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non-deteriorating trees. Too much care equal advantage with us in treating old cannot be exercised in this matter if our trees, in which it is difficult to make buds standards are to be maintained.
GRAFTING.–The cheapness and greater CARE OF THE BUDDED STOCK.-The care convenience of budding the orange has of budded nursery stook, as regards cultirendered grafting obselete. A nursery- vation, irrigation, staking up, pruning man of my acquaintance claims that he and keeping free from insects, should be can bring the orange to fruit much earlier as painstaking as that enjoined for young by grafting than by budding, and has ex- seedlings. When the buds are one year periments under way to proye his asser- old and the stocks two or three (according tion. . It is possible that the next step in to the age at budding), the trees are suffiscientific culture may be in this direction, ciently advanced to be taken up and transbut I deem it hardly probably. In Flor- ferred to the orchard. Of this transplantida grafting is a popular method of con- ing I shall say something in a subsequent yerting the wild (Bigarade) orange to the chapter. commercial fruit. Grafting would be of
A WORD TO THE WISE. The man who contemplates planting an volved are too onerous to be borne;. or, orange orchard – especially the man of their means having run out, they get into limited means-ought to stop and think debt, mortgage the farm, and then, pertwice. He should consider that it is a haps, as the trees are just about to bear, great undertaking to raise orange trees; the result of all their labors and sacrifices and he should also bear in mind that, is swept away! I do not propose to read during the long period in which they are anybody a lecture. Neither do I wish to attaining maturity, his family and him- discourage any who have reasonable self must have a living. If, after weigh- chances of success from entering the field ing the matter carefully, he comes to the of orange growing; but, if a candid word conclusion that he is possessed of the reg- of mine may set some over-sanguine man uisite courage, perseverence, energy and to thinking, and avert from him the heartthrift for the undertaking, with a natural burnings incident to the course above outtaste for it which will make his labors and lined, that word shall not pass unspoken. trials endurable; and if he thinks he can If, my reader, you have thoughts of see his way clear to keep the pot boiling growing an orange orchard, and after through several non - producing years, looking the difficulties squarely in the why, let him go ahead, and God speed face, you conclude that you can overcome him! He is embarking in a good enter- them; and if you would, to that end, be prise, and one that will surely bring its advised concerning approved theories and reward if intelligently carried through, established methods, follow mo through
Too many men undertake the growing the succeeding chapters and I will lay of an orange grove without fully compre- them before you. Remember that in our hending the magnitude of the task. When age no man can afford to ignore the exit is past the time for them to retire with- perience of others; and he who informs.out sacrifice, they find out that it was a himself most thoroughly is the one who, fancy, not a well-settled purpose, that encounters least mishaps and firally comfirst possessed them, and the labors in- mands success.
LOCATING AN ORANGE ORCHARD. Having determined to grow oranges, tage because it arrests the growth of the one should address himself to the task of tap root and stunts the tree. obtaining the best of everything re- EXPOSURE.-On rolling or elevated lands quired;—the best location and soil; the a southern, southeastern or southwestern best water right; the best trees of the best exposure is desirable. The orange luxuvarieties; and then he should plant them riates in warmth, and the more the tree and care for them in the best manner, and and the ground in which it stands are exhe may count with certainty on the best posed to the direct rays of the sun the results. If he is to go through the labor better. and trials of growing an orchard, he may WATER.–Be sure to get a good water as well raise fine fruit as poor; it is not a supply and have it convenient for appliwhit harder. And besides, when it comes çation. But, withal, use it sparingly at to returns there may be all the difference first. Your supply will stand you in between the two that there is between good stead in a dry season and after your profit and loss.
trees come into bearing, when they must BEST LOCATION.-In Part I of this work, have irrigation to yield paying crops. under the heading "A Glance at Our Or. This subject will be more fully discussed ange Growing Country” and subsequent in the chapter on Irrigation to follow. chapters, I have discussed the question of WINDS.-Do not locate where your orlocalities suited to citrus culture quite chard will be exposed to severe winds. fully, with reference especially to this Quite a large proportion of fruit is lost connection. It is sufficient to reiterate every year by being whipped against here that all authorities agree in recom- thorns and branches, and the trees themmending the high mesa lands and the in- selves are sometimes half stripped of terior valleys, where conditions of soil, leaves. If you have reason to apprehend climate and water supply are suitable. an occasional wind storm, plant a double SOIL.-The soil should be loose, well
row of eucalyptus, pepper or cypress trees drained and warm;-no standing water
about the orchard for a wind-break. Cywithin twenty feet of the surface--and if
press or pepper are preferable, because there be a hard-pån at all, it should be they do not exhaust the soil to such a disdeep. The orange flourishes best in a
tance as the eucalyptus. Some foothill sandy or gravelly loam. Quite a variety
localities excellently suited for orange of soils exists, all of which seem to fill
growing in every other respect, are unthe requirements of the orange in nearly
available because they chance to align
some mountain gorge and are swept by the equal degree. I note the following:
daily currents of air from inland to ocean, Disintegrated granite with vegetable de
and vice versa. Beware of such places. posit.
