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saw him speak to her with his mouth close to her ear. | facc. With a blow I struck him to the ground, and What he said was urged vehemently. She smiled tim- grappled the arch-fiend by the throat. When he turnidly. Oh that smile! it dispelled every gloom. She ed from his pallid and piteous victim upon me, his shook her head, but he opened his large--his lustrous eyes glared-his hands were clenched together like the and splendid eyes, and gazed reprovingly and beseech- talons of a bird of prey, and he uttered in a sepulchral ingly into hers, and in a moment an alarmed and dubious tone my name. “Restore my Imogen," I cried, “or expression fitted over her face, and she averted her strike you dead !” He smiled, and I waved my dagger look. I could have plunged my dagger into his heart, over his head. His eye followed my gesture, and quick but I trembled and stood still, while a murmur ran as thought, while the crowd were rushing like a dark through the crowd, and suddenly the Enigma stood upon and giant wave towards us, that godlike voice from the the platform. He was clothed in a full suit of black distance, broke upon my ear. My arm dropped—the velvet, and his forehead shone like a star; his hair fell dagger fell from my grasp—a clammy perspiration down in long wavy curls, and his face was pale and his oozed from every pore. I reeled from the intensity of eye dim as an ashen corpse—but even in death beau- intoxicated sensations, and leant against the wall. tiful. Had he been communing with that melodious The music continued, and with it seemed to come being, and was he just from the conference ?

a perfume that filled the whole room. Not a person A pin might have fallen and been heard among that moved, but all looked on in fearful amazement at the absorbed and entranced assembly, and for a moment wonderful spectacle. my attention was diverted from Imogen and her cousin There sat my beloved, my adored Imogen, as I have Ernest, and directed in concentrated curiosity towards described her, with the terrible sorcerer towering proudthe operator.

ly and triumphantly over all. The music paused but There seemed a sound from afar off, like the dying for a second, and yet that second was a life to me cadence of a harp, but none heard it distinctly, yet all not a moment to lose, but I darted forward and regainwere startled at its mystery, and then all was still as ing my dagger, I plunged it into the body of my foc. the grave.

I seized Imogen by the hand and tried to wake her. I once more turned towards Ernest and Imogen, and To all appearance she was dead—not a word-not a she was deadly pale, while he was flushed and his ac- sigh-not a movement even of a muscle. I called aloud tions were agitated and nervous. Then was renewed to the bleeding Magnetizer to reillume the victim of within me the hell that I had before felt.

his art, but he replied not. The magnetizer turned his full eyes from the crowd 'He alone could rescue her. He who had darkened towards the twain-they were sitting near to him, and a her spirit could revive the soul, and give it back to life sudden change was visible on his face.

and love. I knelt by his side-I raised him in my In front of him were the skeptics, or philosophers, arms I pointed to Imogen, and begged him to ware who had taunted him to this final trial, and every so- his hand once more, and wake her from her ghastly lemnity had been put in requisition to sustain him in sleep. He smiled bitterly, and shook his head with a his hour of need. I tried to force my way through the ferocious smirk of exultation. crowd. I could have torn them to pieces, but they mo- Driven to despair, I dashed him away from me, and ved not, and so I was constrained to be a mere specta-cast myself upon my knees before the inanimate body tor of that scene, which taxed every fibre of my heart of my betrothed; but I gazed upon the vacant eye, and to bear.

called to the deafened ear. Suddenly the magnetizer waved his hand upwards While kneeling before her, I heard a scream, and and gåzed upon Imogen. She was not looking at him then a confused murmur of alarm, and the next moment at that moment, but no sooner had he made the gesture, I saw the figure of a dark and majestic woman standing than with a quick start she turned towards him. I was above the magnetizer. She stooped and raised his struck mute with horror and amaze-my tongue clove head upon her knee and whispered to his ear. He to the roof of my mouth, and I could neither call aloud slowly raised his eyes to Imogen and waved his hand. nor make a sign.

