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searching investigation, we offer the fol- California Eurekas were respectively 10.33. lowing suggestions as to causes:
and 10.43 per cent. “We are inclined to the belief that the “The average percentage of acid in stock has a great deal to do with the bit- three tests made of the imported lemons terness of the fruit. It is well known that gave 8.71 per cent., while that of nineteen the fruit of the Seedling Sicily lemon is, as tests of California budded lemons gave a rule, bitter, as grown in Southern Cali- 9.04 per cent. fornia, while the fruit grown from buds “It is a fact worthy of notice that the upon the sweet orange stock is generally fruits giving the highest percentage of more free from bitterness. Of the eleven acid were specimens from the lomon bud varieties marked as bitter in the foregoing upon orange stocks, showing the value of list, it will be seen that six are Seedlings, this stock for the lemon. four are budded on the lemon stock, and “From a careful analysis of the foregoonly one was on orange stock.
ing it will seem that the California bud“The condition of the fruit during ded lemon, properly grown and handled, growth will, to some extent, cause bitter is the equal in every respect of the imness of the rind. If checked in its growth ported lemon. Your committee is thereby lack or excess of moisture, or by cold, fore forced to the conclusion than its want bitterness will result.
of appreciation in the San Francisco mar“Sample No. 12 is an evidence of this, ket is due from two causes: as it is from a tree that last season pro- “First-Unjust prejudice against Caliduced fruit entirely free from bitternees, fornia lemons generally. while this season the fruit was not fully
“Second-Want of care in the producer, grown and was imperfect when picked. in packing and handling the fruit. [This sample tested above the general av- “ That the first is true to some extent, erage in percentage of citric acid.]
is shown by repeated shipments of budded “Again, we think that bitterness, like
lemons from Riverside to the Denver
market during the past winter, where any other quality, can be transmitted through budding, and hence, when bitter
they brought ten dollars per box; two dolfruit is found in successive years upon the
lars per box more than the best imported
lemons, while the same varietieties would orange stock, it is due to want of care in
be sold at San Francisco for two and four selecting stock to bud from.
dollars per box less than the imported "'It is found also that fruit from young lemon. It is fair to presume that the taste trees shows traces of bitterness that will
of consumers in Den ver is as highly culgradually be lost as the tree increases with
tivated in this respect as that of the same age. Occasionally this bitter principle ap
ciple ap- class in San Francisco. pears in the imported lemon, and it is pos
“Second-That there is deplorable caresible that it is found in foreign countries les
lessness in picking and handling this to the same extent as here, but that the
lemon is undoubtedly true, and to this period of picking and the curing pro
cause may be attributed much of the loss cess the fruit undergoes in the voyage that falls to individual producers, and to here, removes it.
the trade generally. A prominent fruit “ THIRD-PERCENTAGE OF ACIDITY.- grower of Riverside was in the city of San When freedom from bitterness is attained, Francisco a few weeks since, and saw in the relative value of the lemon for com- the warehouses of one of the largest commercial purposes will depend upon the mission mercbants there, a large nuinber percentage of acid it contains. In this re. of boxes of California lemons. Upon exspect the tests, as far as we were able to amination he found them of all sizes, colmake them, showed the superiority of the ors and shapes, tumbled into the boxes, Californian over the imported fruit. The without wrapping or care of any kind. highest percentage of the imported Messina The result was that they would either was 9.65 of acid, while that of the Califor have to be sold at a price that would nia Lisbon reached 10.53, and another of hardly pay freight and commission, or be the same species was 16.23, and two of the stored for some weeks and then sorted
and repacked, at considerable cost to the rather while a portion of the rind is green; owner, and possibly large loss of fruit store it for six or eight weeks in a cool,
“As an appendix to the above report, dry room, thorongbly ventilated, placing the committee would offer the following: the fruit in thin layers on shelves or hur
“RECOMMENDATIONS.-Discard all trees dies, where it can readily be examined that, after a fair and repeated trial, con- and picked over if necessary. tinue to show bitterness of fruit.
“Avoid moisture durivg the process of “Exercise great care in the selection of curing. Sort when ready for maket, makvarieties free from bitterness and rich in ing at least two sizes or qualities, and pack citric acid, from which to bud.
none but perfect specimens, wrapping “Use the Seedling orange as a stock up neatly in tissue paper, with the name of on which to bud, as the orange is a hardier the variety and producer printed upon the and healthier stock, and the lemon budded wrapper, as a guarantee of good faith in upon it is hardier than upon lemon stock. the shipper. “Keep your trees in a healthy, vigorous
“With these rules fully observed, we condition, especially during the fruiting
see no reason to doubt the prompt appreseason.
ciation of California budded lemons in “The Lisbon and Eureka lemons are so far the most promising varieties, being
every market, and a complete check given
to the importation of foreign lemons into productive, early bearing, of medium size,
California. line appearance, sweet rind and rich in acid.
