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ange originated in Southern Asia, and in alone for the beauty of its foliage and that portion of the East Indies lying be- quality of its fruit and for its medicinal yond the Ganges. Up to and including uses, but also for the aroma of its flowers, the earlier centuries of the Empire of the of which essences were made. Cæsars, these fruits had not been brought Abd-Allatif, an Arabian writer of the from those climates where they were in- twelfth century of our era, says: “The digenous. They grew without culture in round citron (otrodi modawar) was brought the native groves, the hand of man not

from India since the year 300 of the Hegira having yet appropriated them as orna. (A. D. 922). It was first sowed in Oman ments for his garden. The fruit was even (part of Arabia), from thence carried to unknown to the Romans, a people who in Irok (part of old Persia) and Syria, be. the age of their triumph sought out every

coming very common in the houses of luxury wbich ihe world of their conquest

Tarsus and other frontier cities of Syria, afforded. Pliny, in the account of his In

at Antioch, upon the coasts of Syria, in dian voyage, makes no mention of either Palestine and in Egypt. One knew it not orange or citron. Other writers on this re

before, but it lost much of its sweet odor gion, such as Nearchus, one of Alexander's an

Alexander's and fine color which it had in India, becaptains, and Arianus and Iambolus are cause it had not the same climate, soil and equally silent on the subject of citrus all that which is peculiar to that country." fruits. To the Arabs who, under the leadership

The lemon appeared perhaps a little la

ter in these different countries, for we see of Mohammed, extended their conquests into Asia and Africa much faster than any

no mention of it either in the Damascene people before them, belongs the credit of

or in Ayicenna, but its description meets first disseminating the orange. They ac

the eye in works of Arabian writers of the climatized the trees in Syria, Africa, Spain

twelfth century, especially Ebn Beitar, and some European islands. Occupying

who gave it an article in his dictionary of a position advantageous and favorable to

simple remedies. the commercial spirit and love of luxury

The Arabs invaded Sicily about the bewhich succeeded the fury of conquest, the ginning of the ninth century, and planted Arabs naturally learned of and appreci. the orange tree in that island. The citrine ated many exotic plants peculiar to the apples of Leon d'Ostia date from 1002, and regions they had conquered or to adjoin. were regarded as objects rare and precious ing countries. They were fond of medi- enough to be offered as gifts to princes. cine and agriculture, in which they espe- Nicolas Specialis, in his history of Sicily, cially excelled. To them we owe the written in the fourteenth century, recountknowledge of many plants, perfumes and ingthe devastation by the army of the Duke Oriental aromatics, such as musk, nut- of Calabria, in 1383, in the vicinity of Palermegs, mace and cloves. In their medi. mo, says that it did not spare even the cines we for the first time hear of the trees of sour apples (pommes acides), chemical change known as distillation. called by the people arangi, which had which appears to haye originated in the adorned, since old time, the royal palace desire to steal from nature the perfumes of Cubba. of flowers and aroma of fruits. It is cer. After the Arabians, the Crusaders were tain that the orange was known to their the next agency for the extension of citrus physicians from the commencement of culture. They entered Asia Minor as conthe fourth century of the Hegira. The querors, and thence spread themselves as Damascene has given in his Antidotary a traders into all parts of Asia. They were recipe for making oil of oranges and their not mere soldiers, but brave men drawn seeds (oleum de citrangala et oleum de cit. from their families by religious enthusirangulorum seminibus). Another Arabian asm, and who, in consequence, would physician, Avicenna, employed the juice hold fast to their country and their homes. of the bigarade (bitter orange) in a medi. They could not see without covering these cinal syrup which he called alkedere. charming trees which embellish the vicinThe orange was from the first valued not ity of Jerusalem, with whose exquisite fruits nature had favored the climates of The use of the lemon as seasoning for Asia.

