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and separate it along the membranes into of about the same distance, and a circumits various segments, you will have before ference of trunk, near the ground, of you these seed pods in something like nearly three feet. The seventy-year old their original form. Doubtless as it first orange tree of the Mission orchard, San grew, the pulp was much less than we find Gabriel, which I measured, showed a girth in our abnormally developed fruit; of forty-two inches. The inference is fair there may have been little of the pod ex- that, between the ages of sixteen and sevcept the seeds and the leathery skin enty, it had increased its circumference of which enclosed them. But finally this trunk only six inches.
As the orange bunch of seed pods adhered at their tree attains its maturity, its cylindrical bases, and the union extended to the trunk changes to one of eccentric longituapex, uniting all the segments into a sin- dinal corrugations, although, if healthy, gle fruit of spherical form. With this the bark still remains smooth. union, the portions of the thick rind The wood of the orange tree is closewhich came within the sphere degener- grained, hard and susceptible to a fine ated into the thin membranes which we polish. It is of a clear, yellow color, emnow find. The development of the pulp bodying a suggestion of the fruit itself. into the full, juicy tissues of the perfect The top of the tree contains another sugfruit is largely the work of man, in care- gestion of the fruit, for, if allowed to take fully selecting the best species, improving its natural bent, with little pruning, its them by cultivation, and transmitting the contour is almost spherical, like the good qualities by the process of budding. orange. Note the fact that the development of The leaves are ovate in form, slightly these juicy tissues has been at the expense serrated, and of thick leathery texture. of the seeds and cuticle. The highest type When newly forming they are of a bright of budded orange is nearly seedless and yellow hue, but as they mature they has a thin rind.
change to a dark green, with the upper When you find an orange "sport" surface presenting a decided gloss. The which shows a tendency to split at the tree is an evergreen, and it has numerous bloom end into a number of pod-like seg- seasons of growth during the year, with ments, or to show decided creases in the slight dormant intermissions. I once took rind along the lines of the segments, as careful note of a tree at my place, with the though it had half a notion to divide itself following result: On the first of January up, remember that the tree which bore there was a little new growth already this fruit was thinking of its great, great, formed. This made some progress durgreat grandmother, that passed away a ing the month, and hardened up about couple of thousand years ago. This the middle of February. In April another "sport,'' as well as all others, illustrates growth began, and matured in May. the nata ral tendency of all organisms, About the middle of July the third growplant or animal, to revert to an earlier ing period commenced, and this time the condition. The primitive form of the or- tree made more wood than in both preange was what scientists term “apocar- vious growths combined. By the last of pons."
August the yellow leaves had all turned The orange troe, compared with many to their normal shade, and the stems were other trees that are adapted to a sub-trop- hardened. In October there was a slight ical climate, is of slow growth. It requires growth. In December the shoots started about sixteen years for the seedling to at- again, but this was the same growth I had tain what might be called its full normal noted at the beginning of the year. Thus proportions. It then stands about twenty- I found four distinct growiog periods. It live feet high, * with a spread of branches is not unusual for trees to make even five
*The size of budded trees varies so much from growths in a year under favorable circumthe standard seedling that I do not attempt to can- stances, while with retarding causes they vass the matter in this article. There are dwarf, semi-dwarf and standard buds, all of which follow may make only one or two. The times of their respective habits when set upon a seedling starting and maturing may also vary alstock, and make trees from five to twenty-five feet in height.
most a month, according to circumstances
of irrigation, cultivation, temperature, years, which brings it to the present seaetc. The dormant periods of the orange son, it contains, according to estimate, troe may be generally defined as follows: four thousand. Not every orange tree
The middle of March to the middle of presents such a record as this, however. April.
The orange tree revels in a high temperThe month of June.
ature. In fact, very warm weather is esThe month of September.
sential to the raising of good fruit. It is The middle of November to the middle not sufficient that the warm weather occur of December.
