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be accumulated in the course of a year, Both will be susceptible to finer tilth and and the cost will be merely nominal. will retain moisture the better therefor.
APPLYING THE MANURE.-As soon as ARTIFICIAL FERTILIZERS.-When Calithe winter rains are well started the ma- 'fornia orange growers shall have utilized nure may be applied to the orchard. Care the cheap fertilizers at hand, which now should be taken not to heap it about the go to waste, and then feel the necessity bodies of the trees. It is of very little use for more concentrated manures, it will be there in any event, and may do harm. It time to talk to them about the manufacshould be spread over the ground as far tured article. My object at present is to as the lateral roots extend and, with large urge upon them the subject of fertilizing trees, the whole surface of the ground in the main. If they do it at all they will may be covered with advantage. Turn it do it well. I believe the home-made comin with a plow, and the work is done. The' post heap, as outlined above, would furrains will carry the soluble elements down nish all that is required in the way of ferinto the earth, making them available for tilizers at a tithe of the expense of the the roots, and the fibrous matter will be commercial compounds. incorporated with the surface soil to its Let the California orange grower renew great benefit. Stiff soils are thus rendered his soil in some way, and the sooner he more friable, and sandy soils more loamy. begins this task the better.
ENEMIES OF THE ORANGE TREE.
The orange tree has its enemies; -SO perhaps, is the wilting of the leaves, and have we all. Probably the borde of orange then, when one seeks the cause, the tree tree pests is no more numerous or impla- topples over, the main root having been cable than that which preys upon our eaten entirely away. In attacking large other domestic trees; but when it comes to trees the gopher's method is to girdle the numbering and cataloguing them-aye, main stock just below the surface and then or fighting them either-they seem for- destroy the lateral roots by peeling away midable enough. It is this numbering and the bark. cataloguing and studying their habits How To FIGHT HIM.—The way to sery which painstaking men have performed the gopher is to carry the war into Africa, for us that has placed within our hands and fight a battle of extermination. Do the weapons for their destruction. Let not wait for him to attack a tree. As soon nobody be appalled by the array of orange- as you discover his mound of earth thrown tree pests presented in these and subse- up anywhere in the orchard, or near it, quent pages; they do not all attack at
open hostilities. once, and by taking them in detail and POISON.- I have found crystals of strychfollowing prescribed methods, every one nine one of the handiest and surest means of them can be vanquished.
of giving the gopher his quietus. I proTHE GOPHER.—This is a little aniinal vide myself with a little bottle or box of resembling a rat; somewhat more com- poisoned raisins which I keep constantly pactly built and with shovel teeth and a in my pocket while about the farm. Then, stubby tail. He burrows in the ground upon discovering a gopher mound I dig and is almost a universal pest in Califor it away and work down until the hole is nia. He is especially, destructive with exposed. A couple of the raisins are orange trees because he attacks the roots, thrown in as far as they will go and the many times doing the utmost damage gopher is left to his fate. Sometimes, without givingøevidence upon the surface hower, he resists temptation to the exthat he is at work. The first indication, tent of filling the hole and throwing the raisins up with the dirt. Then it is nec- high as they can reach. Wrapping or essary to dig and try it again. If he re- whitewashing the trunk is a protection fuses the raisin bait entirely, try him with against them. Some people suspend bits a wedge of poisoned watermelon, or a of bright tin in their trees, the glint of piece of carrot or turnip or sweet potato. which in either sunlight or moonlight, Never give up until you are sure that the frightens the depredators away. Another gopher is dead. If allowed to remain he method is to smear the trunks with dilutwill surely do some mischief and, what ed blood. The rabbit has a fine sense of is worse, he will soon have a family to smell, and this offense to his olfactories join him in his marauding. After pois- keeps him away. Rabbits are disposed of oning a hole, you will generally find it with the shot gun with double advantage, filled up, but if there are no after evi- if one has time to hunt them. Otherwise dences of work in that vicinity you may poison may be used or the services of a conclude that the poison has been effec- good dog or cat invoked. When one starts tive. As previously remarked, strych- an orchard in a comparatively new and nine is the best destroyer. Pulverize the wild region, all measures of protection crystals snd insert only a little of the pow- seem ineffectual except a rabbit-tight der in the bait. Arsenic will not serve at fence. all; the gopher fattens on it.
