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detail of the industry. They have studied mad. In a preceding chapter [ referred the requirements of their trees; have in- to the furor for planting which then existformed themselves of the most scientificed, and I also alluded briefly to some of methods of propagation; have introduced, the disastrous results which followed. by budding, the choicest known varieties; Those years inculcated some useful leshave mastered the problem of insect pests; sons. They taught us that well established have established markets, and are work precedents and natural conditions can ing to gain a reputation for their fruit. In not be ignored and defied. They taught those points to which they have earnestly that success is attainable only by working and systematically devoted themselves, it with Nature, not against her. is doubtful whether they are excelled by And now, chastened, humbled, punany orange - producing country in the ished for our previous thoughtlessness world.

and wrong-doing, and likewise rewarded In two essentials, however, they are for carefulness and right-doing, we prostill lacking: 1st-manuring the soil; ceed with more confidence and more in2nd-preparing and packing the fruit.* tegrity of purpose than ever before. With But a reading, thoughtful, progressive precedents well established,and authentic people will not take long to discover and information disseminated on every quesremedy their lapses.

tionable point, a man who takes pains to Compared with horticulture as pursued inform himself may now attain success in in other portions of the United States, our orange culture as surely as the sea captain section occupies a leading position. The who consults the chart may make his system of seeding an orchard to grass or port. Of course, unforseen accidents may clover, or the lack of system in allowing happen to either captain or orange-grower, the ground to grow up with weeds--which but of the two the “land-lubber” enjoys one sees so generally followed in other the greater immunity. States-is not in vogue among our culti- The report of the Surveyor-General of vators. On the contrary, the finest tilth California for the fiscal year 1881-2 gives and the utmost freedom from weeds and the following statistics: grasses is maintained, both in citrus and deciduous orchards.

Number of Number of It would not be a

Bearing Bearing difficult matter to show hundreds of fruit

Lemon Trees. Orange Trees.

Los Angeles county......48,350 450,125 farms, varying in size from ten to fifty

San Bernardino.............. 3,749 15,435 acres, which are as carefully tended as the San Diego..............

3,390 finest flower garden.

Santa Barbara............... 1,840

612 Some people of poetical temperament

1,635 Sonoma........

1,893

3,927 complain of the absence of greensward

Ventura......

200 in our orange groves, declaring that only Yolo....................

1,300 this is lacking to complete the romance of Butto............................. 2,400 2,960 he situation. But in this day and are Scattering........................ 1,094 4,643 romance is obliged to retire before utility. Total......................62,130 484,227 Scientific culture demands that soil de: voted to trees shall not be exhausted by

It was estimated that the number of other vegetable growth; also that the sur trees not yet in bearing (which did not ace of the ground be at all times finely figure in the Assessor's reports) was three pulverized in order to retard evaporation.

times the number of those in bearing, so Our system of fruit growing conforms to that the grand total of orange trees in the these requirements.

State could not have been far from two For a time-I refer to the period between millions. 1870 and 1880-citrus culture presented Reports for the year 1882-3 are not availhere the spectacle of a great industry run able for any of the counties except Los

Angeles. The Assessor of that county re*NOTE.--I should make an exception in Riverside. turns this year 526,640 bearing orange where the packing is done in a systematic and thor. trees and 50,565 bearing lemon trees. ough manner.

The entire crop of the State was, in the

...........

1,257

Santa Clara...............

247

1,000

season of 1881-2, twenty millions of The season at which our fruit ripens oranges. San Francisco, which is our (December to March) and the length of principal market, uses about twelve mill. time it may be allowed to remain on the ions annually, of which over half are sup- trees without detriment (December to plied by Southern California. In 1879 July) gives us great choice of market. fifteen car loads of oranges were sent from Florida and Louisiana oranges are sold Los Angeles to Salt Lake City, Utah, and from November 1st to March 1st, and at from that time a good market has there the latter date the entire crop is gone. been found. The rapid influx of people There is no necessity for marketing our to Arizona during the past three or four fruit before February or March-and in years greatly increased the demand from fact it hardly attains its full size and that quarter. Arizona, by reason of the sweetness until then, when we have the inadaptability of lier soil to agriculture, entire field to ourselves. Even the im. the principal occupations of her people ported Tahitis are then out of the way. being mining and stock raising, and the As the lines of trade become better esexcessive heat of her summers, is certain tablished, and the excellencies of our fruit to continue a large consumer. Our market more appreciated throughout the United has also been extended within the past States, the demand will, of course, greatly few years so that it includes Denver, Kan- increase. It is fair to assume that, notsas City, St. Louis, Chicago, Cincinnati, withstanding the prodigious increase of Louisville, and all of the principal cities plantations, the market will never be of the West and Southwest. Some fruit overstocked with good fruit. Taking the has found its way to the Atlantic States season of 1883-4 for an example, I may and some has been shipped to European state that as early as December 1st, when countries, but not to the extent of forming the fruit was only beginning to turn color, regular channels of trade.