in summer, but a high average must be The orange tree blossoms early in Feb- maintained in winter as well, and the exruary, and continues in flower until the treme should never fall below a certain last of March. The blossom is a pure point. This point may be placed at 23 dewhite, of the most exquisite texture, and grees above zero F.-9 degrees below the its fragrance is so great as to be almost freezing temperature. A cold spell that surfeiting. As a typical flower, twined reaches this extreme will destroy young into a wreath to surmount the head of a orange trees in nursery and nip the tenbride, nothing could be more delicately der growth of older trees. In the latter suggestive of beauty, purity and sweet- part of January, 1883, the thermometer ness. But those who have observed the reached 17 degrees above zero in many orange flower only in the conventional places in Southern California. That was bridal wreath have seen but a poor coun- an unprecedentedly cold wave. Oranges terfeit presentment of the real blossom. were frozen on the trees, and their juices
The fruit sets in February or March and utterly destroyed. The trees themselves attains its maturity one year thereafter, were frosted at the extremities of their when the tree blossoms again. At the time branches, but suffered no serious check. of blooming one may see it loaded with its Younger trees were considerably injured, golden fruitage and dazzling with bloom. and nursery stock was frozen to the The contrast of these colors with the dark ground. The lemon trees suffered more green of the foliage forms a most enchant- than the orange, and many lime orchards ing picture. The tree is itself a bride, were utterly destroyed. elothed in satin emerald, crowned with a While the full-grown orange tree will snowy wreath and decked with precious survive a good deal of cold weather, and jewels.
is not destroyed by the extreme above The orange clings to its stem with great named, it may still be set down as a safe tenacity, and it is not unusual to find fruit proposition that the less frequently the of a former year's growth still on the tree thermometer goes below the freezing when a second crop is attaining maturity. point (32 degrees above zero) the better it The quality deteriorates however if it is is for both tree and fruit. allowed to remain long after maturity. In The orange is long-lived. An instance time the juice is absorbed entirely, leaving is on record of a tree in Italy living to the the pulp a dry, spongy mass.
age of four hundred years. But that was Concerning the capacity of production, with the most careful treatment, through there is great variance. Mr. H. M. Beers successive generations, with repeated rehas the largest tree in Riverside. It is newals of the soil. As we grow the orsoventeen years old, and the trunk meas- ange tree in the open air, with a minimum ures three feet in circumference, or nearly of attention, a century would probably be twelve inches in diameter. At the age of its full span. But a hundred years is a nine years it bore about half a dozen or. long time to exist on this earth, and after anges; at eleven years it bore two thou- such a life of usefulness, if there is any sand; at thirteen years it bore two thou- better vegetable kingdom elsewhere, the sand two hundred and fifty; at fifteen orange tree ought to be allowed to go years it bore four thousand; at seventeen there.
Although there are a hundred or more One of these was sent to Mrs. L. C. Tibnamed oranges, one might count on his bits, of Riverside, San Bernardino county, fingers all the varieties that are in request this state, who distributed a few buds for budding. The leading yarieties are the among some friends. But little attention Riverside Navel, Mediterranean Sweet, was paid to the original tree or to its offPaper Rind St. Michael and Maltese Blood, spring until 1879, when some of the fruits all foreign fruits. Some attention was were exhibited. Their beautiful color, paid a few years ago to the Konah, Wilc peculiar form, and excellent quality atson's Best, Wolfskill's Best, Baldwin's tracted immediate attention, and stimuFavorite, Du Roi, Australian Navel, Aca- lated its propagation. It was named Riverpulco, Nicaraguan and some other varie- side Navel to distinguish it from the Austies, but these no longer hold their own tralian Navel, introduced about the same in the struggle for the survival of the fit- time. The latter is distinctly ribbed test. In fact every other orange is giving lengthwise, of light color and inferior way to the Riverside Navel, which has quality, while the Riverside is smooth, of come to be universally acknowledged the a golden bronze tint and a fine texture ; best. For variety, a small proportion of satin-like skin ; its flavor is deliciousMediterranean Sweet, St. Michael and something like a combination of the best Maltese Blood are planted, and it is likely qualities of the Messina and Florida orthat other kinds will find their way to a anges—and the fruit has the additional adshare of popular favor. But it must be a vantage of few or no seeds. Since the fine orange that wrests the palm from the Riverside Navel made its appearance it Riverside Navel. As public opinion was has eclipsed all competitors, and has taken a number of years in coming to this con- first premiums wherever exhibited. Soon clusion however, and meanwhile the hon- after it was brought to 'public notice, Mr. ors were more or less divided, a large T. W. Cover, of Riverside, became pronumber of other varieties were planted prietor of the original stock, and he disand are coming into bearing. The budded seminated buds throughout the orangefruit product of the State will be diversi- growing portion of the State. fied enough to suit all requireruents.
