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MORAL CULTURE.

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Says the late Hon. Wm. Slade, whose memory sheds such a rich halo over Vermont, and whom the mighty West delight to honor as their benefactor :

“ Education, in its broad and just sense, is the training of the Human Soul

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the whole man - Intellect, Conscience, and Heart."

Children and youth should be taught to feel morally responsible for their every act. Too apt are they to think that, because they are young, they may do with impunity, things that would be wrong in older persons, holding their parents and teachers responsible. And they are, sometimes, to be blamed. Too often do they excuse youthful follies, by saying, " every one must sow his wild oats,"a saying that has done incalculable wrong. Does not every one know that as a sows so shall he reap? If, then, he sows “ wild oats” in his youth, most assuredly shall he reap their legitimate fruit.

The child should be taught to do right always, because it is right, because duty to his Creator requires it, and because happiness, even in this world, is to be found only in doing right. Paul says, “Children, obey your parents in the Lord; for this is right;" the best reason in the world for any course of conduct, it is right. To secure this culture, the Conscience should be so delicately trained that it will shrink from the very appearance of evil. Although proper authority should not be questioned, yet the child should be taught to obey, not because the law says he must, but because the law is just, and obedience is right. Such training, and such heart culture will alone fit him to become a free man--a fit member of this government of kings.

What is Culture without this moral training ? Cultivate the development of the body only, and you have a Heenan

a or a Morissey, whose brutality would put to shame the better class of brutes. Cultivate the mind only, and you a ve an Aaron Burr, who lived only to blight the happiness

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of others, that his own sensual appetites and boundless ambition might be gratified. Education is power, but the education of the body and intellect, without a corresponding culture and development of the moral nature, produces a power for immense evil. The Elements are full of power, and when restrained and guided by their Maker's hand, agencies of untold good; but let them loose, and de

; vastation and destruction line their pathway. A steamengine under the guidance of the steady hand of the skillful and experienced engineer, is a power both harmless and eminently useful ; but let the steam on, and remove the engineer, or palsy his arm, and it becomes the agency of death and ruin.

So it is with man. Give him the thorough three-fold culture of body, mind and heart, and he becomes an honor to his race, strewing his pathway through life with blessings and good will. He is honored, respected and beloved. But give him intellectual culture alone, unaccompanied by a sense of accountability to his God or to his fellow men, and who can estimate the evil he

may do? Let the history of a Cataline among the ancients, or of an Arnold of our own age, or of the traitors of to-day, answer. .

In the series of articles of which this is the last, we have endeavored to set forth our own views of the culture demanded by the times. We will briefly allude to some of the reasons for our conclusions.

Look at the different portions of our republic at the present time. New England was planted in tears and sown in prayers. Her children were trained up in the “fear of the Lord," which the Bible tells us many times, “is the beginning of wisdom." Churches and schools were planted with every settlement, and in the integrity and stern morality of this severe culture, were laid the foundation of our country's greatness. From New England the influence of this culture has extended to the Middle and Western States, and has done much to mold into harmony with our institutions the vast multitudes of the

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ignorant poor that have there sought refuge from the decaying tyrannies of Europe. Throughout this whole region, prosperity, peace and quiet now reign, scarcely disturbed by the flocking of thousands of our citizens to arms for the defense of our liberties and nationality.

But how is it in that portion of our country where this broad culture is withheld from the masses, where the doctrine is boldly advanced that all government exists by force, that the right to govern rests with the few, and that it is the consequent duty of the many to obey? Who would exchange the fruits of such a culture as our fathers have bequeathed to us, for the unquiet and anarchy which now reign supreme in the Gulf States ?

Let us, then, dear readers, one and all, teachers and students, parents and citizens, as we love our country and as we hope for our posterity the enjoyment of the same privileges which are now so richly bestowed upon us, seek for ourselves and for those under our care this broad culture. Let us learn from the troublous times in which we now must live and act, and which threaten to destroy the beautiful fabric that has been reared up under the protection of our noble Constitution, that the intelligence, integrity and virtue of the people, are the true and only safe conservators of our liberties. And, finally, let us learn that he only is worthy to be a freeman under that Constitution, who has first freed himself from that worst of bondages, subjection to passion and appetite. L.