The eyes of my beloved moved her lips unclosed Horrible sight! In a second, like a stroke of light. she drew a long breath, and rising from her chair fell ning the truth flashed across my mind, and I saw that into my opened arms. The crowd, held back through Ernest had staked his hope of success with Imogen fear and superstition, now raised a loud shout of joy upon the magnetic influence of the master.

and when I looked round for the strange being who The gestures were continued, when all at once the had wrought this sudden change, I saw nothing but a powers of speech and motion came back to me, and I small black pool of blood. The enchanter and the shrieked aloud to the dreaded sorcerer to stop. He enchantress had left the hall. did not appear to notice my summons, but proceeded. Again I shrieked and swore that I would strike

Here the manuscript is continued with scientific ar. him dead if he did not desist. Imogen did not hear me! guments upon the science of magnetism, which may She sat like a statue hewn out of the solid rock, with hereafter be published. At present they are too wild her eyes like those of a corpse, and her mouth open.

and singular for this age. So prone is the youth of ou Her cheeks were deadly pale.

country to indulge in daring speculation, that I will not I was possessed at that moment with the strength of feed their morbid appetite by a present disclosure. a giant. I rushed forward—I trampled under foot those whom I overthrew-I swept with my arms a passage through that solid mass, and stood by the side of the Petrarch declares that in his youth he saw the worki magician. Ernest sprang to me, and we stood face to l of Varro, and the second Decade of Livy.

Freighted with thee no ship would ere be blown, NAPOLEON AT ST. HELENA.

By summer gales. O'er that wide sea, gaze on,

Gaze still with hopeless eye, Napoleon! Lines written on seeing a picture of Napoleon Bonaparte, No more shall Austria hear thy cannon's roar; standing alone, just after sunset, on one of the cliffs of St. Helena, gazing in a pensive mood on the wide waste of waters No more o'er Alpine heights thy eagles soar; before him.

No more shall Gallia's hosts thy voice obey ;

Nor at thy feet her crown Hispania lay; Napoleon ! Child of Destiny! What train

No more for thee shall youthful warriors bleed;
Of agonizing thought employs thy brain,

Or conquered hosts to thee for mercy plead.
As d'er the Atlantic wave, with down-cast eye, Thy sun has set—that sun, whose morning beam
And thoughtful brow, thou look'st despondingly? Made thee like more than mortal champion seem.
Does hope of conquest still within thee live ?

Slowly it sinks behind the darkened west;
Cr o'er thy fallen fortunes dost thou grieve ?

The nations now from fear of thee may rest ;
Thy thoughts seem fixed, amid the twilight's gloom, The cliff whereon thou stand'st shall be thy grave,
On other days, perchance, or on the doom,

The sea-bird's cry--the murmur of the wave,
That war's uncertain chance, and England's hate, Thy requiem shall sing along the shore,
Or the unchangeable decree of fate,

And Europe hear thy battle-cry no more.
Has brought on thee. And dost thou seek some balm,
The fever of thy o'erwrought brain to calm ?
Art thou at last convinced there is a God
Who rules earth's countless nations with his rod;
Protects the meek; exalts the lowly born;

A TREATISE ON
And sinks the proud beneath the poor they scorn ?
Or dost thou still on fickle chance rely ?

THE ART OF NAMING PLACES.
On changeless fate, and blindfold destiny ?
And dost thou vainly hope again to see
The star of fortune rise triumphantly
From out the sea, and claim for thee that throne,

INTRODUCTION. Which thou, with empty boast, didst call thy own?

An eminent writer having favored the readers of the - The Star of Austerlitz, that led thee on

Literary Messenger with some valuable hints upon the To fields, where thou thy blood-stained laurels won ?

art of naming horses, I am encouraged by his example Great chieftain, say, shall it rise no more,

10 submit a few suggestions on a kindred subject, but To call thee back from St. Helena's shore,

one of still more general interest I mean the art of And blind the nations with its dazzling beams?

naming places. My design is, first, to show what is the Vain hope! the envious clouds that round thee rise

prevailing practice in America ; secondly, to point out Have quenched its beams, nor shall thy wishful eyes, its disadvantages; and thirdly, to propose a better meEre see its light again flash on the sky,

thod. In a country where new towns and townships, The sign and token sure of victory.

states and counties, are daily springing up, the practiNapoleon, say, can'st thou not penetrate

cal importance of the subject I have chosen, needs no The misty cloud, that darkly shrouds thy fate ?

