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turnips-any of the leguminous crops- method has not led me to favor it. In the may be grown without detriment to the first place consulting appearances, I do trees. But I would advise the planting of not like the intermixture of the two kinds not more than two rows in the space be- of trees-citrus and deciduous. Secondly, tween rows of trees. These crops should trees of different habits need to be treated not come nearer than six or eight feet differently in irrigation, and it is generally from the trees.

an awkward matter to irrigate part of the Nursery stock and small fruits may be trees in an orchard without watering all. planted in the orchard if the same rule of Thirdly, peach and some other deciduous not overcrowding is observed.

trees come into bearing before the or

anges, it is true, but the fact also remains CROPS NOT ADVISABLE.-All grain crops that they are still vigorous trees when the -any crops, in fact, that preclude cultivation-should be avoided as they involve California the peach tree has been known

oranges begin to produce. In Southern great injury or total destruction of the

to live fifty years. The oranges will need trees. Watermelons and pumpkins are all of the space in the orchard when the undesirable since they coyer much of the deciduous trees are still in their very ground to the exclusion of the cultivator, prime. It is hard for one to sacrifice the and their roots ramify to great distances, result of years of toil, and hence too often frequently drawing moisture directly the deciduous trees are left and the orfrom the roots of the trees.

anges suffer-all of the trees suffer from CITRUS AND DECIDUOUS TREES.-Some crowding. people adopt the plan of planting decidu- AN ORANGE GROVE PURE AND SIMPLE. ous trees of early bearing habits—like the -If the orange grower is master of the peach-in alternate rows between their situation, so that he does not need to raise orange trees. To this end the orchard is anything in his orchard but the orange often planted close together with the in- trees themselves, and can keep the whole tention of ultimately cutting away the surface well pulverized and free from exdeciduous trees when the oranges come traneous growth-that is, after all, the into bearing. My experience with this best plan.


THE ORANGE TREE IN BEARING. EXTRA CARE.—The orange tree when it How many oranges a tree should be albegins to bear requires extra attention. lowed to bear the first season it would be Not only should the cultivation be most impossible to say, as so much depends thorough, but, beginning with the time upon the size and strength of the tree, but when the fruit first forms, there must be I would place the safe limit somewhere more irrigation than formerly, and every between three and twenty. Aim to keep means must be adopted to keep the tree within rather than to pass the limit by a up to full vigor as it assumes its new pro- single orange, and the future well-being ductive function.

of the tree will reward you therefor. TENDENCY TO OVERBEAR.-The natural When a tree overbears at first it is genertendency of the tree is to overbear; i. e., ally stunted, and in such case the original to form more fruit than it can properly yield may be its best for a number of mature, or at least so much that, if ma- years. In some instances the tree never tured, its own vitality suffers thereby. produces so good fruit afterwards. The

THINNING THE FRUIT.-For this reason second season more liberty may be alit is imperative that the fruit first formed lowed in the matter of production, but be thinned out with no sparing hand. If both tree and owner must still practice two-thirds or three-quarters of the sets self denial to a degree. are pulled off when they are the size of a AFTER PRODUCTION.—The second year hazelnut, it will be the better for the tree. of bearing a budded tree may be allowed to produce from twenty-five to fifty or- PROPS.--If the high system of prunning anges, the third year two hundred, and has been observed, the fruit will be borne. thus increasing proportionately until in near the extremities of long slender full bearing.

branches, and it is generally necessary to FRUIT THINNING AFTERWARDS DESIR- sustain these branches with props from the ABLE.—The careful grower will not over- time the oranges are half grown until inalook the thinning of his fruit at any age tured and gathered. Poles with forked of the tree. Thus only is the finest qual- ends are in general use for this purpose. ity and a good uniformity of fruit to be If props are not used, the limbs often obtained. As the trees become large the break with their weight of fruit and thus task of thinning increases to laborious the grower suffers loss both in crop and proportions, but that is no reason why it tree. should be overlooked. No greater over- PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF SEEDLING.sight is to be charged to our orange grow- A seedling tree at Riverside bore at nine ers generally than in their neglect to re- years of age sixty oranges ; the next year press the over-productive tendency of five hundred, and the next two thousand, their trees.