AVOIDING FROSTS.-If you follow the Gravely alluvium.
advice given in these articles and locate. Sandy clay (chocolate colored).
your orchard on the foothills or in the Clayish sand (brown).
high interior valleys, you will be in little Sandy clay (reddish brown; colored by
danger from frost. Inasmuch as cold air ferric acid, and known as "red land”).
is denser and heavier than warm, the cold The best results cannot be accomplished weather most prevails in low places. It is in ground that bakes and packs hard un- the good fortune of our country to have der the action of water and sun, even its cold spells of short duration, and conthough such ground be rich in all the sequently the natural basins are never chemical elements required in tree growth. quite filled up, and the isothermal line of · Hence, adobë and stiff clay soils are to be damaging frosts does not rise over the avoided. Standing water near the surface higher altitudes. is detrimental because it keeps the ground LOOK OUT FOR ROCKS.-If you select cold. A shallow hard-pan is a disadvan- land on the mesas, especially in granite
formation, beware of rocks. These mesas investigation. As the surface is usually are built up by the wash from the mount- covered with a thick growth of chapparal ains, and many places that look com para- you may not see half the rocks that are tively smooth are only filled-up beds of really above ground. A little neglect in former ravines; just below the surface this important part of the investigation they are chock full of bowlders. If you may cost you several hundreds of dollars see only a few of these fellows cropping and many a weary day's labor. Take out here and there, regard them as a just warning from a man who has been through cause of suspicion and make a thorough the mill.
CLEARING AND PREPARING LAND. CLEARING.-Mesa lands, by reason of tially all of the brittle stalks are broken their usually thick growth of chapparal off close to the ground. A horse-rake is and occasional timber, are more difficult of service in raking the brush into windto clear than lands in the valley. The rows, after which it is stacked and burned. usual method is to grub out by the root The roots, which still remain in the everything in the form of tree or shrub, ground, are thrown out by a heavy In the case of heavy oak and sycamore breaking-up plow, drawn by four horses, timber a considerable excavation is made, and it is necessary to send men over the uncovering the hole and reaching the ground to collect them into heaps for main tap root of the tree. This root is cut burning or hauling off. This wholesale at the depth of two to four feet from the method of clearing chapparal land is surface of the ground, and when the main rarely feasible. laterals are also severed the tree topples The SLOW AND SURE WAY.–The maover. Thus the stump is wrenched from jority of men who open up small foothills the earth, and disposed of much more farms find there is nothing for it but to readily and cheaply than by any of the grub out the brush "by main force and old methods of burning, blowing up or awkwardness." twisting out with horse-power.
FUEL.-Although the clearing involves IMPLEMENTS. — The implements requi- a deal of labor, and that of the hardest site for clearing are the mattock, or grub- kind, there is a compensation in the firehoe, axe, shovel, and crow-bar. When wood secured. All of the roots named, timber is to be cut up the cross-cut saw with the single exception of the sage, are comes into play also. With ordinary serviceable for fuel. From thirty acres of greasewood and sage roots the mattock is chapparal which I cleared in opening up sufficient. Sumacs, alders and thorns re- my place I obtained wood enough to last quire more digging and chopping.
my family four years, and sold upwards THE EASIEST METHOD.-It is possible of a hundred dollars' worth besides. The sometimes when the chapparal is not very idea of digging firewood out of the ground heayy and that all sage, or sage with a is novel to most people, but when fuel is sprinkling of greasewood, to substitute as scarce and dear as in California, it will horse-power for manual labor, with a not do to despise the lowly origin and ungreat saving in time and expense. In comely appearance of our greasewood such cases a heavy timber or a railroad and sumac roots. When dry, they make rail is dragged broadside over the ground, a quick, hot fire, and are especially dea horse being hitched at each end. This sirable for cooking purposes. Oak timber operation may be repeated in an opposite should be worked into stovewood when direction, and the result is.that substan- green (the only time, in fact, that it can be split,) and if marketed the returns are time allowed for clearing inay be short sufficient to pay quite handsomely above or long according to the acreage and the the cost of clearing.
force employed, but of one thing you may CACTUS LAND.-I have said that the be certain: it is likely to prove a harder mesas are more difficult to clear than the and longer job than you calculate. Therevalleys; but I should except those low- fore, begin early, and allow ample lee-way land localities which are covered with in your plans. cactus. This pestiferous growth, known CLEARING AWAY ROCKS. If you have by the Mexican name 'Tune, is a succes- been so unfortunate as to select a rocky sion of green, pulpy leaves, one growing piece of ground, there is nothing for it but atop of the other, and all covered with to dig the rocks out and haul them away; little bunches of thorns like cambric then plow and dig and baul again, and in needles. The best way to get them off the the course of a year or two, with semi-anground is to tie a long rope around a nual gatherings, your place may be reaclump and drag it away with horses. sonably clear. With rocky land, allow Taken in detail, it is chopped in pieces twice or thrice the time required for clearwith an axe and handled with a pitchfork. ing chapparal. The 'tunes are too green to burn, and must PLOWING.-As soon as possible after the be hauled to some out-of-the-way place. first penetrating rains have fallen, start In time a part will dry up or decay, and a tho plow, and give your land a thorough part will take root and grow again if not breaking up. The plow should penetrate chopped up a second time. Cactus land at least twelve inches. Then, if circumhas the reputation of being strong, and it stances allow, let the piece remain di is generally mellow and well suited to month or more to air-slack and pulverize, trees and vines.