MEDITERRANEAN SWEET.-Medium to For convenience of reference, I append large; oval; pulp and skin of fine texa list of varieties grown in California, and ture; flavor delicate, less acid than any also give a list of varieties grown in Flor- other variety of orange grown here; nearida, which have not been introduced in ly seedless ; ripens late. The tree is a this State.
semi-dwarf, almost thornless, matures RIVERSIDE NAVEL--- also known as early, and has a tendency to overbear. Washington Navel, Umbilical, Bahia, En- Fruit should be thinned vigorously to inbigou).--Medium size, round, skin smooth sure a fair growth of wood and developand of fine texture; nearly seedless ; ment of fruit remaining. Mr. Thos. A. juicy; high flavored ; pulp melting; Garey, who introduced this orange, says quality the best. The peculiarity which of it: “About the year 1870 I imported gives this fruit its name and marks it be- several varieties of orange trees from yond any question is a protuberance in Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry's nursery at the blossom end which closely resembles Rochester, New York. I think the imthe human navel. This is in reality a lit- portation included all the varieties offered tle kernel, enveloped in the skin, which for sale by this firm. One of the trees was when examined proves to be an aborted labeled Shaddock. When the shaddock orange. The tree is semi-dwarf, and has fruited, the fruit proved to be a first-class a few small thorns. In 1873 the Agricul- orange, instead of the coarse, worthless tural Department at Washington imported fruit its name led me to expect. I called several orange trees from Bahia, Brazil. it ‘Garey's Favorite,' but subsequently christened it 'Garey's Mediterranean the same general description as the above. Sweet.' Messrs. Ellwanger & Barry were BALDWIN'S FAVORITE. - Originated by appealed to, but could not identify the 'Mr. E. J. Baldwin, of Los Angeles county. fruit with any known variety:" Next to Same as above. the Washington Navel, the Mediterranean NICARAGUAN. - A seedling from fruit Sweet has attained the greatest popularity brought from the peninsula by Dr. J. of any of the budded kinds.
Shaw twenty-five years ago. Fruit very THIN-SKINNED OR PAPER RIND Sr. large, thick skinned. MICHAEL. — Fruit small, round, thin- HOMOSASSA.*-Of Florida origin; size of skinned, high-flavored and a delicious fruit medium, somewhat flattened, very sub-acid ; one of the best budded varieties heavy; color bright; skin very smooth, and destined to increase in popularity; thin, tough and dense; pulp fine, sweet keeps well and therefore a good shipper. and juicy; flavor full and vinous; memA vender once told me they sold on the brane covering segments of pulp very streets of Los Angeles better than any thin and small; ripens very early and other variety he could obtain. Trees keeps and carries well; quality best. Tree dwarfish in habit, thorny.
prolific, vigorous, very thorny. MALTESE BLOOD.---This variety derives TANGERINE, MANDARIN, OR KID-GLOVE its name from the peculiar marking of the ORANGE.-- This is a dwarf both in tree and pulp, which seems to be streaked and fruit, and has been grown for ornament clotted with blood. This queer character- and curiosity more than for any other istic varies with fruit from different trees, purpose. I see, however, that its cultivadifferent ages of trees, and in different tion is extending in Florida to supply a stages of ripeness, in some instances be- certain dilettante custom, which likes to ing barely traceable and in others the eat its orange without soiling its gloves. blood-red stain suffusing the entire pulp. The fruit is very small, saffron-colored, The older the tree grows the more marked flattened at the ends, and the skin parts the fruit. The Maltese Blood is a little un- readily from the pulp, while the pulp dider medium size, smooth, round and fine vides readily into sections without the textured ; juicy; high-flavored, and the loss of juice. It has a peculiar fragrance pulp tender and melting. The tree is a and flavor, but altogether amounts to little semi-dwarf; thornless or only slightly more than a bon-bon. Its use is only a thorny.
passing fancy, I think, and a man would KONAH. A California seedling from hardly be justified in planting a large seed grown on Konah Island; most of the grove of Tangerines. The tree, or shrub, characteristics of a first-class seedling, the as it might be termed, is regarded by some chief advantage being in the uniformity of botanists as a distinct species, and by fruit; thick rind, juicy, large. The tree others as a marked variety of the sweet grows to the full size of a seedling and is orange. It is very ornamental, being disthorny.
tinguished by its small, lanceolate leaves; Du Roi.Size medium, round, skin slender, flexible branches; somewhat forfirm; quality good, fruit apt to be ribbed mal habit of growth, and the flowers, somewhat like a musk melon. Trees pro- which are white and smaller than those of lific, vigorous, few thorns. Long grown the urdinary orange. in Florida and imported from there.
