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part. It is easier for the tree to make new LOST TIME.-The orange tree in transroots than to heal up old ones.
planting loses a year's growth; this under DEPTH-The tree should be planted the the most favorable circumstances. I do same depth that it was in nursery.
not mean to say that it utterly fails to grow FILLING. I have found it best to fill the the first year after removal, but that the hole only about half full, leaving a basin check which it sustains reduces its averto receive water and then complete the age size to that of trees a year younger, filling after irrigation.
not transplanted. SETTLING THE EARTH.-It is not neces- NEW GROWTH.–At the next succeeding sary to spend time tramping the earth season of growth, if the conditions are all down upon the roots, as the water to be favorable, the tree puts forth new shoots applied will settle it more effectually than from the stock and branches. Often these it is possible to do with the foot.
shoots make their first appearance upon IRRIGATING.-Citrus trees should al- the stock, and cover it with a thick growth ways be irrigated as soon as planted. Run down to the very ground. the basin at each tree full, and after the WATER SPROUTS.—These shoots, below water has soaked away, fill in with dry the point where they are serviceable as earth, which prevents evaporation. branches, are called water-sprouts, and
STRAIGHTENING UP.-When all are they must be trimmed off at the earliest planted go through the orchard and right practicable opportunity. However it is up such trees as may be found leaning. not always advisable to break off these
ADDITIONAL PRUNING.-If the tree sprouts as soon as they appear. If the shows a tendency to wilt, it is a good plan upper part of the tree has started new to prune it still further, even cutting away growth simultaneously with the stock, to a few leaves or none at all.
then the stock should be cleared, and the INDICATIONS.--If a tree wilts and the earlier the better. Rub off the incipient leaves cling to their stems, becoming dry shoots when no bigger than the point of and dead, the chances are that the tree is a pin and the vitality of the tree will go lost. If the leaves drop off, the tree will into the top, provided the top is ready to almost surely put forth new ones.
receive it. But when the water-sprouts WASHING THE TREES.-If the trees are are the only growth the tree attempts to infested with any sort of scale or smut, make, it is advisable to let them remain wash them thoroughly with soap suds, for the good they may do. The leaves scrubbing the stocks and spraying the thus put forth will elaborate the sap and tops. It is but fair to give them a clean start the vital forces of the tree throughstart.
out. With the additional strength thus WRAPPING THE STOCKS.-If rabbits or gained the top buds, in turn will be pushed rodents are apt to prove troublesome, it is forth, and when these shall have a good plan to wrap the stocks with paper formed branches and leaves the waterand tie lightly with twine. This keeps sprouts may be safely dispensed with. the animals from gnawing the bark. The Should the top utterly fail to grow, and wrapping is also a good protection to the become dead, the topmost or most vigoryoung and tender stocks against the hot ous of the water-sprouts may be preserved sun. Some people whitewash their trees to form a new stock and top. instead of wrapping them and are well SUCKERS.—This growth which starts pleased with the result.
from the crown of the roots just below DESIGNATING VARIETIES.-If you plant the surface of the ground should be cut several varieties of trees, the best way to off as soon as discovered, as it will sap the keep track of them is to make a diagram life of the tree if allowed to grow. Only of the orchard in some convenient book in one instance is there an exception to of record, designating varieties by num- the rule of destruction of suckers. If you bered rows. Tags on trees are a nuisance, are satisfied the main stock is dead or and besides, soon become weather-worn likely to die, the sucker may be left to and obliterated. The same is true of let- form a new tree. But bear in mind, the ered stakes in the orchard ground.
sucker tree will be a seedling.
ing one year with another and averaging earth, and to which the roots ought to be the longer with the shorter seasons, the encouraged to go for their supplies. Trees seven-months rule will hold good. It is are creatures of habit no less than men, during this rainless period that irrigation and, as the twig is bent, the tree's inbecomes necessary to sustain vegetable clined.” It is best to commence this edulife. Formerly irrigation was much more cation early; if you postpone it too long general and frequent than in latter years. your orchard is likely to prove a lot of Within a comparatively recent period it spoiled children on your hands. has been determined that thorough culti- How MUCH TO IRRIGATE.-During the vation will, in a great measure, reduce the first summer after planting young orange necessity of applying water artificially, trees, it may be necessary to water them and, in the case of many varieties of every month or six weeks. Make it a grapes and deciduous trees, irrigation may point to be thorough with your work when be dispensed with entirely. Orange trees you do irrigate. Let the water penetrate to thrive well and bring forth profitable deep, and assist the young roots in workcrops, must be irrigated.
ing down. Do not under any circumstanOVER-IRRIGATION TO BE AVOIDED--It ces, allow the ground to remain after iris a mistake, however, to suppose that rigating in a sodden condition, to bake because some water is good, a great deal hard and evaporate the moisture almost more water is better. No error is more as rapidly as it was applied. A tree thus pernicious or, in the end, more certainly neglected is soon in a worse condition ruinous to trees than excessive irrigation. than it would have been if it had received
In 1877 a committee of the Sonthern no irrigation at all. I have found it the California Horticultural Society, appoint- best plan in treating young trees to excaed to investigate the matter of irrigation, vate a considerable basin about each tree made a valuable report, which was sum- and fill this basin with water once or even marized in the following paragraph: twice if deemed necessary. Then, after
"The systems of irrigation in use the water has entirely soaked away, fill throughout the district are varied. Many the basin with dry earth. This covering use the old system of flooding the entire acts as a mulch, preventing the evaporaground every three or four weeks, using tion of the water applied, and the tree is water to the exclusion of cultivation, prepared to wait a long time for another Others irrigate less and cultivate more. drink. The second summer, trees will We find, in fact, all phases of irrigation flourish with three or fourirrigations, and and cultivation, from all water and no the third summer they will thrive with work to all work and no water. Neither two or three. extreme is profitable, but a golden mean WANT OF IRRIGATION-How MANIFESTof two or three thorough irrigations, with ED.-Be governed by circumstances. If thoroguh cultivation, your committee be- you see that a tree is suffering, as indicatlieve the orcbardist will find the most suc- ed by curled or wilted and leathery leaves cessful. On heavy soils the water should and drooping stems, do not delay the apnot touch the tree and great care should plication of water. It needs help at once. be exercised after each irrigation that the If you follow the plan bere indicated and ground may not bake.”
do your work thoroughly, you will find A MATTER OF EDUCATION.—When the these calls less and less frequent as the ground about the tree is frequently flood- tree obtains its foothold on terra firma. ed, the roots are drawn to the surface. You will then have brought it up in the The tree then becomes more sensitive to way it should go, and it will reward you every change of moisture, and if water is in future by a healthy and profitable life not applied at the regular and frequent and a minimum of labor exacted for its intervals to which the tree has been accus- sustenance. It is not advisable to leave tomed, it wilts and droops. It is not to be the tree until it hangs out its signals of dissupposed that the best of human care can tress before applying water. Keep a sharp furnish a supply equal to the storage res- watch over your orchard and you may deervoirs of nature which lie deeper in the tect the premonitory symptoms in one or