GRASSHOPPERS.-In newly settled local. TRAPS.-Several patterns of gophertraps ities grasshoppers are apt to prove trouare in use, the best of which are skeleton blesome for a number of years, or until claws, which are inserted in the hole and all the contiguous lands are brought under close with a spring upon the gopher when
cultivation. Plowing the ground seems he pushes the trigger. In setting them it is best to dig down to the main runaway nuisance. When grasshoppers preyail to
to kill their eggs and put an end to the and place the trap as nearly on a level as
a considerable extent they destroy young possible. Then cover the hole with some
orange trees by denuding them of leaves thing to exclude the light. The most successful trap I have eyer found is called der shoots. The best protection to small
and even stripping the bark from the tenthe Cushing, and is constructed of wire, trees is to wrap the stocks with paper or with a sheet-iron trigger. It has “a very cloth and enclose the top in a grain bag or taking way" with the gophers.
other covering. Chickens are of great SQUIRRELS.-Another burrowing pest is service in making war upon grasshoppers. the ground squirrel. He has his nest be. I have colonized my flocks in the orange low ground and a hole for entrance and orchard with the most satisfactory results exit much larger than the gopher hole, to the chickens and the trees. which he always leaves open. He does not attack the roots of a tree unless they SCALE INSECTS.—The most formidable happen to be in his way while tunneling. enemies, after all, are the scale insects; The damage which he does the orange probably because they are the most intree is in gnawing the bark of the trunk. significant. They belong to a low order
EXTERMINATORS.-Squirrels are exter- of animal life known as coccidæ. I shall minated by poison and by fumigations not here attempt a techinal description of with apparatus gotten up for the purpose the scale insects, but will rather refer the of driving bi-sulphide or carbon gas or reader to the scientific discussion of the brimstone smoke into their holes. Wrap- subject taken fron the work of Hon. ping or whitewashing the trees, as sug- Matthew Cooke and appearing as an apgested in the chapter on planting, is a pendix to this work. I cannot too highly good means of protection against squir- commend the efforts of Mr. Cooke in berels. These pests are by no means so uni- half of the fruit growers of our State. versal as gophers and are more easily dis- They owe bim a debt of gratitude which posed of.
must needs be paid in installments by RABBITS.-Both the Jack and the “Cot- successive generations. For the fullest ton Tail” rabbit are destructive enemies information relative to insects injurious to to the orange tree, gnawing the bark as all tree and plant life I take pleasure in referring my readers to Mr. Cooke's black scale, except that it is somewhat work.*
smaller and of a reddish color. It adheres THE BLACK SCALE.—This is the most only to the under side of leaves and to the common, and is considered the least dan- fruit, and avoids the limbs and trunk. gerous of the scale family. It may exist The red scale is more dangerous than the in a tree a long time without destroying it, black and, if unmolested, will utterly debut we may be sure the effect is constant- stroy an orchard in a few years. For ly deleterious. The scale appears in all treatment see Appendix. tints from a whity yellow of the newly- THE WHITE OR COTTONY CUSHION hatched to a brown of middle age and SCALE.-This approaches more nearly to a black in maturity, and in form is a little distinct animal than either of the other blister adhering to leaf, stem or stock. It scales and is the most dangerous of the does not attach itself to the fruit. Trees three. For full description and manner thus infested should be thoroughly of treatment seo Appendix. pruned and washed with a solution of Gum DISEASE.--Lemon trees especially whale-oil soap as directed in the appendix. and orange trees occasionally, are subject
FUNGUS, OR SMUT.-This is an attend to gum disease, an affection of the bark ant of the black scale. Scientific investi- close to the ground. This is caused by ingation has shown that the scale excretes a judiciuos irrigation. The bark splits and gummy substance called honey-dew, a gum exudes. If unchecked, the disease which, in falling, attaches to the upper encircles the tree and kills it. The best surfaces of leaves, twigs and fruit. This treatment upon discovering the first sympgum holds the dust that chances to fall toms of gum disease is to cut away. the upon the surfaces covered by it, and the affected part and daub the wound with mass generates a fungus growth termed paint, wax or tar. In irrigating thereafter back smut. This smut, although seeming do not allow the water to touch the body to do no damage to the tree other than to of the tree and be sure that the soil is well render it unsightly, must retard its growth stirred after each irrigation. by obstructing the stomata or air-breath- “Die Back” and many of the other maling surfaces of leaves and branches. It adies to which the orange trees of Florida also renders the fruit unsalable, or nearly and some other lands are subject are so. Neither scale nor smut should be tol- wholly unknown in this country. erated in an orchard. The whale-oil soap
*NOTE.-Injurious Insects of the Orchard, Vinesolution extirpates both.