demonstration. To those ladies and gentlemen, in all Nor learn the moral of thy life; nor see

parts of the union, but especially the new parts, who Of fame, of wealth, of power, the vanity?

have votes or influence in naming villages or tracts of Where has thy greatness fled ? Where is thy crown?

country, I respectfully inscribe my lucubrations-humWhere are the kings that trembled at thy frown?

bly soliciting a patient perusal before final judgment.
Has wisdom to thy soul no entrance found ?
Has conscience with its sting no power to wound ?
Dost thou remain, still haughty, stern and proud,

CHAPTER 1.
As when before thee Europe's Sovereigns bowed ?
-When France with all its legions, ready stood,

American method of naming Places.
Battling for thee to shed its richest blood ? .
Napoleon, say, hast thou not felt remorse,

There are three predominant methods of attaching When backward gazing on thy heedless course ? names to places in the new states of America. The When on thy couch reclined at midnight hour, first, and perhaps most common, is to adopt names alAnd reason o'er thy mind asserts her power,

ready appropriated in the older states. An impulse was Do not the ghosts of men in battle slain

given to this practice by the events of the revolution, Of millions slaughtered on the ensanguined plain,

or at least by the desire to perpetuate their memory. Thy boundless love of power to gratify,

Thus the Lexington of Massachusetts propagated its Full oft before thee rise reproachfully,

title in Virginia, while Massachusetts, in its turn, re• And call for vengeance on that guilty head,

ceived a Princeton from New-Jersey, and Kentucky For which so oft the innocent have bled ?

borrowed both. It may well be questioned, whether Proud man! thy thoughts were sad enough, I ween, the scenes of revolutionary conflict would not have As from the barren cliffs of St. Helene,

been more truly honored by being left in undisturbed Thou didst survey, heart-sick, the Atlantic wide, possession of their distinctive names, instead of losing Around thee rolling still its briny tide.

their identity amidst a throng of honorary namesakes. O'er those dark waves full well thou must have known, Is it any compliment to Lexington or Princeton, that

VOL. IV.-33

the barbarous appendages “N. J.” and “Mass.” are mistakes, after such names as Ovid, Ulysses, or Caabsolutely needed, to preserve an ordinary letter from millus. May this proud distinction be perpetual! May miscarriage ?

no inferior member of the union ever trench upon the A still more operative cause of this bad practice is New-York patent for naming places by the aid of the amor patriæ of settlers from the east. Springfield, Ainsworth's Dictionary! A less sublime variety of this Litchfield, and all the other fields of Massachusetts and same method, is to choose the names of moderns, eiConnecticut, are thus made to fourish in immortal ther foreign or indigenous, especially the latter, and youth, and may indulge the hope, that as the tide of particularly those of revolutionary heroes or distinemigration rolls towards the Pacific, they shall see their guished politicians. No one could have quarrelled with names emblazoned on the map beyond the Rocky this easy method of perpetuating worthy names, if it Mountains. The only drawback is, that the old yan- had been provided by agreement or by law, that no kee towns themselves have stolen names, and must name should be given to a plurality of places. The yield the honor to their prototypes in England. City of Washington strikes foreigners as a noble title,

having all the qualities of a good name, sonorous and

significant, convenient and invested with sublime assoCHAP. II.

ciations. But alas! we know better. Tous, the name

of Washington has lost its virtue--we cannot conjure Another Method.

with it. Instead of being consecrated as a national The second common mode of giving names, is to se name, it has been debased by association with a thoulect them from the map of the old world. To one who sand hamlets. How strange that emigrants and sethas travelled through New-York, illustration is super. orable name, by adding another to the list of its misap

tlers should imagine they are doing honor to that memAuous. Rome! Syracuse ! Ithaca ! Jericho! What can be more classical than “Rome, N. Y." These plications! If this however, were the only instance of New-York-State Romans, if they ever have occasion such inconvenient multiplication of a single name, we to write or speak of the eternal city, are no doubt in the might be able to endure it, and to persuade ourselves habit of employing the genuine American expression, Father of his Country. But what shall we say of the

that it evinced the strength of national attachment to the “ Rome, Italy." This is a mere conjecture; but we hundreds upon hundreds of ignoble names, which are know full well that some American

