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ty, and testifies unmistakably to the su- riety, budded on orange stock. There is periority of the climate and soil of this no tendency to reversion, but, on tbe othlocality. The orchard now contains quite er hand, the fruit goes on steadily ima number of trees of the Bonnie Brae va- proving."

CHAPTFR VII.

THE LIME AND OTHER CITRUS FRUITS. The lime grows in Southern California to be stricken by frost, the lateral branches with the same culture as the orange and may be cut away, when the stocks will lemon. It is a dwarf tree or shrub, ac- put forth new growth and, in a year, the cording to training, and bears a small fruit hedge is itself again. about one-half or one-third the size of a Citrons are cultivated to a less extent lemon, and strongly acid.

even than linies. I may say, in fact, that The lime industry in California-if it they are only grown as curiosities. The may be thus, dignified—is in stutu quo. same may be said of the Pumalo orange Some years ago these trees were planted and Chinese lemon. All of these fruits to a considerable extent, but they proved are very large and thick skinned. When very susceptible to frost and were mostly utilized, the rind is the valuable part, the killed out. A grove of some size is to be pulp being either insipid or bitter. We found at the Sierra Madre Villa on the are all familiar with the citron of commesa, at an elevation of eighteen hundred merce, which :onsists of the rind of the feet above sea level. Here, being practi- citron fruit, deprived of its essential oil cally free from frost, the trees flourish and and cured as a preserve or confection. bear well.

A few years ago a firm in San Francisco No systematic effort has ever been made attempted the preparation of citron for to improve the quality of limes grown the trade, and, to this end, purchased all here. The Mexican product is superior to the citrons, Chinese lemons, and Pumalo ours, and being imported in large quanti- oranges that were available in our section ties, and at low prices, practically drives of the State. But we heard nothing furCalifornia limes out of the San Francisco ther from the venture, and it was probamarket. Enough of the fruit is produced bly a failure. There is no question, howin Southern California to supply local re- ever, but that, with the proper process, quirements, but there is at present no the citron of commerce might be manustimulus for further plantations.

factured from our fruit. Some people align their places with Meanwhile, the Pumalo and its congenlime trees which they trim close for a ers, when allowed growing space, continue hedge. Thus shortened in the limbs to load themselves down with fruit as thicken, making the foliage dense, and large as foot balls. They are natters of forming altogether a very pretty hedge- wonder, and that is all. The best citrus row. If, in a severe winter, they chance goods are done up in smaller parcels.

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APPENDIX. INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CITRUS TREES,

(FROM THE WORK OF HON. MATTHEW COOKE.]

AND HOW TO COMBAT THEM:

CHAPTER 1.

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO CITRUS TREES.
THE BLACK SCALE.

or so wounds the tree as to cause some

sticky exudation on which the fungus (Lecanium olev-Bernard.) Order, Hem

especially thrives. It is not denied iptera; sub-order, Homoptera; family,

that the growth of the fungus greatCoccido.

ly aggravates the trouble already [A dark brown hemispherical scale in- existing i

no existing by encasing the leaves, thus. sect, or bark-louse, which infests all va

preventing the action of the sunrieties of citrus trees, and nearly all

light. We only say that in seeking a varieties of deciduous fruit trees, and

remedy we are to look further back than many shrubs, vines, etc.)

the fungus, itself, to the insect, or whatThe black scale is more generally found

ever it may be, which has made the lux. in the orchards and gardens of California

uriant growth of the fungus possible. than any other species of the Coccidce.

The smut or fungus is found on the It infests the orange, lemon, lime, olive, branches, foliage and fruit of orange. apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, prune, lemon, lime and olive trees infested by cherry and pomegranate trees. In the the black scale. I have also seen apricots garden it infests the honeysuckle, chrys- and peaches, taken from trees infested by anthemum, rose, oleander, and many this i

by this insect, so thoroughly covered by this other plants; and this, or a closely allied or

smut that it destroyed their market value species, infests the forest trees. The pres

for canning purposes. ence of this species can be readily de

NATURAL HISTORY.-The black scale tected by the appearance on the branches,

when full grown is of a dark brown color, foliage and fruit of a black smut, known

nearly hemispherical in form, but is to scientists as Fumago salicina, and the

slightly longer than broad ; length, from cause of its production is a question upon

two to two and a half lines*; width, about which authorities differ. I am convinced,

two-thirds of the length; height, one and from practical investigation, and also from

one-half lines; there are two ridges or information received froin Mr. Alexander

bars across the body, apparently dividing Craw, and Mr. Wolfskill, of Los Angeles,

es, it into three parts, the middle being the and the late A. B. Clark, of Orange, Los

largest; a short ridge along the back joins Angeles county, that the black smut is

the two cross ridges, forming lines resencaused by a honeydew exuded by the

bling the letter H; the edge of the coverfemales of the black scale insect, in the

ing of the insect resting on the wood, stage of their life between the first forma

foliage, etc., is margined, and has a tion of the calcareous secretion by which

grooved or fluted appearance nearly onethe insect is covered, and their reaching

half the height of the insect. maturity or becoming fixed to any part of

The eggs are ovai in form; when first the plant.

laid, whitish; before hatching, a reddish In relation to this smut or fungus, Pro

yellow. From seventy-five to one hun. fessor Barlow writes : “The result of our

dred and seventy-five are deposited by examination of the diseased orange and

each female of this species. olive leaves is briefly as follows: The

The larva is one-seventy-fifth of an inch disease, although first attracting the eye

long; width, five-eighths of length; form, by the presence of the black fungus, is

oval; antennæ, six or seven jointed. From not caused by it, but rather by the attack

the time the secretions begin to form until of some insect which itself deposits some gummy substance on the leaf and bark, *A“ line" as here used is one-twelfth of an inch

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