yard, etc., by Matthew Cooke, late Chief Executive THE RED SCALE.--This is similar to the
Horticultural Officer of California. Sacramento:
WASHING TREES. THE YOUNG ORCHARD, -- When the WASHING SOVEREIGN AND IMPERATIVE. young trees are planted in orchard it is a -For older trees already infested with good plan to give them a thorough wash- scale, washing is the only reliable remeing. Whatever of extraneous growth, dy. When once cleaned, they too should either scale or smut, may be upon them receive periodical sprayings and scrubis thus cleared off, and the trees are given bings. It might as well be accepted by a clean start in life, which is as valuable the orange growers of California as an unto them as to a man,
ayoidable conclusion that all orange trees, PREVENTIVE AS WELL AS CURE.-If to be healthy, productive and long lived, the plan is followed of giving the trees a must be washed. washing once or twice a year thereafter it THE SOLUTION in common use for this will greatly promote their vigor and in- purpose is made of whale-oil or some othsure them against attack by the scale in- er cheap and strong soap. For my use I sect. With these pests of the orange tree have found the addition of a little conthe ounce of prevention is a hundred centrated lyo
efficacious. The times the easiest and best,
strength of the solution needs to be varied
to suit requirements. The strongest is In treating an orchard of full grown needed in treating obstinate cases of scale. seedlings, these apparatus are in turn, inFor simply washing trees to cleanse them, adequate, and to avoid tediousness, resort and as a measure of prevention I recom- must be had to a force pump like that mend the following:
shown in Fig. 2. A SIMPLE WASH.-Heat the water almost to the boiling point and dissolve in it sufficient concentrated lye to make it slippery between the fingers. Then add whale-oil soap, a quarter pound to the gallon. The solution may be applied to the trees hot without danger of injuring them.
STRONGER SOLUTIONS. — For stronger washes, and those of various kinds, such as tobacco mixture, coal oil emulsion, etc., see the recipes of Matthew Cooke in the Appendix to this work. METHOD OF APPLICATION.-A broom or
FIG. 2-THE FORCE PUMP. a scrubbing brush is serviceable for wash
THE SPRAYER.-Fig. 1 illustrates a hand ing the stock and main limbs of the tree.
sprayer with the nozzle attached to the In treating the tops, the solution may be piston: The bucket containing the solu"switched” in with a broom or brush or
tion is placed on the ground and the apsprayed with a hand sprinkler. The
paratus worked with both hands. This switching process is available only with
will throw a rose-spray to the heighth of small trees when the tops are well thinned twelve or fifteen feet, or a solid stream out. For those of larger growth a band
twenty feet. sprinkler, such as shown in the accom
The pump shown in Fig 2 is known as panying illustration, is used:
the Excelsior No. 1. It is generally mounted on a barrel containing the solution, and the whole apparatus is hauled about the orchard in a wagon. The advantage of this pump is that, being double acting, it throws a continuous stream. Double hose may be attached, thus giving two streams simultaneously. The wash is applied through a three-quarter inch hose twelve or fifteen feet long with a nozzle of ordinary iron pipe eight or ten feet long, which can be pushed well into the top of the tree by the operator. The spray is formed by closing the end of the pipe excepting only a thin slit. Four men make up the spraying party:-one to drive the team, one to work the pump and
two to hold the nozzles. With this force FIG. 1-THE SPRAYER.
at work an orchard is soon gone over.