writers, when they not only honored with a place upon the map, but with mention the Tuileries or Garden of Plants, can find it in their hearts to say “Paris, France," for fear of con- two, three, half a dozen or a dozen places? In this founding it with “Paris, Ky.”! What a commentary

case, the public inconvenience, arising from a paucity this upon the merits of the system! This practice is of local names, is not, as in the other case, compencoeval with the settling of New-England. Almost all sated by the value of the names themselves. We have the names given by the Puritans to places, were taken not even this romantic consolation, when our letters from the Bible, or brought over from Great Britain. miscarry, or come back to us with half-a-dozen superThey had a right to pursue this method. They came

scriptions, half-a-dozen post-marks, and half-a-dozen hither by compulsion, and were fairly entitled to assim postages. ilate their new home to the old one as completely as they could, the rather as they could not then anticipate with certainty the growth of their adopted country, and

CHAP. Y. had therefore no reason to expect any actual incon. venience from this kindly remembrance of the names

Disadvantage of these Methods. of the old world. There is no such apology for him who travels westward, of free choice, and with his eyes tion has been made of some particular objections to

In enumerating these three methods, incidental menwide open to the practical effects of this imitative no- which each is liable. The objections to the whole sysmenclature. What right has he to rob his native town of her good name, by a sort of theft, which nought en-nience. 2. Disgrace. Its inconvenience needs no proof

tem may be reduced to these two heads: 1. Inconveriches him, but makes her poor indeed ?

to any one accustomed to write letters. So strong is the feeling of habitual confusion and dubiety, produ

ced by the endless reproduction of the same names, CHAP. III.

that before long no man will be satisfied, without enAnother Method.

suring the safe passage of his letters, by specifying

counties and townships as well as states. It is exThe third common method of naming places, is to ceedingly uncomfortable to be always doubting of the name them after men. The page of history from whereabouts of every place you read of. Compare which these are selected, depends upon the taste and your own sensations when you read or hear of Washprepossessions of the namers. The refined conception ington, Jefferson, Jackson, Columbia, Portsmouth, or of immortalizing ancient writers, heroes and philoso- any of the many villes and burghs, which are held se phers, by giving them a local habitation and a name common stock by all the states. Compare the uncerupon our modern maps, has been confined in a great tainty, vexation and solicitude, the reference to gazetmeasure to the Empire State. Setting aside some par- teers and maps or knowing friends, which all such tial imitations on a very small scale, New-York enjoys names occasion-with the pleasant sense of certainty a glorious monopoly in this branch of the fine arts. and clearness which accompany names that have been The addition of “N. Y.” is scarcely needed to prevent / used but once--such as Savannah, Cincinnati, Natchez,

CHAP. VI.

or Chicago. Compare our own condition in this respech, with that of Europe, where a duplicate name

A better Method proposed. can searcely be detected on the most minute of maps. Here is one great advantage on the side of the old coun- It is not the object of this little treatise to expose an tries; an advantage too, arising from their having had evil, without proposing remedies. To those who are their origin in what we call “dark ages," as distino convinced by the foregoing chapters, that the usual guished from our age of light. The old Goths and practice is both inconvenient and disgraceful

, a method Gauls and Saxons neither knew nor cared about the of correcting it will now be most respectfully submitted. names of other countries, and this happy ignorance The statement of this method will include several discompelled them to invent. Our settlers are just well tinct propositions, any one of which may be adopted if enough instructed to be imitators, and ignorant enough the others are disliked; while at the same time there to overlook the disadvantages of imitation. Some is nothing to forbid a simultaneous execution of them New-England emigrants may even be entitled to the all. My first proposition, then, is this: that where credit of not knowing that the good old yankee names, there is an Indian name, it be retained, in spite of all which they are carting to the west, were not invented absurd and tasteless efforts to convert it into something by the Pilgrims. If the force of prejudice and habit with a ville, or burgh annexed. If this rational and were once broken, an ordinary pedler from "down easy course had been pursued, we should not be now east," could manufacture new and striking names for pestered and disgraced by post-office equivoques and places without stint or limit, every one of them better geographical double-entendres. Every body who has than an atlas full of villes, burghs and tons, (Calhouns been in Europe knows that our Indian names of places and Bentons, Jacksons and Marshalls, Clintons and Web-are exceedingly admired; not merely for intrinsic sters, Harrisons and Clays.)