four-fifths of the crop of Los Angeles The number of oranges shipped by the county had been engaged by jobbers. Southern Pacific railroad from Southern One cultivator sold his crop on the trees California to Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, for the lump sum of $12,000. The usual Colorado, and through points on the Mis- price paid was $2 per box (average 150 souri river and east thereof, from January oranges) and fancy lots went up to $2.50, 1st to July 1st, 1883, amounted to 131,450 $3.00, and ever $5.00 per box. That year's boxes. By Wells, Fargo & Co., during crop was accounted short-from half to the same time, estimated 20,000 more, two-thirds the normal yield and the nnmaking in all 151,450 boxes containing usual promptness of purchasers was, of 30,290,000 oranges. To this amount we course, largely attributable to this fact. may add at least 10,000,000 more, shipped But, considering the increased number of from July 1st to Dec. 31st, and at least bearing trees, and the increased capacity 5,000,000 used up in local markets or de- of soine of the older ones, the yield was stroyed in orchards, making for the crop, still very large. There is yet no substanwithout counting those shipped to San tial indication that the market is being Francisco 45,000,000 oranges. With the over-supplied. fruit raised in San Diego, San Buenaven- As the reader has already discovered by tura and Santa Barbara, there were prob- the perusal of the Surveyor General's ably 50,000,000 grown in the year 1882 and table above given, the cultivation of the 1883. It is estimated that the annual in- orange and lemon is confined to a few crease from this time forward will be 10,- counties of California. Los Angeles coun000,000 a year. The crop, of 1883-4, if all ty alone makes a showing in the above put in boxes, would have required 250,000 table of over forty-five forty-eighths of all boxes, and would have filled 700 freight the bearing trees in the State. I shall atcars at the rate of 350 boxes per car. tempt to show, before concluding this

The remarkable keeping qualities of our treatise, that only a limited portion of Los oranges—due in a measure, no doubt, to Angeles and of the other orange-growing their thick rind-renders their shipment counties is adapted to the production of long distances quite feasible.

the better class of oranges. The area of possible production is, then, very much may sometime rule much lower than they restricted. While the market must con- do now, but even at one-half of present tinue to grow, and while the product will quotations orange-growing must continue doubtless grow with the market, the area profitable. Growers in the Mediterranean of possible production can not grow. At accept one-quarter of our prices, yet they present ten oranges are imported to every admit that they would find their groves one grown in the United States. The time profitable even at lower rates. is coming when our home product will, in It is the firm belief of the writer tbat a great measure, supplant foreign impor orange-growing in California will never tations.

be overdone, and, when rightly pursued, Prices may fluctuate somewhat, and will never become unprofitable.

CHAPTER X.

PROFITS OF ORANGE CULTURE. In his delightful book on Orange Cul. ble to the charge of local prejudice. My ture in Florida, Rev. T. W. Moore says: purpose is to show that another people.

