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Not DIFFICULT.-The novice should not Giyen an equilateral triangle, A B C, to allow himself to be dazed by the multi- find its altitude. plicity of geometrical figures which I have given in explaining the nomenclature of the system. It does not require a surveyor to stake off the orchard ground in Septuple form. On the contrary, when you once grasp the theory you will find it as easy as any other system. SEPTUPLE ILLUSTRATED.-To give an oc- FIG.


FIND ITS ALTITUDE. cular demonstration of an orchard planted

Drop a perpendicular from the apex C by this system, I present a diagram after

upon the base A B. Then A D C is a the manner of those in preceding chap

rightangle triangle. The dimension of ters:

the side A C is known. The dimension * * * * * * * of A D is one-half of A B. We wish to

ascertain the dimension CD. The formula is:

:~ (A C2-A D2CD * * * * * *

If the trees are planted twenty feet apart, we have the problem in figures thus:

(202 — 102) =x. * * * * * * *

SOLUTION. 202=400.

102=100. * * * * * * *


✓ 300—17) (nearly), or 17 feet 4 inches.

ANSWER.-If A C is twenty feet and AD METHOD OF STAKING.–The staking is,

S ten feet, then the distance from C to D is done in substantially the same way as de

seventeen feet and four inches. seribed in the Quincunx planting. Run

The orchard being staked on the Septutwo check-rows of stakes along opposite

ple system, with the trees twenty feet sides of the orchard, and, in using the

apart, the stakes in the check-rows should chain, alternate the check-tags as previ

be seventeen feet and four inches apart. ously described. By shifting the chain

Having slaked the check-rows the reback and forth the trees are brought alter

quired distance, proceed to stretch the nately opposite (Fig. 11).

chain and set the stakes exactly as deKEY TO THE SEPTUPLE SYSTEM.-It is scribed in Quincunx planting. Remem. in setting the stakes in the check-rows that

ber the injunction there given to pull out the difference between this and all other alternate stakes in the check-rows when systems occurs. This must be explained

you are through with them. (See Fig. 12.) at length. In Fig. 18 it is plainly obsery DISTANCE FOR CHECK-Rows.-For conable that the trees in opposite rows ar venience of reference, I append a table, range themselves in triangles.

showing the distances at which the check

stakes should be set for various spaces: A B *

10 feet apart...................... 8 feet 8 inches. * *


....................... 10 " 4 2-5 66 *FIG. 18—TRIANGULAR ARRANGEMENT.

14 It has been explained that the trees are equal distances apart each way, and hence A B C is an equilateral triangle. Now, we have the simple geometrical problem:

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BALLING.-This is undoubtedly the best BROKEN BALLS.-If by any mischance method, though the most laborious and the dirt is crumbled within the sack the expensive. Trees that are carefully balled wrappings should be removed entirely and well planted seldom lose their leaves, upon planting the tree. and, with the next succeeding period ofCONDITION OF THE SOIL FOR BALLING.– growth, are almost sure to make a start. From the description given of the process The operation of balling is thus per- of balling, it must be evident to the reaformed:

der that the soil should have a good degree A trench fourteen to sixteen inches deep of coherence to allow so much handling. is dug along one side of the nursery row A clayish sandy soil is best for balling. cutting the earth about six inches from But the most favorable soil even, must be the stalks. Then the digger takes a sharp- taken at just the proper time to make the edged spade, and by carefully working operation successful. About the third or under from the bottom of the trench ex- fourth day after a rain or an irrigation is a poses the tap root. This he severs by a safe time to begin sacking. well directed blow or two. Next, vertical WHEN SACKING IS NOT DESIRABLE.-It cuts are made in the soil on each side of is not best to sack trees if they are taken the tree transversely with the trench, and from a stiff clay soil, or any soil, in fact, a block of earth about a foot each way is that is likely to bake hard. If the balls of formed. This block is carefully shaved earth become thus set they enclose the off and rounded. Lastly, the spade is in- roots like a mold of plaster of Paris, and serted in the side opposite the trench, and the tree cannot thrive. the ball is loosened from the contiguous

PUDDLING.-In this method of transground. A little more shaving makes it planting, the trench is first excavated symmetrical all round. The ball thus and the tap roots cut as previously deformed should be grasped with both scribed. No effort is inade, however, to hands, and the tree lifted from its place!

