Imagens das páginas

ty, and testifies unmistakably to the su- riety, budded on orange stock. There is

periority of the climate and soil of this no tendency to reversion, but, on the oth

locality. The orchard now contains quite er hand, the fruit goes on steadily im

e number of trees of ihe Bonnie Brae va- proving."



The lime grows in Southern California with the same culture as the orange and lemon. It is a dwarf tree or shrub, according to training, and bears a small fruit about one-half or one-third the size of a lemon, and strongly acid.

The lime industry in California—if it may be thus, dignified—is in statu quo. Some years ago these trees were planted to a considerable extent, but they proved very suscepti ble to frost and were mostly killed out. A grove of some size is to be found at the Sierra Madre Villa on the mesa, at an elevation of eighteen hundred feet above sea level. Here, being practically free from frost, the trees flourish and bear well.

No systematic effort has ever been made to improve the quality of limes grown here. The Mexican product is superior to ours, and being imported in large quantities, and at low prices, practically drives California limes out of the San Francisco market. Enough of the fruit is produced in Southern California to supply local requirements, but there is at present no stimulus for further plantations.

Some people align their places with lime trees which they trim close for a hedge. Thus shortened in the limbs thicken, making the foliage dense, and forming altogether a very pretty hedgerow. If, in a severe winter, they chance

to be stricken by frost, the lateral branches may be cut away, when the stocks will put forth new growth and, In a year, the hedge is itself again.

Citrons are cultivated to a less extent even than limes. I may say, in fact, that they are only grown as curiosities. The same may be said of the Pumalo ora»ge and Chinese lemon. All of these fruits are very large and thick skinned. When utilized, the rind is the valuable part, the pulp being either insipid or bitter. We are all familiar with the citron of commerce, which vonsists of the rind of the citron fruit, deprived of its essential oil and cured as a preserve or confection.

A few years ago a firm in San Francisco attempted the preparation of citron for the trade, and, to this end, purchased all the citrons, Chinese lemons, and Pumalo oranges that were available in our section of the State. But we heard nothing further from the venture, and it was probably a failure. There is no question, however, but that, with the proper process, the citron of commerce might be manufactured from our fruit.

Meanwhile, the Pumalo and its conveners, when allowed growing space, continue to load themselves down with fruit as large as foot balls. They are matters of wonder, and that is all. The best citrus goods are done up in smaller parcels.

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Insects Injurious To Citrus Trees,


And How To Combat Them.




(Lecanium olece—Bernard.) Order, Hem

iptera; sub-order, Homoptera; family,


[A dark brown hemispherical scale insect, or bark-louse, which infests all varieties of citrus trees, and nearly all varieties of deciduous fruit trees, and many shrubs, vines, etc.]

The black scale is more generally found in the orchards and gardens of California than any other species of the Coccidie.

It infests the orange, lemon, lime, olive, apple, pear, peach, apricot, plum, prune, cherry and pomegranate trees. In the garden it infests the honeysuckle, chrysanthemum, rose, oleander, and many other plants; and this, or a closely allied species, infests the forest trees. The presence of this species can be readily detected by the appearance on the branches, foliage and fruit of a black smut, known to scientists as Fumago saZictna, and the cause of its production is a question upon which authorities differ. I am convinced, from practical investigation, and also from information received from Mr. Alexander Craw, and Mr. Wolfskill, of Los Angeles, and the late A. B. Clark, of Orange, Los Angeles countv, that the black smut is caused by a honeydew exuded by the females of the black scale insect, in the stage of their life between the first formation of the calcareous secretion by which the insect is covered, and their reaching maturity or becoming fixed to any part of the plant.

In relation to this smut or fungus, Professor Barlow writes: "The result of our examination of the diseased orange and olive leaves is briefly as follows: The disease, although first attracting the eye by the presence of the black fungus, is not caused by it, but rather by the attack of some insect which itself deposits some gummy substance on the leaf and bark,

or so wounds the tree as to cause somesticky exudation on which the fungus especially thrives. It is not denied that the growth of the • fungus greatly aggravates the trouble already existing by encasing the leaves, thus preventing the action of the sunlight. We only say that in seeking a remedy we are to look further back than the fungus, itself, to the insect, or whatever it may be, which has made the luxuriant growth of the fungus possible.

The smut or fungus is found on the branches, foliage and fruit of orange, lemon, lime and olive trees infested by the black scale. I have also seen apricots and peaches, taken from trees infested bjthis insect, so thoroughly covered by this smut that it destroyed their market value for canning purposes.

Natural History.—The black scale when full grown is of a dark brown color, nearly hemispherical in form, but is slightly longer than broad; length, from two to two and a half lines*; width, about two-thirds of the length; height, one and one-half lines; there are two ridges or bars across the body, apparently dividing it into three parts, the middle being the largest; a short ridge along the back joins the two cross ridges, forming lines resembling the letter H; the edge of the covering of the insect resting on the wood, foliage, etc., is margined, and has a grooved or fluted appearance nearly onehalf the height of the insect.

The eggs are oval in form; when first laid, whitish; before hatching, a reddish yellow. From seventy-five to one hundred and seventy-five are deposited by each female of this species.

The larva is one-seventy-fifth of an inch long; width, five-eighths of length; form, oval; antennse, six or seven jointed. Prom the time the secretions begin to form until

*A " Hue" as here used is one-twelfth of an inch

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