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the insect has reached maturity, it assumes that the females of this species are vivipadifferent shades of color -- first, greenish rous. I have watched the female insect brown; half grown, reddish brown, and ovipositing, and immediately examined at maturity, dark brown.
the egg or sack under a microscope, using It is doubtful if there are more than one a high power, and could not detect any brood in each year. The first brood is appendages; however, in twenty - four hatched, in Sacramento, about the first of hours I noticed the presence of antenna May, but do not attempt to leave from un- and legs. The insect produces from iwo der the scale until the twelfth, yet it is to four of these eggs or sacks in twentyvery common to find thefemales of this four hours, and the number produced by species depositing their eggs late in Sep- each female is from twenty to forty-three; tember, but whether they are of the spring the latter is the highest number I have brood I am not prepared to say.
found. In relation to the length of time the le- In the month of September, 1882, I found caniums are capable of moving from one a lemon at an orchard in Los Angeles place to another, Mons. V. Signoret writes: county on which the larvæ of thirty-nine “Before pregnancy they have the power male scale insects had located around the to move, if necessary."
stem of the fruit, and as there was only
one matured scale on the lemon this was THE RED SCALE. (CAL.)
evidently the number produced by one (Aspidiotus aurentii-Maskell.) Synonym, female. Larva color, bright yellow; form,
Aspidiotus citrii - Comstock. Order, ovoid; length, one-eightieth of an inch; Hemiptera; sub - order, Homoptera; antenne, six jointed; anal setæ, present. family, ('occidee.
Female: color, light or primrose yellow [A circular reddish scale insect, infest- when the scale is formed, but as it reaches ing the citrus trees, and has been found maturity it becomes a brownish yellow. on grape-vines and the foliage of walnut The formation of the body is such that trees.]
under the scale, when examined with a The red scale infests some of the citrus lense, its appearance is that of a broken groves of Southern California, and orange ring, but when ovipositing the posterior trees in Sacramento and Marysville. It end of the abdomen extends beyond the has also been found on grape-vines and circular line of the body. The color of on the foliage of walnut trees, but I do the natural insect is shown through the not think that any damage will be done to nearly transparent scale from which it dethese plants by this pest. As the walnut rives its common name--Red Scale. sheds its foliage annually, the insects are Male: color of body, amber yellow, with likely to be destroyed; and those which I dark marking on thorax; eyes, black. have examined on the grape-vines in the Female red scale insect: color, yellow. month of September, and which appeared The young larvæ can be found at all seato be in a healthy condition, were dead sons of the year, and there are probably and shrunken when I examined the vines four or five broods in each year. in the month of February following.
THE RED SCALE OF FLORIDA. It is generally conceded that this species (Aspidiotus ficus-Riley, MSS.; Chrysomis an importation from Australia.
phalus ficus – Riley, MSS. Ashmead.) NATURAL HISTORY. – Female scale, Order, Hemiptera; sub-order, Homopnearly transparent, circular, of a light tera; family, Coccidæ. grayish color, and measures from one line
(A species of scale insect infesting the to one and one-quarter lines in diameter; branches, foliage and fruit of orange trees exuviæ or cast skin in center, yellowish; in Florida and the Island of Cuba.) second larval skin easily distinguished.
Professor Comstock describes this speMale scale, a little darker in color and cies as follows: “ Female Scale.- Color, smaller than the female scale; form, elon- the part of the scale covering the second gated; exuviæ nearest the anterior end. skin is a light reddish brown; the remain
Eggs.-It is thought by some writers der of the scale is much darker, varying
from a dark reddish brown to black, ex- (A scale insect infesting the branches, cepting the thin part of the margin, which foliage and fruit of citrus trees.] is gray; exui viæ nearly central, whitish in I have found this species on the orange fresh specimens; form, circular, one line tree in Sacramento, but have not found it in diameter. Male Scale. - The scale of in any other part of the State. the male is about one-fourth as large as The female scale is somewhat elongated that of the female; the posterior side is in form, but nearly circular, the exuvia prolonged into a thin flap, wbich is gray at one side of the center; color, grayish; un color. (See United States Agricultural exuviæ yellow, and generally oval in Report, 1880; and Ashmead on · Orange shape. Insects,' 1880."
The scale of the male is elongated and THE LEMON-PEEL SCALE. (CAL.)
narrow; color, dirty white, exuviæ at the
anterior end. Female — color, purplish, (Aspidiotus nerii- Bouche.) Order, Hem
with posterior end of the body yellowish, iptera; sub-order, Homoptera; family,
and is nearly as broad as long. Eggs(occide, (A whitish circular scale insect, infest
color, purplish; elongated; from nine to
twenty found under each female scale. ing the lemon, plum, cherry and currant;
Larva --- length, nearly one-nineteenth of also the oleander, acacia, magnolia, etc.]
an inch; color, purplish. Male - color, This species has been known to sci
dark purplish. entists as the “Oleander Scale," from
THE CITRUS LEAF AND FRUIT SCALE. which it derives its specific name, nerii.