when it was accounted at fullest producA SHORT CUT IN THINNING.-An expe- tiveness. Not all seedling trees even ditious way of thinning the fruit adopted when vigorous and healthful in every by some growers is to prune their trees way can do as well as this or ought, in quite heavily in June or in one of the fall fact, to be allowed to produce so heavily. months when in a dormant stage. This YIELD OF BUDDED FRUIT LESS.-Semifinds the fruit newly set or half formed, drawf budded varieties will never give so and a fair proportion of it is removed with large a yield, tree for tree, as seedlings ; the severed limbs. I believe this to be an but the difference is made up by the earexcellent plan, “killing two birds with liness of bearing, the extra number of one stone,' and both of them pretty good trees to the acre, and the superior quality birds.

of the fruit.



PICKING TOO EARLY.-The most ad- of the season-perhaps for the rest of his vanced of the orange fruit, having at natural life. tained about three-fourths of its normal THE TIME OF RIPENING.--Oranges besize, begins to assume a yellowish color in gin to attain their best flavor in February, December and January. Some growers, and that is the time when the market desirous of obtaining the good prices should be opened. The fruit on the outer which prevail at the opening of the mar- branches most exposed to the sun ripens ket, pick such oranges as appear ripe in first and is the best. That growing on the January and February. When they do inside of the tree, besides being slower in this they make a mistake. The juices are maturing, does not color so highly and is not at that time properly developed and inferior in flavor. ripened, and the fruit is sour and really LONG PRESERVATION.–The orange, ununfit to eat. The short-sighted people like most other fruits, does not begin to who sell such trash do not stop to consider deteriorate directly after ripening, and that for a mere temporary gain they are then drop from its stem. It will hold its ruining the reputation of their fruit, and juices in perfect preservation from March that for every dollar thus made they must until June, after which it suffers gradual ultimately lose two. The man who eats loss, but remains palatable until August one of these sour oranges will surely or September. All this time it maintains. think less and eat less of the fruit the rest its place on the tree, unless subjected to

some accident, such as the pricking of a receptacle. The picker generally carries thorn or a violent shaking by the wind or a sack slung to his shoulder. other disturbing element.

GATHER WHEN DRY.-Oranges should A YEAR ON THE TREE.-It is not an not be gathered in wet weather or when unusual thing to find oranges hanging there is dew on the trees, the dampness upon the tree a full year after maturity being unfavorable to the keeping qualiand when the next succeeding crop is ties of the fruit. ripe. Such old fruit, althougb in out- When the picker's sack is full he deward appearance as sound and handsome posits the contents in a pile beneath the as ever, is found when picked to be soft, tree, or in a box or barrel, thence to be and when opened, to contain only a juice- hauled to the packing house. less pith.

Too HASTY PACKING.-It has been alORANGES SHOULD NOT BE LEFT Too most a universal custom with our growers LONG.-It is a bad plan to leave oranges

to sort and pack the fruit immediately unpicked later than March and April, at after picking, and ship at once. I pass which time the tree puts forth its blos

over without just reprobation the careless soms for the next crop. A moment's

manner in which this work has usually reasoning will show that the old fruit, in been done. The result in demoralized the effort to maintain itself, must absorb markets and short returns has been no slight quantity of the juices of the shown and commented on elsewhere. tree, and this to the detriment of the For present purposes it is sufficient for forthcoming crop. Thus the young or

me to point out the better way. Those anges are robbed of their proper aliment, who are joined to their idols and will not while the old grow no better, and nothing learn from experience are not likely to be but loss results.

admonished by a scolding.