“When compared to the profit from far remote, and following orange culture other kinds of business, that derived from under conditions quite independent of orange growing is so large that a state ours, have arrived at the belief that orange ment of facts is often withheld because culture is very profitable. We of Calithe truth seems fabulous to those who fornia have worked through the same have only had experience with other premises and arriyed at the same conclukinds of fruit. Those engaged in the busi. sion. The proof is by two witnesses. ness consider each tree, as soon as it is in It is a difficult matter to present in busihealthy and vigorous bearing, worth one ness-like form the Profit and Loss account hundred dollars. Indeed, the annual of orange culture in Southern California. yield of such'a tree will pay a large inter. It is a great industry, scattered and diversest on the one hundred dollars. Now if ified. In one instance-pursued by a we take into consideration that from forty shiftless cultivator, or in an illy adapted to one hundred trees are grown on an locality, or lacking in other ways essential acre, the yield is immense. In the quiet conditions of success-it may be a losing country, breathing its pure atmosphere, business. Again, with moderately favorwith fresh fruits and vegetables from Jan. able conditions, it may pay a small profit. uary to January; mith milk, butter, honey And still again, with every circumstance and poultry, the product of his farm and in its favor, including a favorable turn in accessories to his grove, the man who has the market, the profit may appear proonce brought his trees into successful digious. It would not be fair to cite either bearing can enjoy all these and much of these cases as illustrative of general more besides, having at his command an results. It would not be fair even to income quite equal to that commanded by strike an average of the three. Yet someowners of blocks of well-improved real where between the extremes a fair generestate in our towns and cities, with not alization is to be found. Reasonable exone-tenth part of the original cost of city cellence is, after all, a fair criterion. Let investments."

us incline towards results obtained from This, let it be distinctly understood,was right conditions, careful culture, fair marnot written about California. Therefore, I kets. Such results anybody can attain if have introduced it here. Before opening he observes established methods. fire on this much bombarded question of Riverside is the model orange-growing orange culture, I wish to fortify myself settlement of Southern California. Here with breastworks that shall be impregnathe conditions of reasonable excellence are

more general and uniform than in any quality raised in the interior valleys of other locality of like extent that I could California will ever go below that figure), name. Owing to the fact that statistics we shall have an aggregate net income of have here been carefully compiled, I am $750,000, or an average of $375 per aere.. enabled to present something like a satis- These general estimates may seem overfactory view of the industry taken as a drawn. Perhaps the inscrutable logic of whole and averaged up by the acre. These events may prove them so. But I can asstatistics are drawn from the files of the sure my readers that the basis of calculaPress and Horticulturist. Returns fur- tion both in price of fruit and yield, are nished by the cultivators in 1882 showed a far below what is being realized in indigrand total of 200,000 orange trees, cover vidual cases. ing 2,000 acres. The trees reported in 1882 It is a matter of record, and has beer may be considered as nearly all bearing cited in a preceding chapter, that some of at the present time-some at their best, the early cultivators realized profits whielie others yielding their first or second crop, seem fabulous. Governor Downey says of which is light. Some of the seedlings may Don Luis Wolfskill: “He lived to enjoy not yet have come into bearing. Last year his oranges for twenty years, and they (1883-4), the total orange product of the gave him, some seasons, an income of a valley was 25,000 boxes. The fruit then thousand dollars an acre. The last crop brought an average of $3 per box.

disposed of in his lifetime, from about This year, the trees being more advanced twenty-eight acres, sold on the trees for and the crop generally fuller, it is esti- $25,000.” The Don's sons and daughters, mated that the product will be from 100,- grown to mature years, still enjoy & 000 to 150,000 boxes. Returns received princely income from the estate. from advance shipments range from $1 to Six or seven years ago the profits of $3.13 per box. These are net returns to orange culture ran up to marvelous figthe producers, free of any expense for ures. In a speech delivered by Mr. J. de . picking, packing and shipping. The vari- Barth Shorb to a publlc body, that gentleation in prices is owing, in a great meas- man stated that a single acre of Col. B. D.. ure, to different qualities of fruit, the Wilson's older orange groves yielded Riverside Navels and other choice budded nearly $1800 in one year, a fact which can varieties selling above the seedlings. As- readily be believed when singletrees have . suming $1.50 per box as an average price, been known to net sixty or seventy dolthe net income from 100,000 boxes of fruit lars, and when from sixty to eighty trees : would be $150,000. Or, taking the larger are planted to the acre. Three years ago estimate of 150,000 boxes, it would be Mr. Dalton netted $800 from a quarter of' $225,000. These returns averaged upon an acre planted in orange trees of a fine, the 2,000 acres devoted to orange culture, quality, and of mature growth. would give from $75 to $112.50 per acre as In these times of increased production be net return. In this calculation, it and lessened prices I do not know that must be remembered, enter the trees not any cultivator claims to equal the old yet bearing, others just coming into bear. Don's profit of $1000 per acre, or Col. Wiling and a small proportion in full bear- son's $1800. But it has been not unusual ing. Prices also range lower than ever for a grower to clear as much as $500 ani before, with one exception, owing to the acre. In the season of 1882-3 one producer. fact that our channels of trade are but just in the San Gabriel valley sold his crop on: opening up, and as yet the means of dis- the trees for the lump sum of $23,000. posing of so large a product are inade. This from about forty acres of orchard. quate,

