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rounded by unmoved dirt. Tamp the AFTER CARE.—Directly after planting eartb a little to settle it about the plug, equip yourself with knife or scissors and

and the transplant- trim up the little trees. Some of them ing is complete. will have two or three stems, and some After a few experi. will be throwing an undue proportion of ments the work can their vitality into some favored limb. be done with great Trim them to a single stem and start rapidity. . them up in the way they should go.

Concerning the Afterwards replace all trees that die, so as planter Judge Wid- to keep your rows full and regular. ney says: “Three When grown to the height of two or three years ago I com- feet, your trees, or a part of them, may remenced to set out quire staking. If so, don't neglect this some 200 acres of part of the work. You may think that

eucalyptus trees. I the stalk will be cut down after a while, PLANT RAISED WITH raised the plants in budding, and it doesn't make much

PLUG OF EARTH. and put them in difference whether it grows straight or boxes 20x24, setting them two inches apart not. But it does. The more symmetrical

-the usual plan. To set them out in the you keep your nursery, the more pride field and not irri

you will take in it, the better you will do gate, and do the

your work, and it will thrive proporwork rapidly, was

tionately. the question. The

FREE FROM INSECTS.-Watch your nurresult was this trans

sery with eagle eye that none of the pesplanter. With it HOLE CUT BY TRANS

tiferous scale insects obtain lodgment

PLANTER, one man will take

there. If once thorougbly inoculated the boxes of plants and set out 600 to with red or white scale, it is all over with 1000 trees per day, nine feet apart. I set your project; nobody would buy the trees out over 100,000 plants, and not one plant afterward, even though you succeeded in in 100 died from transplanting.".

clearing out the pests. It is a good plan IRRIGATION-As soon as planted the to wash the trees once or twice every year i trees should be irrigated. This may be with a decoction of whale oil soap, as a | best accomplished by making a slight measure of prevention. trench along each side of the row and a FREE FROM WEEDS.-I would enjoin few inches therefrom, throwing the dirt the most thorough cultivation of the nuraway from the trees. Then lead the water sery, summer and winter, and keeping it along, and after it has thoroughly soaked entirely free from weeds. But the painsaway use a hoe to draw the displaced taking nurseryman will do this without earth back. The dry soil being left on special admonition. top acts as a mulch to prevent evapora- PRUNING.-When the trees have been in

tion, Under no circumstances should the nursery one year, they should be pruned · soil remain unstirred after an irrigation, slightly. Be careful not to carry the : as it will bake and dry out, leaving the pruning to excess, and especially avoid 1 trees in a worse condition than if they making long willowy switches with a

they had been given no water at all. If mere tuft of leaves a-top. Rather follow the weather be warm and dry at the time the plan of keeping the small tree symof planting your nursery, an irrigation metrical and well proportioned, exactly each week is not too much to begin with. as you would a large one. Dispense with The soil should not be allowed to dry the lower branches gradually, and the within half an inch of the surface. Later, trunk will grow up stocky and strong as the trees become well rooted, an irriga- enough to support itself without staking. tion each fortnight, and then one each

When trees are budded at the end of the

first year in nursery, little pruning is remonth, will suffice. The second season

quired; simply enough on one side to the cultiyation may be done by horse- make room for the bud; and, after that power.

starts, the entire top is cut away.

CHAPTER III.