CURING.-Although we have totally igTHE PROPER SEASON-For picking oranges is then from February to April. În nored the plan practiced in other countries

of curing or seasoning our oranges before the earlier part of this season I would advise a nice discrimination, in order that packing, and have succeeded fairly in only the fully ripe fruit be taken. Al- think that the coming packer will adopt

making our fruit keep without it, I still though the color may be substanstially this system. When carried to the packing the same, a practiced eye and hand can

house the oranges should be spread upon easily detect the difference between the

shelves or racks not more than two or ripe and the unripe. In the latter part of three layers deep, all having glaring dethe season the picker may gather the fruit fects being at that time rejected. The clean from the tree as he goes.

fruit is thus left from two to five days, THE BEST PICKER.-Although a num- during which a portion of the water is ber of machines and devices have been in- evaporated from the skin, leaving it more vented for picking, I know of no better im- tough and elastic and not so susceptible to plement than the human hand. The man damage by bruising as in the fresh state. or woman who supplies the hand and the Slight blemishes not readily discoverable motive power therefor may stand on the at first are likely to develop by this time, ground when the tree is small, otherwise and the defective fruit may then be thrown on a step-ladder. The picker twists the out. fruit a little to one side, and with a quick SORTING.-I would advise every packer double jerk breaks the stem close up. It to have two grades of fruit. Let him does not answer to pluck the orange with make the first grade as uniform in size straight outward pull, as in that case a

and color as possible, and first class in small patch of skin adhering to the stem

every respect. In sorting for this he is often taken out, thus ruining the orange should reject for market.

1-All fruit affected by rot. Must Not BE BRUISED.-In no

2--All fruit pricked by thorns. should the oranges be dropped to the 3-All fruit with skin torn or abraded. ground or thrown even a few feet to their 4-All fruit that is unripe.


5-All fruit that is under-colored.

are in use: One, known as the California 6—All fruit that is too large.

box, is 8 inches wide, 19 inches high and 7-All fruit that is too small.

22% inches long. The ends are a little For the second class he may put in all less than an inch thick and the sides and fruit rejected from the first that is sound bottom half an inch. There are two boards and ripe, irrespective of size and color. on each side, between which cracks of

CLEANING.-If the fruit is disfigured by half an inch to an inch are left for ventismut, this should be removed with a lation. brush before packing.

Anether, called the Eastern box, is 13 THE GRADER. - An apparatus which inches wide, 13 inches high and 26 inches greatly facilitates the assorting of oranges long, outside measurement. It is comis known as the grader, an illustration of posed of the same material as the other which appears herewith:

box, but is

vided into two compartments, each of which measures a cubic foot in the clear. Cracks are also left for ventilation. The Easternbox is now most fapored.

WRAPPING.–Our more progressive packers are adopting the plan of wrapping each orange in paper as it is placed in

the box. This in yolves a good THE GRADER.

deal of labor and some expense, There is no standard orange grader. but it also offers these advantages: The grader in use at Riverside consists of 1. It is a protection to the fruit against a stand 38 inches by 9% feet in surface di- bruising while in transit. mensions. It is inclined from one end to 2. It absorbs surplus moisture, thereby the other, the higher end standing 36 preventing rot. inches from the ground and the lower 18 3. It places the fruit in the market in a inches. At the upper end there is a table tasty manner and conveys the impression inclined somewhat, but not so much as that the packer at least had a good apprethe rest of the apparatus; dimensions 38x33 ciation of it. inches. Below this there are two series of 4. If the wrappers are printed, it becomes slats running lengthwise, each 40 inches means of advertising the producer long. These slats perform the office of a or packer and the variety of the fruit. riddle for the oranges in process of sort- The buyer who likes the oranges will look ing. The slats in the upper series are 272 for that wrapper the next time he buys. inches apart, and those in the lower series NUMBER OF ORANGS TO THE Box.-With 3 inches apart. The fruit is first placed the cases above described oranges run upon the table and then allowed to roll from 100 to 250 to the box. The happy down the incline. The smallest fruit drops medium is 150;—this for seedlings or avbetween the slats of the first series. The erage sized budded fruit, like the Navel or rest run over these slats and the next in Mediterranean Sweet. Small fruit like size fall between those of the second series. the St. Michael will go 200 to the box on a The oranges that are too large for the last good average. slats (i. e., more than three inches in dia- NUMBERING THE CONTENTS.—The ormeter) run off the end of the table. Thus anges are counted as they are packed and three grades are accomplished. Beneath the number each box contains marked on each of the riddles is fastend a burlap, one end. bagging to the middle, where there is a BOXES WELL FILLED.-The boxes should hole allowing the oranges to roll into the be filled so that when the lid is put on it receptacle provided for them. By this ap- will press the fruit down sufficiently to pliance the work of grading is accom- prevent it from shaking about in handplished very quickly and accurately. ling.