beauty, which they sometimes want, but as original and dignified by their associations. Oh if our great

commercial city could but wear again its fine old Indian, CHAP. V.

title of nobility, instead of being nicknamed after a Another Disadvantage.

decayed, mouldering heap of houses in the north of

England, preserved from oblivion, only by its splendid The other disadvantage of the system ought to ope- minster! After this place New-York is named, to all rate with power on the sensitive self-love of this vain intents and purposes ; although in historical strictness, nation. We may vapor as we will about native talent, it derived its title, not from the city, but the duke of American genius, an independent literature, and what York. The prefix new, is universally disgraceful; a not! We may rave till we are tired, of our annuals, and provincial badge which ought to have been knocked off fourth of July speeches, and lyceums--it is still as when we gained our independence. The rustic vulgarclear as day that we have not even such a measure ofism, York, at which the smart cits laugh, is vastly betInvention as would enable us to name our towns and ter; but Manhallan would be infinitely, infinitely better. counties, without stealing from the map of Europe ; The Canadian York has now a name of its own; ought nor taste enough to steal what is worth stealing; no, not our own York to possess one too? It is a matter nor sense enough to consult our own convenience. If of congratulation, that in naming our new states, so we have invention, taste, and common sense, let us be much good taste and judgment have been exercised. gin to show it in our maps and road-books. This na- Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Missouri, tional infirmity has not been overlooked by our benig- Illinois, Ohio, Michigan and Arkansaw, are names of nant neighbors. It has caught the eye both of satirists which we all have reason to be proud. To the end of and sages. Witness the hundred Warsaws of Sam the civilized world, every educated person understands Slick, as an example from the first class, and the fol- them, and admires them. This advantage is owing to lowing extract from a work of Sir John Herschell, as the obvious fact, that the naming of a state falls into an instance of the other. “Those who attach two better hands than the naming of most towns and Senses to one word, or superadd a new meaning to an counties; but it proves, that among those concerned, old one, act as absurdly as colonists who distribute there is discretion and good taste enough, if they were themselges over the world, naming every place they only used to some good purpose. Let those that have come to by the names of those they have left, till all authority in this thing, be persuaded not to make themdistinctions of geographical nomenclature are confound-selves ridiculous, by sacrificing noble aboriginal names ed, and till we are unable to decide whether an occur for paltry imitations and vile compounds. One great rence stated to have happened at Windsor, took place example of this folly has been given-not belonging to in Europe, America, or Australia.”

our own times except by sufferance. To this may be This apparent poverty is rendered more disgraceful joined a small one of more recent date—one out of a by its leading us to borrow from the very countries, thousand. A beautiful neighborhood in Pennsylvania, which we profess to rival or surpass in all the qualities was once called Nesháminy: it is now called Härtsville! of intellect. If we are so wholly independent of Old There is no weight in an objection sometimes urged to England, let us prove it, and at the same time promote Indian names, that they are frequently uncouth and our own convenience, by disusing English names.-dissonant. Not to mention that this often seems so But this, belonging rather to the next ensuing topic, only at the first, and that even then, the most uncouth from which it will be needless to detain the reader, by will bear comparison with many of our own domestic any enlargement on the evil just exposed, the reality manufacture; there is no reason why an Indian name of which must be apparent to the mind, and painful to should not be slightly trimmed and softened, by throwthe feelings of all patriotic yankees.

ling out a consonant or throwing in a vowel, before it is

CHAP. VIIL

ultimately fixed by usage. Such a process has actually (or agreeable than Vermont from the French verd mont taken place in most of our current Indian names. The or verds monts. It may not be extravagant to add, that, object is, not to preserve the pure form of the Indian in the west, even Indian names might thus be made word, but to have an original, distinctive name. With "to order ;" some descriptive epithet being adopted, such modifications as are here proposed, a noble list of even though it had never figured as a proper name. names might be produced, intrinsically fine, and wholly free from the inconvenience and disgrace of being duplicates. A curious illustration of the difference between the two sorts of nomenclature here referred to, is afforded by the title of the celebrated railroad between