BUDDING. The general theory of extending and to drop far below mediocrity. With budperpetuating varieties of fruits by bud- ded fruit the case is quite different. Uniding is too well understood to require formity of excellence is obtained in it. discussion here. While it may be said The evil results of the precocity alluded that the principle has found acceptance to may be obviated by rigorously thinning throughout the domain of horticulture, the fruit as the tree comes into bearing. with the orange it has remained a mooted In our climate, the tendency of all trees question longer than with any other fruit. is to overbear at first; and if this is not But here also science is gradually and curbed, their health and productiveness surely gaining the day. It has been may be seriously impaired. Budded orurged against budding the orange that ange trees do not stand alone in this matthe operation induces precocity, thereby ter, though they may present an extreme dwarfing the tree, curtailing its produc- case. The fact remains that, if a man tive capacity and shortening its life. That buds his trees and devotes to them some budding induces precocity there is no extra attention, he may hasten his returns question. While a seedling tree can not three years and enhance the value of his be relied upon to come into bearing until fruit. Budding is in line with all other eight years old, a budded tree will bear at advanced scientific methods. What laborfive (i, e., the stock being five, the budded saving machinery is to manual labor, and growth three). Whether budding dwarfs thoroughbred live stock to native breeds, the tree or not depends entirely upon the the budded orange tree is to the seedling. habit of the tree from which the bud Do not be behind the times. Bud your comes. I have seen full-sized standard trees. Having determined this matter to trees from buds of the Konah, Wolfskill's my satisfaction, at least, I come to the Best and Cuban. The Washington Navel, modus operandi of budding. I am inSt. Michael, Mediterranean Sweet and debted to Mr. J. M. Warner, a budder of Malta Blood make imder-sized trees. But long experience, for many practical sugby reason of their lesser size a greater gestions contained herein. number may be set to the acre, and thus, TIME.-Buds are inserted in the fallin full bearing, the yield may equal that October and November-and in the spring of standard trees. But the quality waived and early summer-March to the last of entirely;--allowing a smaller yield from June, the latter being much the more budded trees-the difference in quality, popular season. The exact time for budmust determine the matter in their favor. ding depends indirectly upon the weather In the scales of value a box of uniform and directly upon the condition of the Navels will outweigh three boxes of hit- stock to be budded. Buds inserted in and-miss seedlings. It must be remem- the fall come under the designation of bered that there is no exact perpetuation "dormant” as they do not start until the of excellence by the seed. A seedling is a following spring. Then, of course, they seedling, whether the seed be brought begin early if at all, and therein lies the from Cuba, Australia or the Mediterranean only advantage of fall budding. On the country. The tree from foreign seed, other hand, there is great danger that the being grown to maturity in our soil, gen- buds may be killed by severe cold during erally partakes of the characteristics of the winter. Midsummer budding, alnative stock;-producing a fruit with thick though feasible, is condemned by the best rind, and averaging with the rest in size authorities. The lateness of starting and flavor. There is, in fact, no likelihood makes a short season's growth, and the that any seedling will improve on these wood being prematurely hardened by varieties already originated here, and cold weather, the tree is stunted. The which haye been given the distinction of earlier in the spring that budding can be a name, such as Wilson's and Wolfskill's done in conformity with right principles, Best, while there are many chances for it the better.

CONDITION OF THE STOCK.-When the close to the ground, for the reason that bark slips readily upon the stock, as it the point of juncture of bud and stock beslipped on the willows in our whistle- comes less prominent and unsightly, and, making days, you may be sure it is in in transplanting, may be coyered up encondition to be budded. Theoretically tirely. Any sort of brush that is constated, the tree is then full of sap and in venient will serve for dusting off the the active, growing condition requisite for body of the tree, so that the knife shall infusing life into the extraneous bud in- not come in contact with grit. serted in the bark. Experts may venture. The buds should be inserted with a view to anticipate this condition a little and bud to avoiding accidents in irrigating and cultrees when they are obliged to raise the tivating. If the rows run north and south bark with a knife, but they do it at the insert the bud on the south side of the risk of losing their labor. A quick growth stock, so that it shall not grow out into of the tree immmediately after each bud- the open space and thus be subject to acding is done will alone render the opera- cident. The prevaling winds should also tion successful. Experienced budders be considered. As the tendency of the claim that a larger percentage of buds sprout is to grow out from the stock, if the grow of those inserted in the new of the winds can be brought into service to force moon than in the old.

it back upon the stock and into an upright • AGE OF STOCKS.-Trees planted in nur- position, so much the better. sery in the spring are sometimes budded TWINE.—A soft, loosely-twisted twine, the following spring. But the majority from ten to fourteen piy, and known as of nurserymen do not bud their trees “budding twine,” is in universal use until the end of the second year in nur- among budders. The size is varied, acsery. The stocks then shoot the buds cording to the size of stocks. A convenmore uniformly and vigorously than at ient way of preparing the twine for use is the earlier age. Budding may be done to reel it upon a board the required length from this time forward until the tree is for the pieces, and then cut it at both ends fully grown, but the difficulty of starting of the board. Count the pieces, and when increases with age. Ordinarily there is no done with them you will know how many reason for delaying the operation later buds you have inserted. Sling the strings than the end of the second year in nursery. in a loop of twine to your person, and you

IMPLEMENTS REQUIRED.-The outfit re- have them ready to draw upon as required. quired for budding comprises a pair of CHOOSING BUDS.-The best buds to inpruning shears of the ordinary pattern; a sert are those which appear large and budding knife, a whetstone and strap, a plump, as though just ready to start. brush and some tying twine.