food, brought from Palestine to Liguria, It was at this time that Europe enriched to Provence and to Sicily, penetrated to its orchards by many of these trees, and the interior of Italy and France. The that the French princes carried into their taste for confections was propagated in country the damson, the St. Catharine (a Europe with the introduction of sugar, pear), the apricot from Alexandria, and and this delicate food became at once a other species indigenous to those regions. necessary article to men in easy circumSicilians, Genoese and Provençals traps- stances, and a luxury upon all tables. It ported to Palermo, St. Remo and Hyeres was aboye all as confections that the Aglemon and orange trees. Jaques de Vitry, rumi (lemons) entered into commerce, a historian of the thirteenth century, who and we see by the records of Savona that had been in Palestine with the Crusaders, they were sent into cold parts of Italy, and who accordingly speaks ex cathedra, where people were very greedy for them. has this to say of the subject: “Besides After haying cultivated these species many trees cultiyated in Italy, Genoa, for the use made of their fruits, they soon France and other parts of Europe, we find cultivated them as ornaments for the garhere (in Palestine) species peculiar to the den. The monks began to fill with these country, and of which some are sterile trees the courts of their monasteries, in and others bear fruit. Here are trees bear- climates suited to their continual growth, ing very beautiful apples-the color of cit- and soon one found no convent not surron-upon which is distictly seen the mark rounded by them. Indeed, the courts and of a man's tooth. This has given them gardens of these houses show us now trees the common name of pomme d'Adam of great age, and it is said that the old (Adam's apple); others produced sour tree, of which we now see a register in the fruit, of a disagreeable taste, which are court of the conveut of St. Sabina at called limons. Their juice is used for sea. Rome, was planted by St. Dominick about soning food, because it is cool, pricks the the year 1200. This fact has no other palate, and provokes appetite. * * * foundation than tradition, but this tradiThere is a species of cedar called cedre tion, preserved for many centuries, not maritime, whose plant is small but pro- only among the monks of the convent, ductive, giving very fine fruits as large as but also among the clergy of Rome, is rea man's head. Some call them citrons, or ported by Augustin Gallo, who, in 1559, pommes citrons. These fruits are formed speaks of this orange as a tree existing of a triple substance, and have three dif- since time immemorial. If we refuse to ferent tastes. The first is warm, the sec- credit its planting to St. Dominick, we must ond is temperate, the last is cold. Some at least refer it to a period soon after-that say that this is the fruit of which God is, to the end of the thirteenth century, at commanded in Leviticus: Take you the the latest. first day of the year the fruit of the finest In their spread among the niost civiltree.' We see in this country another ized peoples of the earth the orange and species of citrine apples, borne by small lemon finally penetrated into the colder trees, and of which the cool part is less of latitudes, and perhaps we owe to the desire a disagreeable and acid taste; these the of enjoying their flowers and fruit the innatives call orenges."

vention of hot-houses, afterwards called in From Naples and Sicily the orange and France orangeries. This agricultural luxlemon trees must have been carried into ury was unknown in Europe before the the Roman States, into Sardinia and Cor- introduction of the citron tree. In the sica and to Malta. The islands of the fourteenth century people had begun to Archipelago first received them, because, erect buildings designed to create for exbelonging in great part to the Genoese and otic plants an artificial climate. But at Venetians, it is probable they were the in- the beginning of the fifteenth century termediate points whence the Crusaders orangeries passed from king's gardens to of Genoa and Venice transported the those of the people, chiefly in countries plants to their homes,

where they were not compelled to heat them by fire. About the middle of the into arrangi, airange, Orenge, and finally, seventeenth century this luxury was very ORANGE. general, and we see distinguished by their During several centuries the Latin aumagnificence and gradeur the orangeries thors found themselves embarrassed in of the 'Farnese family at Parma; of the designating this fruit, which had no name Cardinal Xantes, Aldobrandini and Pio in their language. The first who spoke of at Rome; of the Elector Palatine at Hei- it used a phrase indicating its characterdelberg; and of Louis XIII in France, istics, accompanying it with the popular In all the civilized parts of Europe the name of arangi, Latinized into orenges, orangerie is now considered an embellish: orangias, arantium. Jaques de Vitry ment necessary to all country seats, and calls oranges poma citrina, adding, “The houses of pleasure.

Arabs call them orenges." Nicolas SpeIn nomenclature oranges and lemons cialis designates them as acri pomorum had a most difficult time in establishing arbores, observing that the people call themselves. The lemon tree, first brought them arangias. Mathews Silvaticus first into Egypt as a variety of citron, was for gave to the orange the name of citrangua long time designated by European wri- lum. This last designation was received ters under the generic name of citrus, al- in the language of science for more than a though in Italy and the south of France century. Finally, little by little, were adthe people had known it from the begin- opted the vulgar Latinized names in use ning by the name of limon. We find in among other writers, such as arangium, botanical works citrus limon or mala li- arancium, anarantium, nerantium, quranmonia and sometimes citrus medica. tium, pomen aureum.