L. M. HOLT, “As the lemon can be kept from six to
Thos. HENDRY, eight inonths after picking, if properly
H. J. RUDISILL, ? Com. handled and cured, and will improve
G. W. GARCELON,
L. C. WAITE. rather than lose in quality during that liine, pick the fruit before it is ripe, or
“W. N. MANN, Sec'y."
LEMONS--PROPAGATION AND CULTURE. Lemons are propagated in the same has proven an unreliable stock upon manner as oranges. It is necessary, which to bud the orange, as it exercisos therefore, to review the subject of propa. enough influence through the budded gatio, in this connection.
growth to render the fruit a bad orange From what has been said in the preced- and not a good lemon. The lemon stock ing chapter, the inference is plain that in mature trees is quite susceptible to there is little demand for seedling lemon gum disease, especially if much irrigated. trees. The only lemons worth cultivat- There is then no call for propagating leming are the choice budded varieties. Ex. on seed, except in the way of experiment. perience has demonstrated that the or. What has been said about rearing budange is a hardier stock than the lemon, ded orange trees in nursery applies equaland as it is believed that there is no dete ly to budded lemons, and almost the saine rioration of fruit by this conjunction, it has come to be a universal practice to
may be repeated through the whole categrow lemons on orange roots.* The lemon gory of planting the trees, cultivating,
pruning, freeing from insects, manuring *NOTE.-Dr. O. H. Congar, of Pasadena, a recog. nized authority on citrus culture, takes issue with
and rejuvenating when worn out. There this commonly accepted theory, claiming that the is in fact, the greatest similarity between lemon deteriorates in budding upon orange stock. He holds that enough of the orange characteristics these twin sisters in the citrus familyare incorporated to render the lemons of an ungain the orange and lemon. A novice would ly size and to lessen the degree of acidity. It is possible that further years of experiment may scarcely detect the difference in size and demonstrate that Dr. Congar is measurably correct, and, If so, lemons will be budded on lemon stocks only, and oranges on orange stocks.
there is an appreciable difference on close inspection. The wide divergence is man- perienced cultivators favor a low growth, ifested only in the fruit, and these are as they think that most nearly conforms probably not the only twin sisters that to the natural habit of the tree. This was have proven strangely sweet and sour. adverted to in the chapter on pruning.
In pruning lemcns some of our niost ex
BUDDED VARIETIES. As the budded varieties of lemons are thornless and an early bearer. Fruit alone commended, it is in order to give a good in all respects except acidity. Tests list of the kinds grown and a description show the amount of acid to vary so much of each. The list is scant, but it comprises that the fruit is not looked upon with some excellent varieties, any of which favor. would redeem the character of lemon cul- BONNIE BRAE.-This was originated by ture in California.
Mr. H. M. Higgins, of San Diego, from SWEET RIND.—This was the first im- imported seed. I consider it the handproved variety originated here as a seed- somest lemon grown in California. (See ling. It is a fair lemon, but is excelled by full description in succeeding chapter.). others since introduced.
Tree of average size, a strong grower, THE LISBON.-This was the first foreign quite thorny. . Fruit symmetrical, texture variety introduced,coming from Australia. the finest, rind thin, almost seedless, acid The tree is a strong grower, quite thorny, fair, and the juice possesses a peculiar not so early in bearing as other varieties. rich Havor. Fruit oblong, symmetrical, strong acid; OLIVIA.-Originated by Mr. Geo. C. more or less seeds; rind sweet and thin. Swan, of San Diego. Tree somewhat Acid rarely goes below 7 per cent, and fre- thorny, good bearer. The fruit is excelquently exceeds that standard.
lent, test showing 8.08 per cent citric acid. THE EUREKA.—This is a chance seed- GARCELON'S KNOBBY.-A variety origiling originated by Mr. C. R. Workman nated by Mr. G. W. Garcelon, of Riverand introduced by Mr. T. A. Garey in side, and not yet introduced for general 1877-8. The tree makes a vigorous growth, propagation. The fruit is small and peand is thornless. Fruit sharply pointed culiarly marked with a long spike at the at blossom end, fair in texture, seedless blossom end. This variety possesses adand sweet rind; acid the best.
vantages which may make it a favorite at GENOA.--Imported from Italy. Tree no distant day.
PREPARING FOR MARKET. The same general principles which ap- dering it soft and pliable, with a texture pay to the handling of oranges apply somewhat like a kid glove. Lemons to lemons. The fruit should be pick- cured in this way will keep a long time, ed when dry and stored for a period and are not susceptible to decay in transit during which it undergoes a sweating and as the result of close packing or bruising. curing process. In this way the excess of There is no secret about the curiny promoisture is evaporated from the skin, ren- cess. The lemons are merely spread out in thin layers in a dry, cool, well ventilat- sults. In our dry cliniate there is probaed place and left anywhere from ten days bly no better way to cure lemons than to to ten weeks, as suits the convenience of arrange them so that they have shade and the grower. As the lemon ripens in mid- a plenty of air. Dr. Congar advises winter, when there is little call for acid throwing the lemons in piles under the fruits, the advantages usually sought by trees and leaving them there ten days or the producer is io keep his fruit as long as two weeks, when he says they will be possible before putting it upon the market. most perfectly cured.