ENGLISH LITERATURE presents to the hungry reader a rich variety of solid dishes. One can take a cut of tender and juicy Lamb, or a slice of Bacon ; nor are the Greenes wanting. If he is not fond of smoked meat, there is the original Hogg, or he may choose a Suckling, or a Kyd. He may have a Boyle, if not a roast; and if he is fond of fish, there's Pollock. Some like a dish of Crabbe-a little crusty, yet many prefer a poet still more Shelly. And what for dessert? O-pie. To wash all those good things down there is plenty of Porter, and flowing Bowles, with a Butler to serve them. With snch a feast before him, one may

laugh and grow fat” until he gets Akenside, and all Scott free. What the Dickens can he want more !-[Home Journal.

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EDITORIAL MISCELLANY. VT. BOARD OF EDUCATION.-The 5th ANNUAL REPORT is on our table. It is one the most interesting documents of the kind, and decidedly the best that our excellent Board and Secreiary have produced. We should be glad to re-produce the whole of it and place it in the hands of every intelligent person in Verinont. But we can only print extracts from the Report from time to time, with some gleanings from Mr. Adams' extensive review of the condition of our common schools, and the progress of our cause. The Secretary's Report shows an increased interest in popular education in the State. This certainly is encouraging; for anything is better than stupidity. Signs of life are omens for good. Teachers' wages have advanced, which indicates a better appreciation of their services. Average wages for male teachers per month was $17.72 ; of females, $7.92. Whole number of heads of families in the State, 58,584 ; number of children between the age of four and righteen, 85,892. The amount of money paid male teachers, $70,666 ; amount paid female teachers, $97,198. This indicates that females are employed much more than males, and shows that public sentiment is correct as to the comparative merits of the two classes, and especially as to the economy of employing females. In a majority of our common schools, and with teachers as they are, females will do better service than males. Why then, in the name of simple justice, should they labor for ten dollars per month less ? Equal ability and efficiency demand equal pay. Our Secretary estimates the entire annual cost of our common schools, at $490,656. Still our school expenses are much less than in some other states. Vermont appropriates $420 to sustain fourteen Institutes. New Hampshire has spent more than $4,000 in holding ten Institutes per year, and Massachusetts $3,500 for ten Institules, besides her three efficient Normal Schools.

Including the same items, expenditures in Vermont amounted to $318,537 ; while Massachusetts spent $1,507,103.75. We are doing what we can, but could do much more for the benefit and honor of the State, if the means were more liberally provided. Ninety-four districts in the state, have been entirely without schools during the past year; and of this number twenty-three, schools were supended by votes of majorities! The fact is a disgrace to Vermont, and so much of heathendom as comes within our own

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borders, should at once be supplied with missionaries. Corporal punishment has diminished nineteen per cent., compared with last year. This may be for good or for evil, according to circumstanThe fact

may indicate looseness of government, a better condition of the schools, or a more judicious management on the part of the teachers. The last is, undoubtedly, the Secretary's view of the case.

And if so, it is a good omen. Still, it is true that corporal punishment is sometimes not only necessary but desirable. It should not be, it must not be abolished, if authority is to be maintained in our schools. Our Secretary notes the alarming fact that during the last ten years, thirty-three per cent of our resident population has emigrated from the State. While other N. E. States have gained nineteen per cent.; the border Slave States fourteen per cent.;

other Slave States, thirty-one per cent., and the Western States from thirty to two hundred and fifty per cent., Vermont has gained only one-third of one per cent.! This seems to be a good State to emigrate from ; and no one can doubt that those who leave us are among the best of American population. Our young men who go out to serve our country, ever have constituted, as they now do, the van guard of the national army. We shall be wise to devise some means to check this too rapid emigration and save the talent and enterprise now lost, in our own State.

Our Secretary has given his critics on the “ Bible Question,” a broadside that will, we predict, silence their guns for the present, at least.

Mr. Adams is again on the wing. We hear from him at West Concord where he has just closed “ a large and good Institute,” as he himself expresses it. Long may he be retained to serve our State. No man can do it better.

RESIGNATION OF PRESIDENT PEASE.—We regiet to learn that Dr. Pease has not only decided to leave the College over which he has presided for six years, with so much ability, but that he is to leave the State. We can hardly afford to spare such a man at such a time as this.

IT IS SO, BUT WE CAN'T HELP IT. “ We are informed by one of our principal publishers, that the demand for yankee book's is not affected by the war, and that, a few days ago he had an order for a considerable number of a Yankee arithmetic, although his shelves are filled with a work by an eminent Southern scholar, which is confessed to be the best in the language.

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