PUMALO.-A dwarf tree with peculiar ACAPULCO. – Tree a vigorous, strong glossy foliage, leaves drawn as if by a grower; rind, thick and rough; pulp, puckering string, and a fruit as large as coarse; flavor, good; regular but late the baby's head. Not good to eat. Grown bearer.
for ornament only. WILSON'S BEST.-A seedling of the latter BERGAMOT. - Fruit large, rough, flatelass, originally grown by Hon. B. D. tened ; quality fair; leaves large and Wilson. All the characteristics of a good broadly winged; when bruised give forth seedling. WOLFSKILL'S BEST.-Originated by Mr.
*A few trees of this variety are to be found on
Mr. A. S. White's place, Riverside. The fruit is of Wolfskill, of Los Angeles, and answering fair quality.
& delicious aroma not unlike that of berg- LORETTO.-Not fruited. amot, from which peculiarity the tree de- EXCELSIOR.--Fruited; thought to be a rives its name. Grown mostly for orna- fine variety and a possible acquisition to ment and curiosity.
our budded fruits. Besides the above, Mr. Garey enumer- FLORIDA SEEDLING.-Same as Los Anates the following forty varieties which geles Seedling. he imported or propagated:
PORTUGAL.--No value. LARGE ST. MICHAEL.---Thick skinned ; The following varieties grown in Florida inferior.
are held in high esteem there, but have SMALL ST. MICHAEL.-Doubtful whether never been cultivated in California, so far it is an established variety, but, if so, en- as I am informed. For this list I am tirely distinct from the Paper Rind St. mainly indebted to Manville's Practical Michael ; small, thick skinned ; inferior. Orange Culture : MALTESE OVAL.--Not fruited.
EARLY OBLONG.-Synonym, Thornless Los ANGELES.-Common Seedling. Bell.-Fruit medium size, oblong, thick CHUCHUPILLAS.-Mexican, not fruited. skin; lacking the sub-acid of other sorts ; BITTER.-Bigarade of Florida.
quality fair. Though its color does not MYRTLE LEAF.--Ornamental only. turn much before the other sorts, its juices PERNAMBUCO.-Not fruited.
attain perfection one or two months earlier, WHITE ORANGE.—Pulp white, inferior. when it should be marketed. Tree bears
VARIEGATED ORANGE. - Ornamental young ; prolific ; vigorous ; not as large only.
as some; leaves elliptical, acute and scatEXQUISITE.--Small; no value.
tering; branches slender and thornless. SANDWICH ISLAND.-Small and very Originally imporied, but long grown in sour; no value.
Florida. LARGE CHINESE.--Not fruited.
SATSUMA.-Forthe following description PROLIFIC.--Not fruited.
of this tree I am indebted to Mr. A. F. FORBIDDEN FRUIT.-Not fruited.
Styles, of Jacksonville. . He writes : EMPEROR MANDARIN.--Dwarf fruit ; “ This new Japanese Orange was introfair ; not equal to Mandarin.
duced into Florida: several years since, by COOLIE MANDARIN.–Tall, standard tree; Mrs. General Vanvalkenburg, of St. Nichthorny; fruit, dwarf.
olas, and is destined to take high rank DWARF MANDARIN.-Dwarf tree; fruit among the new varieties. The tree is of identical with that of the standard Coolie dwarf habit of growth, entirely thornless, Mandarin above.
and very hardy. In the cold 'snap' of CANTON MANDARIN.-Not fruited. December, 1880, the leaves of this tree did THORNY MANDARIN.-Not fruited. not even curl, while all other varieties, EMPEROR OF CHINA.-Not fruited. with the same exposure, lost all their ST. JAGO.--Not fruited.
leaves. It is sure to bear the second year EGG.-Not fruited.
from budding, and it will bear too heavily NUTMEG.--Not fruited.
unless prevented by thinning. It makes SEVILLE.-Not fruited.
a much more vigorous and thrifty tree, if R10.-Not fruited.
budded on a sweet stock, in preference to TENERIFFE.-Not fruited.
the sour, or bitter-sweet. PARAMATTA.-Not fruited.
“Of the fruit, Dr. Davis, in his book on HEONG LEONG.-Nɔt fruited.
orange culture, says : This fruit belongs SABINA.-Not fruited.
to the loose-rind species, Citrus AurantiCUMQUAT.-Not fruited.
um Japonicum, is medium size, flattened, QUEEN.—Quality fair.
deep orange color, smooth, thin skin, POOR MAN'S ORANGE.-Not fruited. which is sweet, aromatic and easily deSELETTO.--Not fruited.
tached from the pulp. Color of pulp, BOUQUET.-Blooms continuously; very dark orange; segments part freely; fine ornamental.
grain, tender, juicy, sweet and delicious. TAHITI. Seedling; same
There is none of that rank odor which Los Angeles fruit.
characterizes most other varieties belong