In Florida, where the atmosphere is The most advanced shippers grade their very humid, lemon producers have found lemons carefully and wrap them in papers it an adyantage in curing their fruit, to for shipment. The packing boxes emfumigate it with sulphur to destroy the ployed are the same as those used for orgerms of fungus. The process has been anges. tried here, but without satisfactory re
THE BONNIE BRAE LEMON. I wish to call this variety into promi. poorly packed for sbipment and delayed nent notice, both because I believe it to be on the road, they were dried out and dead one of the finest lemons yet grown in Cal. when they reached me. I made an effort ifornia, and because it is a stranger and to obtain others, but was too late, as Mr. needs an introduction. My attention was Higgins had parted with his entire refirst called to the Bonnie Brae by a plate maining stock, sending them to his brothof the fruit on exhibition in the Los An- er in Lower California. In lieu of trees, geles Citrus Fair of 1880. So different however, he forwarded to me some buds was this fruit from other varieties of lem- from the original tree. These I passed ons on display that people were at a loss over to a nurseryman and had them inwhether to class it as a lemon at all. The serted in orange stock. I was fortunate cut presented herewith, showing a group enough to obtain therefrom one hundred of Bonnie Brae lemons on a stem, is a cor- and twelve thrifty trees, which are now rect representation, taken from life. The growing on my place. fruit is from medium to small, somewhat Since my correspondence with Mr. Higoblong, more abruptly rounded at the gins began, I have obtained two samples: ends than ordinary lemons and possess- of these lemons-one in 1883 and one in ing only slight protuberances at the blos- 1884-and have subjected them to every som and stem ends. The texture of the test I could devise, with the most satisskin is as tine as a kid glove, and when factory results. The average size of the the lemon has seasoned a few days slight fruit is about eight inches in longitudinal longitudinal corrugations appear as shown circunference. The most notable features in the picture. The fruit is absolutely are its tine-textured skin, its bright color, beautiful to look upon.
and its unusual weight. Divided with a Various and repeated examinations have knife, the texture within is found to fulconvinced me that it is as good as it is fill the promise of the exterior. The rind handsome.
is not above a sixteenth of an inch in The Bonnie Brae was originated by Mr. thickness, and when the lemon has been H. M. Higgins, of San Diego, from for- allowed to season some time it reduces to eign seed. He contented himself, it seems, a mere wafer. The pulp is tender, meltwith budding a nursery of one hundred ing and brimful of juice of fair acid chartrees from the original stock, making no acter and rich flavor. The seeds, if any, great effort to introduce the variety to are few and small. In both years that I public attention. In 1883 I purchased tested the fruit I laid several lemons away three of the trees from him, but, being in a drawer, where they remained upwards of eight months. Instead of rot- hundred Bonnie Brae. Mr. Higgins obting, they dried down to veritable lemon tained his stock from the seeds of rotten mummies, and the dessicated pulp still lemons, all the best foreign varieties, hayleft a sharp acid taste on the tongue. ing been saved and shipped to him by a This experiment demonstrated to my fruit dealer in San Franciscus The Sicily satisfaction the keeping qualities of the lemons (we use the term in contradistincleinon.
tion to Bonnie Brae) are generally large,
GROUP OF BONNIE BRAE LEMONS. In answer to an inquiry from me as to thin skinned and juicy, and of a fine flavor. the origin of the Bonnie Brae, Mr. Hig- But the Bonnie Brae is superfine. There gins wrote, under date of August 14th, is as much difference beween it and the 1884, as follows:
ordinary lemon as there is between a com" I saved the seed of the Sicily lemon, mon bronco and a thoroughbred horse. and from that seed I obtained all varieties, Mr. Higgins can give no account of this from the commonest citron up to this fine superior variety beyond the fact that the lemon, which we named after the place, fruit first appeared on a solitary tree in his • Bonnie Brae. You cannot tell the tree orchard. This lemon is more oblong than by its looks from any other lemon tree the ordinary variety, has a smoother, thinin the grove. It is not a lime in any sense ner skin, is seedless, has a larger percentof the word."
age of juice and a richer flavor. This reIn the San Diego Union of March, 1882, markable lemon is called Bonnie Brae by I find quite a full description of Mr. Mr. Higgins, after the name of his orchard Higgins's farm, in which the following home. Such a fine specimen of the citrus occurs:
family has never been produced in any of “The lemon trees number about four the semi-tropic orchards of the world. It hundred-three hundred Sicily and one is an original product of San Diego coun