In the files of the Press and Horticultur.. It is estimated that the orange crop of ist for October 25, 1884, I find the follow-. Riverside, when the trees are in full bear. ing: ing,--say five years hence, should amount "Mr. D. C. Twogood has 450 seedling or-. to five boxes to the tree, or 1,000,000 boxes. ange trees, covering six acres of land. Allowing the price to be 75 cents per box The trees were planted twelve years ago, (and it is hardly likely that fruit of the and the roots were three years old, wherma the trees were planted, thus making the will have taken about $12,000 worth of trees now actually fifteen years old. They fruit from his six acres in twelve years have been bearing about six or seven since planting-all of wbich, of course, years. It is from this six acres that Mr. has been within the last six years. The Twogood expects to harvest 2000 boxes of orchard has cost him something like the oranges. He judges his crop this year following figures: from actual yields in previous years. He "Six acres of land at $25 per acre............$ 150 however about sixty budded trees Four hundred and fifty trees at $1 each......

Twelve years of care at $:30 per acre a year.. 2,160 now bearing lightly, in addition to the 450 Interest on amount at 10 per cent for six yrs. 1 656 seedlings, and possibly it may require a

Total investment.........

$ 4,416 portion of this fruit to make up his esti

Total receipts ....

... 12,000 mate. He also has ten acres of budded

$ 7,034 orange trees that are just beginning to " The present value of property each show fruit.

one can estimate for himself. Can Mr. "He has obtained $3 per box, with the ex- Twowood at

Twogood afford to sell that orchard for ception of one year--two years ago-when

$5,000 per acre ?''. on account of the freeze he got only $2.25 As the market goes, Mr. Twogood does per box. If he gets $3 per box this year, not realize $3 per box for his fruit; but, at that will be $1000 per acre, which will pay hall that price, provided the crop holds up ten per cent on an investment of $10,000 to estimate, his returns will be $500 an per acre, or something less after deduct- avre. ing running expenses.

11, in the evolution of the orange indus“Regarding the cost of caring for a try, the time shall come when a grove in place, that depends upon circumstances. full bearing yields only $100 an acre net. If a man has a five-acre tract, it costs him

the profit ought still to satisfy a man of

the profit or more to take care of it than it does if he

moderate ambition. With ten acres in has twenty or forty acres. A man can

trees, yielding a revenue of $1,000 a year, hire all the work done in an orange or- and the hundred and one accessories and chard for $30 per acre a year, but in addi

economies of country life, a man ought to tion to this work he must give a certain be able to live and support a family. He amount of personal care and attention not

may enjoy not only the substantial comcalled for in the $30 per acre contract. If

forts, but many of the elegancies of life, be expects to hire all the work done, but This is an independence. to supervise it in person, and do a little himself occasionally, $30 per acre ought to

*In order to avoid a false impression, I should keep an orchard in good shape for one

say that such land is no longer to be had in Riveryear.

side at $25 an acre, but is worth, unimproved, ten “With this year's crop Mr. Twogood times that figure.

CHAPTER XI.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ORANGE. Scientists tell us that the orange is a pistil-are wrought into the fruit. The berry. The pulp, the separating mem- natural office of the orange, then, is to þranes and the skin are but a thickening bear seed. of the pericarp or seed vessel.

Before a thousand years of evolution In this respect the orange resembles the made the orange what we know it today, grape (also a berry) and is totally different the tree bore beans-or at least produced from the apple, in which all of the parts its seed in pods clustered together at the of the flower-calyx, corolla, stamens and end of a stem. If you will peel an orange

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