In Arabia the word first applied to the The Greeks followed in the same steps. orange was arind;. This in Syria was They have either Grecianized the name of modified to narengi.

narenge, which was in use among Syrian The orange appeared in Italy under the Arabs, or they received it from the Crusaname of orenges, which the people mcdi- ders from the Holy Land; and have adtied, according to the pronunciations of opted it in their language, calling it neranthe different sections, into aringo, naran- zion. 20, aranza, aranzo, citrone, cetrangolo, In this day and age we are satisfied to melaranco, melangolo, arancio. The Pro- call the fruit in English ORANGE and vengals also received this tree under the LEMON; in French, orange and citron; in name of orenges, and have changed it German, orange, citrone; in Spanish, nafrom time to time, in different provinces, ranja, limon.

CHAPTER IV. INTRODUCTION OF THE ORANGE IN CALIFORNIA. · Father Palou, the historian of the early ing the ground in order to fix a proper California Missions, says;

place for the mission, a multitude of In"On the 10th of August (1771] the Fa. dians, all armed and headed by two capther Friar Pedro Cambon and Father tains, presented themselves, setting up Angel Somera, guarded by ten soldiers horrid yells, and seeming determined to with the muleteers and beasts] requisite oppose the establishment of the mission. to carry the necessaries, set out from San The Fathers, fearing that war would enDiego, and traveled northerly by the same sue, took out a piece of cloth with the route as the former expedition for Mon- image of our Lady de los Dolores, and terey had gone. After proceeding about held it up to the barbarians. This was no forty leagues they arrived at the river sooner done than the whole were quiet, called Temblores (the Los Angeles river), being subdued by the sight of this most and while they were in the act of examin- precious image; and throwing on th

ground their bows and arrows, the two and, reasoning from analogy, he concludes. captains came running with great haste to that the site of the grove must have been, lay the beads which they brought about chosen with reference to the building. He their necks at the feet of the sovereign thinks the trees were propagated from queen, as proof of their entire regard; seed brought from San Rafael in Lower: manifesting at the same time that they California. wished to be at peace with us. They then Col. J. J. Warner, our “oldest inhabit. informed the whole of the neighborhood ant," settled in Los Angeles county in of what had taken place; and the people 1831. At the time of his coming the orin large numbers, men, women and chil- ange trees in the Mission garden were dren, soon came to see the Holy Virgin; twenty-five or thirty years old and had bringing food which they put before her, long been in bearing. This agrees with thinking she required to eat as others. In Father Bot's calculation as to the time of this manner the Gentiles of the mission of their planting. San Gabriel were so entirely changed that

Three several Fathers Sanchez adıninthey frequented the establishment without

istered the affairs of San Gabriel Mission reserye, and hardly knew how much to

at different periods, and to the first of manifest their pleasure that the Spaniards

these, Father Tomas, belongs the distinc-had come to settle in their country. Un

tion of introducing the orange. That he der these favorable auspices the Fathers

had an abiding faith in the success of his proceeded to found a mission with the ac

ith the ac- horticultural venture is attested by the customed ceremonies; and celebrated the

fact that he imported iron with which to first mass under a tree on the nativity of

enclose the orchard. This iron, however, the Virgin, the eighth of September, 1771."

was never used, owing probably to the In the order of establishment San Ga

death or removal of the enterprising briel was fourth among the missions of

Padre, and after rusting in uselessness for Upper California. By reason of its rich

some years at the Mission, a portion of it soil and abundance of water, and its large

was purchased by Don Luis Vignes (1834). number of neophytes brought into service,

and brought to the city of Los Angeles. it soon advanced to the front rank in pro

Here it was used to enclose the second ductiveness and wealth.

orange orchard in the State. It is said. At San Gabriel Mission was formed the

that Don Luis procured from the Mission, nucleus of California orange-growing. As

thirty-fiye large trees, which he transto the time and circumstances of the first

planted to his place on Aliso street, near planting, history is silent. The archives

the historic Aliso (sycamore) tree, from, of the Mission church, which alone conld

which the street derives its name. He esbe accepted as absolute authority, are lost.

tablished at first a sort of exotic garden, Tradition even is not much to be relied

enclosing his clump of oranges tightly upon among that class of people who have

and roofing the space with wire-netting. lived longest in and about the Mission.