(Mytilaspis citricola - Packard.) SynoWithin the last four or five years it has
nym, Aspidiotus citricola – Packard. been found on the lemon, plum, cherry
Order, Himiptera; sub-order, Homop. and currant; also on the acacia, magnolia, etc. It seems to prefer the fruit of the
tera; family, Coccidæ.
[An elongated, slightly curved scale inlemon, and in many cases infests the skin
sect, infesting citrus trees.) or peel to such an extent as to reduce its
This species of scale insect has not been market value. California cannot claim a
* found on any of the citrus trees in this sole proprietary right to this pest, as lem
State, so far as I know, but it will be ons imported from Europe are often offer
strange if it is not found in the near fued for sale in our market which are seri
ture. It is not a rare occurrence to find it ously infested by A. nerii.
on oranges, etc., which are iinported from NATURAL HISTORY.-The female scale is
Europe, Australia and Tahiti, and offered of a whitish color, and nearly circular,
for sale on fruit stands throughout the measures one line in diameter; exuviæ
State. or cast skin, yellowish, and near the cen
The scale of this species is similar in ter. Male scale, white, smaller and not as circular as that of the female. Egg,
form and appearance to that of the oyster
shell bark-louse, excepting that it may be light yellow. Larva, yellowish white;
a little wider at the posterior end. Length length, one-eighty-fifth of an inch. Fe
of female scale, about one and one-half male, light yellow, with darker blotches;
lines. The male scale is similar to other body, circular; abdominal segments ap
species of Mytilaspis in having a hingepear as a pointed projection at one part of
like joint, posterior to the middle of the the circle. Male insect, winged; body,
scale, so that by lifting the posterior part vellowish, with dark markings. The
up the perfect insect can emerge. Jemnon-peel scale insect closely resembles
THE SOFT ORANGE SCALE. (CAL.) the red scal, and it is only by the differ
(Lecanium hesperidum-Linnæus.) Order, ence in color that a person not thoroughly
Hemiptera; sub-order, Homoptera; famacquainted with the respective species can
ily, Coccidæ. distinguish them.
[An oval flattened scale insect, infesting PERGANDE'S ORANGE SCALE. (CAL.) citrus trees, especially the orange.] (Parlatoria pergandii—Comstock.) Order, The soft orange scale is found in Califor
Hemiptera; sub - order, Homoptera; nia in nearly every locality where citrus family, Coccidce.
trees are grown. It infests the wood, foli
age and fruit. This, or a closely-allied COTTONY CUSHION SCALE. (CAL.) species, is found on plants in hot-houses. (Icerya purchasi-Maskell.) Order, He
Professor Comstock, in his Entomolog- miptera; sub-order, Homoptera; family, ical Report of 1880, writes: “The male of Coccido. this species has never been found, al- [A white, cushion-like scale insect, feedthough it bas been studied from the time ing upon citrus trees, deciduous fruit trees, of Linnæus down."
forest trees and on some varieties of vegIn September, 1880, I prepared a dry
etables.] mounting of a specimen of Lecanium hes
This species of scale insect I consider peridum for microscopic use at the State
the most dangerous of any that infests Fair of that year.
fruit and other trees in California, as it Early in the week a small insect was noticed coming from un
may be said to be a general feeder. It is der a specimen beneath the glass, and
found on all varieties of citrus trees, definally released itself. It proved to be a
*ciduous fruit trees, on many varieties of male scale insect.
ornamental trees, forest trees and shrubs;
also on some varieties of vegetables. The NATURAL HISTORY.-Female-a broad,
apparent color of this scale insect at first oval scale, measuring from one and one
sight is white, with a dark colored head. quarter to one and one-half lines in length,
On examination it is found that the part widest at the posterior end; color, dark
indicated by the dark color is the insect, brown on top, and a lighter brown sur
and the white portion a bag or case spun rounding the margin. Two indeniations
by the insect to conceal her eggs when deon the margin on each side, and a large
posited. indentation on the posterior end. It has
The females, after ovipositing (the egg powers of locomotion similar to those of
case included), differ in size, some measother Lecaniums. I have not found the
uring six lines in length; but the general
ring egg of this species, but have found large length is from three to four lines; width. numbers of the young larvæ--- as many
one and one-half to three lines, and slightas forty - five under one specimen. The
ly tapering toward the posterior end. Each young larvæ appear about the first of female
female deposits from two hundred to five May in the vicinity of Sacramento. Larva hundred
a hundred eggs. In one instance I counted length, one-eighty-fifth of an inch; color, seven hundred and three. The eggs are dark or dirty yellow; antennæ, six jointed oblong-ovate in form, and of a pale red (some specimens appear to have seven color. joints); two anal setæ.