preserve the earth intact about the roots. and set upon the half of a grain bag

The tree being loosened, it is left standing already provided and spread upon the

in the trench with a shovelfull of dirt upon ground close by. It generally happens

the roots to keep them from drying. A that the end of the tap root projects an

puddle is formed at some convenient point inch or two below the ball of earth. Ac. by mixing loam and clay to the consistcordingly a little slit is made in the middle ancy of thick cream. A sufficient number of the grain bag, through which the end of trees having been dug, they are gathof root protrudes. The edges of the bag er

ered up, a few at a time, and the roots of are then drawn up tightly about the ball,

ů each immersed in the puddle. They are and fastened by winding with bailing rope

thus encased with a film of soil which or stitched with stout twine. If the ball protes

a protects them from the drying action of is tied, the rope is first wound about it

the air. As an additional precaution, the vertically with a hitch around the stock at

roots are parked in damp straw for transit. the top and another about the tap root at

For shipment long distances, a number of the bottom to hold the wrap in place. Two

trees may be bunched together and their vertical wraps are made, crossing each

roots packed with damp straw in a barrel. other at right angles, top and bottom, and

The stocks and tops are generally wrapped a third turn is made about the ball hori

with burlap, rushes or other material as a zontally, describing an equator about the

means of protection. The only objection two former meridians. The whole being

I have ever heard urged against puddling made snug and tight so that the enclosed

trees is that the film of earth is sometimes earth cannot shake loose from the roots,

set so firmly upon the small roots that it the balling is complete. Balled trees

chokes them, after the manner of the should be handled very carefully, and not

baked or hardened ball already alluded to. transported long distances in a lumber

PACKING IN DAMP STRAW.-With this wagon if a spring wagon is to be had for

method the tree is prepared in the same the purpose.

manner as just described, except that the puddling operation is omitted. I have

transplanted trees by this method as well in transplanting orange trees is to avoid as by puddling and balling, and I find tbat the contact of air with the roots. If the the damp straw alone answers every re- roots be thoroughly dried, the vitality of quirement.

the tree is lost. The principal precaution tɔ be observed


PLANTING AN ORCHARD. DIGGING THÉ HOLES.-The stakes for lines, as a little variation in the angle will the orchard having been set as described make no difference in determining the in a preceding chapter, the next operation middle point; but it is essential that the is digging the holes.

board be placed on the same side of the SIZE OF HOLES.-If the ground has been stakes each time. For example, if it is properly prepared, there is no necessity on the south side of the stake when the for digging the hole larger than requi- pins at the extremities are stuck, then it site for admitting the roots of the tree. should be adjusted to these pins exactly in If the trees are balled, a hole large enough the same manner when the tree is set and to receive the ball is sufficient; if not the board be on the south side of the tree. balled, make it large enough to admit the To avoid confusion it is best to follow one roots in a natural position, i. e. without rule throughout the orchard, placing the doubling on themselves. For the aver- board always on the same side of the age three or four-year-old stock a hole stakes. eighteen to twenty inches across and the THROWING THE DIRT.-In digging the saine depth is ample.

holes it is best to throw the dirt clear of THE PLANTING BOARD.-A device in the pegs so that it shall not interfere with almost universal use for fixing the point the replacing of the board. In localities where the tree should stand is known as where the surface earth is richer than one the planting board.

subsoil, painstaking planters throw the top earth in a pile by itself so that it can be first returned to the hole, about the

roots, and the poorer soil filled in at the FIG. 20—THE PLANTING BOARD.

top. It is a light strip about five feet long, PLANTING.–Two men work together with a notch (A) cut in the middle, and to the greatest advantage in planting-one potches B and C at the extremities, as to place the board and hold the tree, and shown in the figure.

the other to shovel in the earth. The MANNER OF USING THE BOARD.-When operation is thus very quickly performed. about to dig the hole place the board on If the trees are sacked, the balls are placed the ground so that the central notch A in the holes without disturbing the wrapshall fit against the stake. Stick pins at ping, which will shortly rot away and notches B and C. The board may now be offer no impediment to the growing roots. removed and the original stake at A pulled If not sacked do not take them from their up and the hole dug in its place. When packing of straw until ready to plant planting the tree, the exact place where it each in turn. Then handle with as much should stand is fixed by replacing the celerity as possible without slighting the board so that the notches B and C fit upon work. The lateral roots should be caretheir respective pegs, and the tree stan- fully arranged in the hole so that they lie ing in the hole, is held upright at the in a natural position, none being doubled notch A.

up or crossed. It is not necessary that the board be LACERATED Roots. If the tap root or always laid on a parallel with the orchard laterals are lacerated, cut away the injured

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