after whicb, cross-plow and harrow thorTIME TO BEGIN CLEARING.-Some val. oughly. It is important that the first ley land requires no clearing whatever, plowing be done early, so that the land but is ready for the breaking plow at any may be in condition to absorb the winter time when sufficiently moist. It is a good rains. The closer the last plowing applan to begin clearing land in the latter proximates the planting, the better, as the part of summer or early fall, so that it soil is thus left in a mellow condition to. may be ready for the plow as soon as the receive the trees. first winter rains soften the ground. The
SELECTING TREES. COMMENCE EARLY.--The clearing and which he recommends highly and with breaking disposed of, you will begin to apparent reason; and yet it might be a breathe more freely, and it is then a good doubtful speculation for you to pay the time to think about trees. The sooner fancy price he demands. Better buy you are in the market the better selection younger trees of equal thrift and earn the you will make. No harm is done by extra dollar or two per tree by growing looking over the nurseries thoroughly them yourself.. before coming to a conclusion.
THE KIND TO SELECT.--A tree which GET THE BEST.-I would remind you is two years old in its budded growth, and of the advice given in a former chapter, four years old in its stock, and which is to procure only the best trees of the best healthy and vigorous, standing from five varieties. By this I do not mean always to seven feet high, may be accounted first the most expensive trees. A nurseryman class. If you can obtain such, take no may have six or seven year old stock, others. The health of a tree is best indicated by the dark green of the matured index as one can have in judging of nurfoliage. If it have a yellowish cast, be- sery stock is to note the general character ware of the tree. But do not confound of the nurseryman's place. If it have a the sickly hue of the older leaves with the neat, well-kept and thrifty appearance, yellowish green of the new growth. The you may almost jump at the conclusion two are readily distinguishable.
that his young trees are in the same favorA FALSE ECONOMY.-Do not let meas- able condition. If, on the contrary, the ures of economy induce you to buy at place is out at the elbows, the chances are half the price trees that are undersized or against the trees. Be on the lookout for •stunted, or diseased or infested. A young stunted or diseased or scaly stocks, or any orange tree which, from any cause, has of the other ills that come from neglect. been checked in its growth, is more than In cases where the cultivation of a nurhalf ruined, and should not be subjected sery has been slighted, though the trees to the additional shock of removal. "may not show it except in their lack of Though cared for in the best manner, it is vigor, they are apt to die after transplantlikely to prove a losing investment. You ing. should consider that the first cost of trees VARIETIES.–Concerning the best varieis a mere bagatelle compared with the ties of budded trees, the reader is referred items of land, tiine, and labor devoted to to the chapter on that subject. I would them to bring them to the fruiting age, advise the selection of one or two varieties and that this greater expense must be in- and the planting of these almost wholly. curred for poor trees as well as for good; Uniformity of fruit is a desideratum when nay, more, the cost of raising may be it comes to marketing. If you wish many greater for the poor, and you get only varieties, plant only one or two trees of scrubs at last.
each, and leave the main body of the THE WAY TO ECONOMIZE.-If you de- orchard in one kind. sire to economize in your purchases, do so MARK THE TREES.—Haying found the by selecting younger trees, but never by trees you want, mark them with tags or: dispensing with thrift. Let the tree be as strings of some peculiar kind that the healthy and sturdy and large as it ought nurseryman will recognize as yours. in reason to be at the age you buy it. Then make a small payment to secure Yearling buds on three-year-old stocks them beyond a peradventure, and with are often set. Some prefer them to the the receipt in your pocket go home satisolder growth.
fied that you have done a good day's A GOOD WAY TO JUDGE.-As good an work.
LAYING OFF THE ORCHARD.. IMPORTANCE OF THE WORK.-The oper- ground so that his trees will come in regation preliminary to planting is laying off ular rows and the rows regularly disand staking the ground. Upon the ac- posed. If he goes at it by “the rule of curacy with which this is done depends thumb," he may or may not accomplish the symmetry of your orchard as long as his purpose, but, in either event, he is it exists. The neglect or carelessness of a likely to incur needless work and bother. few hours at this juncture may result in It is better for him to inform himself in an "eye-sore" for half a lifetime. There advance of the various labor-saving defore, one can hardly be too painstaking.. vices which have resulted from the ex
ESTABLISHED METHODS.-Every man of perience of others; then adopt some. common sense knows, or thinks he knows, method which seems to him most feasible, how to measure off and mark a piece of and consistently pursue it.