Riverside Fruit Company gives the cost $8.22 per box of 137. It costs about $4.20 per box as follows:

to pay freight and commission on a box Gathering....... ...........

$0.05 of Riverside lemons sold in Denver and Packing, including wrapping ........... .30 $3.50 on a {box of oranges. The cost of

.15 shipment to San Francisco and commis

sion is 75 cents per box. This makes the Total..........


Denver market nearly $2 per box better SHIPPING.-As soon as possible after than San Francisco." packing the boxes should be shipped.

FREIGHTS.-The high freights of the MARKETS.–Up to the time the Southern Southern Pacific railroad* have been the Pacific railroad was completed, giving di- chief impediment to eartern shipments. rect rail communication with the East, Some concessions were made by this comour only market for large quantities of pany during the past year, but the tariff citrus fruits was San Francisco. Hand- is still too high. It is to be hoped that the ling our products from the early times, advent of a competing railroad, which we when the fruit had not been brought to a have in the Atlantic and Pacific,now estabhigh standard, and when the packing was lishing termini on this coast, will put uniformly bad, the San Francisco mer. quite a different face on the matter;—tha chants got into a way of slaughtering it, we shall soon have cheap access to all and the growers of Southern California available Eastern markets. One thing is were at their mercy. Now that our peo- certain: San Francisco cannot be relied ple are making an effort to establish a bet

on to furnish an outlet for our vast citrus ter order of things, they find their past bad productions, and the sooner our people record and the settled habits of the San establish their own commercial relations Franciscans against them. The metrop- with consuming markets the larger their olis of the State is therefore quite general- returns. ly voted an uncertain market. This has

AVOIDING THE TROUBLE OF PICKING, induced producers and jobbers within the PACKING AND SHIPPING.–Of late years, past two or three years to look eastward jobbing firms of wealth and experience for the disposal of their fruits. Arizona have come to the fore as purchasers of and New Mexico are our natural fields of

our citrus fruits, and the most common consumption and these have been fully practice among producers is to sell their supplied. Markets have been opened crops on the trees. They are thus relieved also in Denver, Kansas City, St. Louis, of all trouble and responsibility in the

nicago, Minneapolis, and some ship- premises, and realize more satisfactorily ments have been made as far as the At. than though they undertook the work lantic seaboard. Not all of these ship- themselves. The jobbers, well versed in ments have proven satisfactory. This the modus operandi of packing, shipping fact is not to be wondered at when we

and supplying the various markets, can consider that many of the shipments handle the fruit to much better advantage were pioneer efforts. Some of the ven

than individual producers. tures, however, were highly satisfactory. A Riverside shipper cites his experience

*NOTE.-The railroad company reduced the rate as follows:

on oranges last year (1884) to all points east of the “My oranges sold in San Francisco last Missouri river from $350 to $250 per carload; to season (1884) from $2 to $4 per box. At Tucson and Benson, A. T., to $225 per carload; to about the same time in Denver the same

Kansas City $200 per carload. The through rates

two years ago were as high as $600 per car. class of my seedling oranges (165 to the

difference in favor of orange growers is very large, box) sold for $7.83. Another gentleman being over $1 per box. This traffic is only in its who shipped to Denyer with me received inception. Each year it will increase, and with the for his very choice Riverside Navels, increase no doubt further reductions will occur.

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