Larva — color, body red; antennæ, six DESCRIPTION. – Length of body, one- jointed, clubbed at the apex, on which are seventy-second of an inch; from front of six long hairs-color, smoky black; legs, head to apex of wing, one-twenty-fourth smoky black (the joints of the antennæ of an inch; · posterior stylets, one-forty- and legs are lighter in color than the bal. fifth of an inch, or one-half the length of ance); there are six long anal hairs; the body; color, body, iminaculate golden margin of the body and back is also dotyellow; eyes, dark or black; antennæ ted with hairs; length of body, one-thirty(from the peculiar position in which they fifth of an inch. are placed I can only count seven joints), The female insect during her growth golden yellow and hairy; legs, golden assumes a variety of colors; principally yellow.
yellowish red, with irregular blotches of As it did not agree with the description white, green and yellow. At full growth, of any of the male scale insects I had read and before spinning egg case, she is ovoid of, or specimen males of aurantii, perni- in form. The hairs on the anal margin ciosus, persece, rapax, roser or purchasi in and sides are used as spinarets, exuding my possession, I could only imagine that a cottony-like secretion, of which the egg it was the male of L. hesperidum (be what case is formed. During her growth, and it may, it came from under the L. hesper- before beginning to spin her egg case, the idum scale), and fortunately I preserved females exude a honeydew, which forms the mounting.
a black smut on the branches and foliage,
as described under the head, Black Scale. ter, will rise to the top, and while portions
Male insect, inged; color, thorax and of the tree will receive an overdose of body dark brown, abdomen red; antenna kerosene, other parts will get little else dark colored, with light brown hairs ex- than soap and water. The result will be tending from each joint; wings brown, unsatisfactory, for the coal oil must go irridescent.
with the soap to do effectual work in kill
ing the bug. TREATMENT FOR SCALE BUGS. (From the Bulletin of the Los Angeles Horticultu.
As soon as practicable after the first apral Commission.)
plication, proceed to cut back and thin out In all cases of infection from the white the tree, burning the brush as near the cottony cushion scale, it is recommended tree from which it is taken as possible that the trees be thoroughly sprayed pre without danger of injury to it. A large vious to any pruning. This plan is deem- canvas under the tree during the pruning ed the better one, because the danger of will, if carefully disinfected at the finish, scattering and spreading the insects is prove of considerable benefit. A band of much less than in the practice of cutting rope, thoroughly smeared with coal tar, back or thinning out the trees previous to about the trunk of the tree, first putting medicating. If properly and thoroughly a band of leather or thick cloth over which used this first application will kill a con- to tie the rope, will prevent the insect from siderable proportion of the bugs, many of ascending, and tend to indicate its presence which, if the trees were first pruned or and location for future treatment. Cases cut back, notwithstanding the use of great of ordinary infection can undoubtedly be caution and care in removing brush to the cured if the above is carried out faithfully fire, would fall to the ground and seek and to the very letter, and by keeping adjoining trees or plants for food and such close watch over the trees that the breeding spots.
reappearance of the bug is at once fol. Use for spraying white scale, 35 pounds lowed by an application of the spray, bewhale-oil soap, 4 gallons coal oil (110 fire fore any time has lapsed for breeding and test), to every 100 gallons of water. The spreading. In aggravated cases of infeccoal oil must be made into an emulsion tion, where the bug has a strong hold with the soap first, then add balance of upon the tree, topping, careful brush soap and water, in the following manner: burning and hand scrubbing must be reFirst, boil the soap in as little water as pos- sorted to. But even in such cases tbe use sible, as the soap must be thick to take up of the spray at first would much simplify the coal oil and make a proper emulsion. the work and lessen the danger of scatterWhen thoroughly dissolved and well boil- ing and spreading the scale bugs. It is ed, place five gallons of this hot soap in highly necessary to success that all weeds an empty barrel, some distance from the in the vicinity of infected trees should be boiling kettle, to prevent accident from carefully gathered up and burned. fire; then add coal oil and churn vigor- For the red scale, July and August are ously for about ten minutes, with a stick the best months to spray in, as they hatch with cross pieces about five inches wide during May and June. Use thirty-five at the end, forming a T. If the mixture pounds of soap and three gallons coal oil at this time turns to a thick cream, pour to every one hundred gallons of water. If in a little cold water-say two gallons- sprayed in September or October add five and churn again for a few moments; then poun
n pounds of soap.
The best months to spray for black add five or more gallons of water. Do not scale are September and October. They pour in water all at once, but a little at a hatch through July and August. Use time, and churn constantly while pouring thirty pounds soap and two and one-hall in the water. This mixture, when prop. ť
gallons coal oil to every one hundred gal
when props lons water. Thinning out and cutting erly emulsified, will form a whitish, away all surplus wood will do much tocreamy substance. The most particular wards relieving the trees from black scale. attention must be given to making the
the Care should be taken to strain the wash
through fine wire cloth, otherwise frequent emulsion properly, otherwise the oil, not stops will be necessary to clear the spray being incorporated with the soap and wa- nozzle.