They are found upon the latest new The budding knife has a prolongation growth that has rounded and hardened. of the handle, being a vone spatula, like The light green, new growth, known as the end of a paper cutter. This attach- "three cornered," should be avoided, the ment is of service in lifting the bark with- buds being immature and lacking in vitalout lacerating it after the incision has ity. Likewise buds on old limbs (i, e., of been made. The whetstone, used with a former year's growth,) are not desirable, either oil or water, should be fine, and as they are slow to start. Buds cut from small enough to carry in the pocket. For very old and hard wood have been known putting the finishing edge on the knife use to lie dormant four years before starting a razor-strop or a strop improvised from to grow. Upon the section of limb which a piece of leather fastened to a stick and you select all of the buds may not be deoiled. The pruning shears or pocket- sirable, and you should use only the best, knife should be employed in the heavy rejecting the others. If thorny varieties work, such as cutting branches for buds, are used discard those with the largest pruning, etc. The budding knife is then thorns. . used only for cutting out the buds and in- PREPARING THE BUDS.-Having selectcising the tree, and its keenness is not un- ed the limbs from which you wish to take duly impaired. It is best to bud the trees · your buds, cut them into lengths of six or

-eight inches, convenient for handling. At place on the stock and make a short perthe same time cut off the leaves, severing pendicular incision. This is called the the stem close to the buds. If the leaves longitudinal cut. The knife simply peneare allowed to remain they draw the sap trates the bark. The cut should not be from the stock, weakening the buds. The longer than the bud (one inch), and if the points of thorns may be clipped to avoid bark is free it may be somewhat less, as annoyance in handling. If the buds are the lower end of the bud-base can pass to be kept any time or shipped, the twigs under the bark when shoved down, makshould be packed in some damp material. ing it more secure and requiring less tyThe green moss which forms on the sur. ing. At the top end of the longitudinal face of ponds or reservoirs. exposed to the cut make a transverse cut long enough to . sun furnishes an excellent wrapping when admit the bud. In making the transverse dried. This should be dampened only cut incline the edge of the knife downenough to keep the stems from drying ward, and then, as the bark is penetrated, out, and they may be thus kept a fortnight spread the gash by twisting the knife upor more without damage. While budding ward and carrying the knife outward from keep the principal part of your stock cov- the tree. In so doing be careful not to ered with a damp cloth, having only a tear the bark. This completes the incisstick or two in band at a time.

ion. Next pass the lower prong of the bud-base in at the place where the two cuts cross, and, with the thumb of the right hand, press the bud down gently into the opening. Instead of using the thumb, which might in some instances bruise the bud, some budders insert the

point of the budding knife in the budCUTTING THE BUds.-Hold the stick in base, just above the bud, and press down the left hand, top toward your body ; fore with that. While the bud is being shoved finger sustaining the stick below the bud, into position the thumb and fore-finger of and thumb far enough above the bud to the left hand should be pressed against be out of danger from the knife. Com- the bark on each side of the longitudinal mencing about a half inch below the bud, cut to assist in guiding the bud and to make a slanting cut into the twig, raising prevent a rupture of the bark. When the the bark and a thin shaving of wood be- top of the bud-base is even with the transneath it. Draw the knife forward with a verse cut it is in proper position. The straight cut underneath the bud, and when base is then nearly or quite inclosed in this has been severed, with the bark and the bark, and the bud with its leaf-stem wood adhering, bring the edge to the sur- and thorn (if it have a thorn) protrudes face with a rounding motion.

just below the point where the cuts cross. The slip thus taken is about an inch TYING.–One of the pieces of twine allong: the part below the bud a half inch, ready prepared is then passed about the the bud and leaf stem a quarter, and the tree, making usually three wraps above part above the bud a quarter. It is neces- the bud and two below, the tying being sary to take only a very little wood from done so that there is one wrap less on the the twig in serving the bud. I have side opposite the bud. The twine should known pains-taking nurserymen, when be drawn so tight that it can not be easily operating on young stock, to hoilow out slipped, and should pass close to the eye the under side of the bud longitudinally, of the bud above and below. The bud so as to make it conform more closely to first adheres at the upper extremity, and the body of the tree to which it was ap- especial care should be taken to have it plied. The knife used for taking off buds well wrapped there. should have a keen edge.