WORKING, WATCHING AND WAITING. “ But the waiting time, my brothers, is the hardest preceding chapter, the orange tree loses a time of all."
year's growth in trans-planting. Under A YEAR OR TWO LOST.--As stated in a the most favorable circumstances it is not until the second year in orchard that the their way as they go from their own tree regains its normal vigor. If in the places. Such are to be envied most of all. meantime any special causes have inter- It often happens, however, that the fruit vened to set it back, such as the loss or farm par excellence is not well adapted to partial loss of its leaves by grasshoppers, raising general produce. This is the case or the gnawing of its roots or stock by with many of the mesa locations. vermin, or injury by frost-any or all of HELPS.-But with all farms established which are liable to occur—the tree may on a right basis there are helps to the liv. not get a good start before the beginning ing which prove most valuable at this peof the third year after planting. If it do riod. The cow is one of these adjuncts ; not show itself in a thrifty growing con- chickens another; the vegetable garden dition by that time, better dig it up and a third. If a man is provident he can throw it away. I would not wait that have his patch of alfalfa and his fodder long with a tree that gave earlier evidences growing in odd strips and corners of the of being stunted.
place, thereby providing, without any WHEN BUDDED TREES YIELD.—But if outlay of cash, enough feed for his cow good budded trees are planted and thrive and some to help along with the support well from the start, the third year in or
of the other animals. Chickens, as an chard they ought to yield a little fruit, by auxiliary, under the charge of the gentle way of sample. The fourth year they and painstaking housewife, are not to be will produce more, but not enough to despised; but I warn the novice against bring much revenue. At the end of the placing too much dependence on the fifth year there should be quite a fine crop. chicken business as a principal means of If the trees have been retarded in any livelihood. Heretofore some people, prinway the fruiting may be a year later. cipally dealers in fancy stock, have inAccordingly, the man who plants an or- dulged in a good deal of hyperbole rechard of budded oranges, must expect to garding the profits of the poultry yard, wait from five to six years for his first and some other people have believed substantial proceeds.
them and have been badly disappointed. WHEN SEEDLINGS YIELD.-With seed
ECONOMY WINS.—The thrifty man, aidling trees one must wait nine or ten years.ed by his helpmeet, can devise many
A LONG WAIT.-Five years is a long ways to cut down expenses and produce a time; ten years a great deal longer. If a little revenue pending the issue of the man is possessed of a plethoric purse he main horticultural venture; and those who can abide the issue with equanimity; but address themselves earnestly to the task, for one who is dependant for a living up- and keep clear of debt, generally work on his own energies this hiatus is a most through and find themselves on the comserious matter. It is a matter which one
fortable side of independence in a few should weigh well and provide against years. before embarking in the enterprise. Not DIVERSIFIED PLANTING.–Most people only must the family have a living, but who improve small places diversify their there is a continual demand for the ex- planting, i. e. set a portion of the farm in penditure of money or its equivalent, deciduous fruits and a portion in grapeenergy-in caring for the orchard.
viņes; and some devote consideroble space TIDING OVER.–Many and divers ways to small fruits. These come into bearing are resorted to by men of limited re- at two to four years and shorten the unsources to tide over this period of waiting. productive period correspondingly. The mechanic finds work at his trade for ADVISABLE CROPS.-In this connection a part of each year; the teacher returns to it would be proper to discuss the products teaching, and the professional man to his that may be grown in the spaces between practice. If the previous vacation was the rows of young fruit trees, for the man that of a farmer the orchardist can gener- who struggles to make ends meet almost ally find work to do near at home in car- invariably feels the necessity of utilizing ing for the places of others or in general this ground. Corn and sugar cane for farm labor. Some may be able to pay domestic use or for fodder, potatoes, beets,