A third Method proposed. New-York and Philadelphia. “Camden and Amboy” is unequivocal enough, when written as a compound. sition of commemorative names—commemorative either

As a third expedient, may be recommended the impoBut separate the elements

, and speak of Camden-you of events or persons. The latter species of commemowill instantly be asked, which Camden do you mean? ration it is true, has been the source of much of the Camden, S. C.? Camden, N. C.? Camden, Geo. ? Camden, Del.? Camden, N. J.? Camden, N. Y.; confusion now existing. But why has it had this Camden, Maine ? or Camden, England ? But speak

effect? Because the names selected have been those of of Amboy, and you will hear no question of the sort,ceive this honor from many different quarters at the

persons generally known, and likely therefore to reunless a Jerseyman should ask whether you meant

same time. The evil has arisen from a foolish tendenPerth Amboy or South Amboy; but these are mere fractions of an integer, on opposite sides of the same

cy to overlook local and peculiar circumstances, and river, and do not therefore fall within the scope of this instead of desecrating some great names, by depriving

give the preference to commonplace generalities. II, discussion.

them of individuality, and unduly honoring some small names in the same way, it had been the practice to call

places by the names of founders, early settlers, local CHAP. VII.

benefactors, or eminent inhabitants of any class, even Another Method proposed.

though they might not be members of congress or heads

of departments, our maps and gazetteers would have The method just proposed can be extensively adopt- been more respectable. The reader can easily illused only in the newly settled regions of the country, trate this remark by applying it to the place of his own and even there, it may be open to objection, in particu- residence, and those adjacent to it. It may be added lar cases, which must be provided for. The second that, besides the superior convenience of this method, proposition, therefore, is, that names be given which it would be a valuable means of doing honor to a multiare descriptive of some characteristic and distinctive tude of most deserving men, and of saving from oblifeature of the places named, their site, or their envi- vion a whole catalogue of names, far more worthy of rons. That this corrective may not engender the very

remembrance than a moiety of those now scattered, evil it is meant to counteract, it is of great importance with a niggardly profusion, over our territorial surface. that the names, formed on this principle, should be As the object of this work is to suggest, and not to drawn either from something wholly peculiar to the amplify, the only other necessary hint, in this connesplace in question, or something not likely to be chosen lon, is, that when the names of men are good enough to as the ground of a distinctive name in other places.

be distingushed in the way proposed, they are loo good Greenfield, for example, as a distinctive name, is abso- to be spoiled and made ridiculous by any sort of barbalutely worthless. It must not, however, be inferred rous appendage. Who that has a particle of taste can that, by this rule, no such name could be given, except waver between Jacksonville and Jackson ? Even Pittsto places which possess some extraordinary natural burgh, allowing for the force of habit and association, distinction, such as Rockbridge county in Virginia, so

is less worthy of the place than the naked, ugly monocalled from the famous natural bridge. A circumstance, syllable

, Port, would have been. But, be this as it not wonderful or striking in itself, may be sufficiently may, we have enough of villes and burghs already for a peculiar to suggest a local name. An overhanging cliff thousand years. The suffix town, is not so bad, except of reddish earth or stone, though not

all extraordic

when it is frittered into ton; but the best and safest nary, might be a good reason for calling the village near,

rule is to discard them all, and let the name, whether it Redcliff ; nor is it at all likely, that, without direct long or short, stand on its own bottom. piracy or plagiarism, more than one village would select such a name. In order to afford the widest scope for this suggestion, and reduce the chances of direct

CHAP. IX. interference to the lowest point, it may be well to sug: gest the derivation of descriptive names, in certain

A fourth Method proposed. cases, from other languages than English, though the As a last resort, where the foregoing methods are latter should in general be preferred. Tremont, (from for any reason inexpedient, names may be invented. I tres montes,) would have been a better name in some remember to have seen in print, an ingenious mode ol respects, than Threehills or Threemountains, and in all managing this sort of manufacture, so as to secure the respects better than Boston, a name purloined from an two important points of euphony and originality. The old seaport in Lincolnshire; nor can it be imagined plan proposed was to form two sets of tickets, one that greenmountain would have been more convenient inscribed with consonants and one with vowels, and

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