without awkwardness or stumbling. He referred to an incident of recent occurrence where a little girl of eight years of age, being away from home, on reading with a class of nearly twenty in a village school, was detected as a Boston girl at once, on account of the excellence of her articulation in reading:
Although the weather was unfavorable in the evening, the hall was well filled. On account of the sickness of Dr. Pease of Vermont University, who had been announced to speak, his place was supplied by Leander Wetherell, Esq., of Boston, who gave a very instructive lecture on “ The Importance of a Liberal Education for Women, as essential to the highest type of Civilization.” The mission and influence of woman as an educator was presented as one of the chief reasons that she should possess a liberal education. The influence of mother was fully represented by a reference to the mothers of many distinguished men, to show that good men have usually had good mothers, and that bad men have had bad, unprincipled mothers. The lecture was received with attention, and the speaker was applauded.
Aug. 23, 1861. The exercises of the Institute commenced at nine o'clock, and were opened with prayer by Rev. Mr. Wil. linma nf this place.
ADDRESS BY T. D. ADAMS, ESQ. T. D. Adams, Esq., of Newton, Mass., was then introduced, who spoke in a most eloquent manner upon “ The Bearings of Popular Education on Civilization.” He placed teachers in the vanguard of civilization. The hand of the teacher is seen in everything good; the faithful teacher lives for the good of all, laboring in obedience to the divine command, " Let there be Light.” “More light, more light,” were the last words of the dying Goethe, and teachers re-echo them as they rejoice in the high relative position of the civilized world. In all history no brighter page can be found than the present. Nothing in the history of Greece or Rome can compare with it. Nowhere is the influence of education seen more clearly than in government, the most oppressive tyranny always being found where the greatest degree of ignorance prevails. The Italian Revolution of 1859 was referred to as an example of the influence of American ideas of education and government there. Soon after that period Garibaldi decreed a spot of ground for the erection of a chapel devoted to Protestant worship, not in Florence, but in Naples ! Such was the glorious result of American ideas.
Tyrants have always known the truth that education is a mighty conservator of freedom. Madame De Stael was the most accomplished woman of her age in France, and Napoleon, when he ceased to be the savior and became the oppressor of Europe, feared her most of all, remarking that she carried a quiver full of arrows which would hit a man though he were seated on a rainbow. He accordingly banished her.
The lesson of the hour is most potent on the point that, in order to preserve freedom, all must be educated. Yonder rebellion has been caused by a few ambitious men who have prevailed over the ignorance of the multitude. A revolution implies that the people know the fact and the cause of their oppressions. Rebellion implies an unlawful ambition, which relies for its success mainly upon ignorance and treason. The present war is a measure of our civilization, and if our country is now saved in this time of peril, it will not be on account of the politicians, but because the school-master has been abroad for the last twenty-five years. As the teachers of the present are the pioneers of thought for a future generation, let