INDICATIONS.-In between two and six CUTTING THE STOCKS AND INSERTING weeks after the insertion of the buds, if * THE BUDS.-At a point not more than six they adhere to the stock, the leaf stem inches from the ground select a smooth next the bud will begin to loosen and drop off. On the contrary, if it shrivels the stock still exercises an influence and clings to the bud, the indication is through the budded growth. This influthat the bud is dead.

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ence varies with different fruits, in some CUTTING THE STOCKS.--As soon as one being quite imperceptible; in others SO is satisfied that the buds have adhered he pronounced as to render budding nugashould cut off the stocks from four to eight tory. For example, the lemon may be inches aboye the bud, the larger the tree budded upon orange stock with the best the higher up. An irrigation and cultiva results ; and, in fact, it has come to be a tion immediately after this will have a universal custom to choose orange stock good effect in starting the bud. Within a for this purpose by reason of its greater month after cutting away the stocks, the hardiness. But with the orange budded strings should also be cut and remoyed, upon lemon stock the case is different ; especially the wraps above the bud. deterioration of fruit is sure to follow. At

REBUDDING.--Trees that fail to start the one time there was quite a furor for budbud should be rebudded as soon as possi. ding choice yarieties of orange upon the ble. If the first work has been done early, stock of Chinese lemon. The vigor of the there will be time to rebud the skips the stock caused a marvelous growth in the same season.

orange buds, and the experimenters were SPROUTS.—The common practice is to in high feather until their trees came into remove all sprouts that put out from the bearing. Then it was found that the fruit stock in order that its whole vitality may was large, coarse, pulpy and insipid, bebe thrown into the bud. Some think the ing neither orange, lemon, nor a palatable single growth of the bud is insufficient to hybrid. keep the stock in a healthy condition, and STANDARD LOWERED BY REPEATED for the first few months leave several BUDDING.—It is safe to assume, then, that sprouts, keeping them subordinate to the all stocks exercise some influence on their bud. If any sprouts be left they should budded fruit, and though in a single inbe on the opposite side to the bud in order stance we might be unable to perceive it.. that they may not interfere with its up- the probability is that several generations. ward growth, They should be occasion of bnds, each taken from the last precedally nipped off; and, finally, when the ing and each inserted in the same stock, main shoot gets fair proportions, the in- would finally bring a fruit much modified terlopers may be dispensed with alto. and approaching in character that of the gether.

seedling operated upon. Thus it is that PRUNING.-If the growing bud-sprout the standard of certain varieties has been shows too great a tendency to branch, it lowered by successive buddings. A, imis advisable to thumb-prune it somewhat pressed by the excellence of'the Mediteror to shorten in the lower branches. The ranean Sweet, obtained buds from the new growth should be trained to sturdy stock first introduced and inserted them proportions and an upright growth. If in some of his poorest trees. Bobtained staking be necessary, stake it, but make buds from A, and inserted them in lemon it grow upright without this if possible. stock. Then ( got them from B and D

CUTTING AWAY THE STUBS.—When the from C, and so the retrograde movement wood of the budded growth shall have continued until the product of the last hardened up somewhat, cut away the Mediterranean Sweet buds was found to stub of the stock close to the point of be very inferior. Other varieties beside juncture. Pare the stock smooth, and the Mediterranean Sweet have suffered in cover with paint, shellac, or wax, to pre- this way. The Australian Navel, wbich vent the wood from drying out and falls short of its twin sister, the Riverside cracking.

Navel, is one of the victims. INFLUENCE OF STOCK ON BUD.-While, ORIGINAL BUDS.-It is advisable then, in theory, the budding of a tree amounts in budding to a choice variety, to go back to an absoluto change in the fruit, substi- to the original stock if possible-; otherwise tuting the variety budded for that of the to get buds only one degree removed native stock, practice demonstrates that from the original, and those grown onu

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