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The Voyage of the "Challenger.": The Atlantic; a Preliminary ..., Volume 1
Charles Wyville Thomson
Visualização integral - 1878
100 fathoms abundant acid Admiralty algæ animal antennæ apparatus Atlantic attached Bermudas Bottom temperature bulb calcareous calicle Cape carbonate of lime Castle Harbour Cent character close coast colour coral curve deep deep-sea delicate Depth diameter Distance from Fayal Distance from Sombrero Ditto dredge Expedition fathoms fauna Fayal foraminifera genus Globigerina ooze Grey ooze Gulf Stream Harrington Sound haul Hydra inches instrument Ireland Island length limestone Long lower Madeira miles natural nearly North observations ocean Orbulina pair plates Pourtales President and Council radiolarians red clay reef ridges rock round Royal Society sand sarcode scientific staff sea-water seems septa serial soundings shells ship siliceous slip water-bottle soil Sombrero Island species specific gravity specimens spicules spines sponge Station stopcocks surface taken temperature soundings Teneriffe thermometer tow-net trawl tube usually voyage weight WYVILLE THOMSON
Página 293 - Efore we present you the matters of fact, it is fit to offer to your view the Stage whereon they were acted : for as Geography without History seemeth a carkasse without motion ; so History without Geography, wandreth as a Vagrant without a certaine habitation.
Página 223 - ... fathoms, and consists almost entirely of a silicate of the red oxide of iron and alumina. The transition is very slow, and extends over several hundred fathoms of increasing depth ; the shells gradually lose their sharpness of outline, and assume a kind of 'rotten ' look and a brownish colour, and become more and more mixed with a fine amorphous red-brown powder, which increases steadily in proportion until the lime has almost entirely disappeared. This brown matter is in the finest possible...
Página 210 - I now admit that I was in error ; and I agree with him that it may be taken as proved that all the materials of such deposits, with the exception, of course, of the remains of animals which we now know to live at the bottom at all depths, which occur in the deposit as foreign bodies, are derived from the surface.
Página 203 - It affords, in fact," Thomson wrote conclusive proof that the conditions of the bottom of the sea to all depths are not only such as to admit of the existence of animal life, but are such as to allow of the unlimited extension of the distribution of animals high in the zoological series, and closely in relation with the characteristic faunae of shallower zones.42 After leaving the West Indies, however, he had to revise some of his conclusions.
Página 215 - Orbulina is spherical, usually about '5 millimetre in diameter, but it is found of all smaller sizes. The texture of the mature shell resembles closely that of Globigerina, but it differs in some important particulars. The pores are markedly of two different sizes, the larger about four times the area of the smaller. The larger pores are the less numerous ; they are scattered over the surface of the shell without any appearance of regularity ; the smaller pores occupy the spaces between the larger....
Página 208 - Orbulinoi almost daily in a fine net at Messina, often in great numbers, particularly in February. Often the shell was covered with a whole forest of extremely long and delicate calcareous tubes projecting from all sides, and probably contributing essentially to enable these little animals to float below the surface of the water by...
Página 214 - Globigerinae from the bottom, even in the shallowest water. Two or three very marked varieties of Globigerina occur ; but I certainly do not think that the characters of any of them can be regarded as of specific value. There is still a "good deal of obscurity about the nature of Orbulina universa, an organism which occurs in some places in large proportion in the Globigerina ooze.
Página 71 - Islands, the Crozets, and Kerguelen Land, to Australia and New Zealand, going southwards en route, opposite the centre of the Indian Ocean, as near as may be with convenience and safety to the southern Icebarrier.
Página 224 - Teneriffe, when it readies 3,150 fathoms; there the clay is pure and smooth, and contains scarcely a trace of lime. From this great depth the bottom gradually rises, and, with decreasing depth, the grey colour and the calcareous composition of the ooze return. Three soundings in 2,050, 1,900, and 1,950 fathoms on the ' Dolphin Rise ' gave highly characteristic examples of the Globigerina formation.
Página 210 - I had formed and expressed a very strong opinion on the matter. It seemed to me that the evidence was conclusive that the foraminifera which formed the Globigerina ooze lived on the bottom, and that the occurrence of individuals on the surface was accidental and exceptional ; but after going into the thing carefully, and considering the mass of evidence which has been accumulated by Mr. Murray, I now admit that I was in error ; and...