Within the enclosure he kept a flock of An old gardener, whom the writer found

quail. Later, the Don increased the numin the Mission orchard on the occasion of a

ber of his trees until he was the possessor recent visit, shrugged his shoulders in the

of a considerable grove. But he did not aggravating, non-committal way of his

s follow his expensive method of fencingrace when questioned as to the age of the

and roofing throughout. trees.

Tienen multos, multos anos, Senor!" Other orchards followed. The most noThey are many, many years old, sir. I table was that of William Wolfskill, plant-.. don't know how many. I think more ed in the city of Los Angeles, seven years than seventy. He underestimated their after that of Don Luis Vignes. There was years.

another four or five miles north of the Father Bot, the priest of the Mission, Mission, known as La Huerta del Cuate, fixes the planting of the first orange or- The Garden of the Twin, which, with one chard at about the year 1804. The present or two intermediate transfers, finally passchurch building was erected in that year, ed into the hands of Don Benito Wilson,

by whom it was carefully nurtured and Judge 1. S. K. Ogier. The latter sold the extended by new plantations.

nursery for a song to William Wolfskill, But between the planting of the original whose place was adjoining, and the ororchard at the Mission San Gabriel and chard now the property of Miss Francisca the several groves above mentioned a long Wolfskill is the result. It is a very pretty period must have transpired – perhaps property--perhaps the largest bearing or. twenty or twenty-five years, during which ange orchard in the United States. At the Mission orchard was the sole repre- least I have not seen any as large in Florsentative of this fruit in California. Even ida, Louisiana or Cuba. It is a pleasure after the extension of the industry, for to look at, is a source of great profit, and many years oranges held no place among could not be in better bands. the recognized products of the country. "The orchard of Mr. Wilson was once a Mr. Alexander Forbes, who wrote one of portion of the Mission of San Gabriel. In the earliest works on California-a book the unconstitutional sale of the missions printed in England in 1835-cites wheat, this portion fell to Hugo Reed. Mr. Wilmaize, barley, pease, beans, potatoes, son bought it in 1852 of Reed's widow. hemp, grapes, olives and grasses as the There were then on the place several principal crops, but makes no mention of fruitful trees, which are still in vigorous oranges.

bearing, and will be for several generaEx-Governor John G. Downey, writing tions. Mr. Wilson has industriously and of the early cultivation of the orange, says: intelligently added to them; not at any

“In those days, though there was plen- great cost, for ho raised his trees in his ty of energy and intelligence among the own nursery, and continues to raise them, Spanish pioneers, it was a difficult under so that he has them always on hand withtaking for the ranchero to build a fence to out expense.” protect his orchard from the multitude of The orchard of William Wolfskill, alwild stock that surrounded him, even to luded to above, was no doubt the first that the door of his pueblo home. * * * was planted in California with an idea of

“The orchard of orange trees at San Ga- profit. Mr. Wolfskill's neighbors ridibriel was scarcely in bearing when Don culed him, saying that he would get no Luis Vignes planted his orchard in Los fruit in his lifetime. It was a severe trial Angeles. Next followed that of William of patience to maintain the trees through Wolfskill, and next, that of Don Manuel all the years requisite to bring them into Requena. These little orchards were en- bearing, and all that for a mere expericlosed by an adobe wall, as were those of ment. At the same time vineyards of the Missions of San Gabriel and San Fer- three or four years' growth were paying nando. Many of the old families followed handsomely, with no more labor. This these examples by planting a few trees in fact came near tipping the balance against their respective court-yards. I can safely the trees, but Mr. Wolfskill's German tesay there was not a tree planted with a nacity finally prevailed, and the trees view to profit, and not an orange sold were brought to fruition. He lived to enuntil long after the advent of the Ameri. joy his oranges for twenty years, and they cans. The fruit was cultivated for home gave him, some years, an income of a use, and for the use of friends less fortu- thousand dollars an acre. The last crop nately situated.

disposed of in his lifetime from about “In the year 1853 Matthew Keller and twenty-eight acres sold on the trees for Dr. Halsey obtained seeds from Central $25,000. America and Hawaii, and planted nur- From 1857 to 1862 orange-growing was series. Dr. Halsey's nursery was the greatly checked by the insects, which most extensive. While this plantation caused an almost total failure of the fruit, was very young, the doctor was crossed in But in 1862 this pest abated, and there was some love matters, studied Andrew Jack a good crop. There were then in the son Davis more thoroughly than he did whole State only about 25,000 trees, twoDowning, and went off on a spiritual mis- thirds of which were in the Wolfskill orsion East, leaving his nursery in care of chard.

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