Imagens das páginas


furnish a support. Mr. Tucker demonstrates clearly Bibliographical Notices. that the rise of the raw material necessarily induces a

decline in labor, since it requires a greater expenditure

of labor to produce the same return. By regarding (The Editor of the Messenger has opened a Review Department,

labor as unsettled, varying with the increase of populathrough which his subscribers will be presented with a prompt tion and other causes, he at once reconciles all the diffi. notice of the literary and scientific works, which are constantly culties which would appear to cluster about his views. issuing from our prolific press. Such as require a more elabo. We will give Professor Tuckerd own reasoning upon rate review, will be reserved for a subsequent number of the

this subject Messenger. Authors and publishers, who wish their works noticed in this Journal, are requested to forward them imme.

“Let us suppose the soil last taken in cultivation to yield at diately after their publication.]

the rate of eight bushels to the acre, that is, four bushels per acre to the laborer, and sour bushels as the profits of capital. This soil, according to the Ricardo theory, yields no rent; for

its produce barely repays the wages of the labor and the profils “The Principles of Political Economy. By Henry Vethake, of the capital expended in its cultivation. But population inLL. D. one of the Professors in the University of Pennsylva- creases, and there is a demand for more raw produce. Land then, nia; a Member of the American Philosophical Society, &c. they say, of yet inferior quality, must be resorted to; and this, Philadelphia: P. H. Nicklin & T. Johnson, Law-Booksellers.

we will suppose, to yield seven bushels per acre. Now it is clear that either the capital or the labor must put up with a

smaller return than before. If profits continue unchanged, and In every free government, political economy should receive four bushels as previously, then the laborer can receive constitute an essential part of education, for as the only three bushels, which would be a reduction of his wages, source of power and government is the people, there estimated in raw produce, of 25 per cent. But they say, the should be a diffusion of knowledge upon those great shown that this part of their theory is as erroneous as the rest ;

laborer must continue to receive his four bushels. It will be general laws, which constitute the foundation of its but admitting it for the present to be correct, how can labor be political institutions. A people thoroughly instructed said to fall, if it receives the same four bushels as before? Or if in the economy of government, may well be said to be now, or at any subsequent period, it is obliged to put up with a capable of self-government; while ignorance of the less portion than four bushels, how can it be said not to fall ? principles upon which is constructed a nation's prosto pay the wages of labor and the profits of capital, it is clear

But in truth, when eight bushels per acre was barely sufficient perity and power, must convulse and ultimately sub-thas land yielding only seven bushels per acre could not be culti. vert it. Professor Vethake has furnished an excellent vated ; and if the product of the last mentioned soil was required treatise upon this subject, in which he has briefly but for the support of additional numbers, it could be obtained only lucidly discussed the many interesting questions con

because labor and capital would fall to the smaller remunera. nected with the science of government. It should be tion of seven bushels; a result which, so far as labor is con

cerned, would naturally arise from the competition of increasing in the hands of every American.


“ It forms indeed one of the most remarkable instances of illo. gical reasoning which the annals of science can exhibit, that, when the rise of raw produce is inferred from the greater expense

of labor required in its production, the same rise of raw produce “ The Laws of Wages, Profit and Rent, investigated. By should be said to cause the rise in the price of labor, which is the

George Tucker, Professor of Moral Philosophy and Political same thing as saying that the fall of labor causes the rise of Economy in the University of Virginia. 1838.”

The political economist will take up this little treatise Professor Tucker has undoubtedly adopted the most with the full expectation of being amply remunerated philosophical and rational mode of explaining the effect for the time consumed in turning over its pages; for few of an increase or diminution in the price of produce have enjoyed so many and varied opportunities of col- upon the value of labor, and if we proceed on any other lecting information upon this subject as Professor principle, we lose the only means by which an examiTucker. In this expectation the reader will not be dis- nation can be conducted. There must be a standard of appointed, for the perspicuity, logical reasoning and valuation ; without it, it would be impossible to detersimplicity of illustration, will convince him that the mine whether the raw produce is stationary or variable. author is discussing a subject with which he is entirely As labor is the trading capital of the world, and in the familiar. The first division of the work is devoted to productions of the soil and of the ingenuity of man, is an able examination of the nature and value of labor, the great expenditure, it is of all others, the most uniand the manner in which it is influenced by the demand form standard, -the surest index of prices. for, or price of, the raw material ; establishing this im The same ability and ingenuity is brought to bear portant and interesting position, that the rise of the upon the other divisions of the work,—“ profits of raw produce, must in every instance, depress labor. capital,” and “rents." These subjects must, at all The professor clearly illustrates and triumphantly de- times, prove interesting themes for reflection with the fends this position, exposing, at the same time, the intelligent, but at none could they claim more attention absurdity of Ricardo's theory of wages, which presumes than the present, when the very foundations of our labor lo rise with the raw material. The error of Ri- nation's greatness are threatened by the maddening cardo's position seems to depend upon the assumption, spirit of political rancor and strife, which, regardless of that the quantity or value of material necessary to the welfare of our country, riots upon the trembling and support the laborer is determinate and uniform,—the lottering walls of our noblest institutions. necessary result of which, will be, that as the raw This treatise bears upon it the impress of a master material increases in value, there must be a correspond-mind, and will amply repay the reader for a calm and ing increase in the price of labor, or it would fail to deliberate perusa).



&c. 2 Vols. 1838."

“ Charcoal Sketches; or Scenes in a Metropolis. By Joseph decent portrait of our distinguished statesmen is the

C. Neal. With Illustrations by D. C. Johnson. Philadelphia : result of a single retrospect; but we sincerely trust E. L. Carey & A. Hart. 1839."

that the lapse of years, which wears away prejudice, Few American pens have contributed more to the will enable her, in future retrospections, to imbody an amusement of the public than that of Joseph C. Neal; honest sketch of the influence of our political and do. for his exquisite wit has travelled far and wide, and mestic institutions upon the prosperity and happiness engaged for itself a nook in almost every newspaper of our citizens. She lacks not materials, for at every throughout our land. •While it may be a fair subject step of her “Western Travels,” a free admission was for discussion, whether the style of writing selected by given her into the arcana of a self-governing and free Mr. Neal will secure him literary fame, or improve the people. The present work, with the exception of a few public taste, yet it must be conceded that his portrai. interesting sketches of character, is devoted to a tirade tures of the foibles and vices of man, while they excite against the institution of slavery; we say a tirade, for the risibles, will carry with them a moral of precious in no instance is the question argued upon the broad value.

principle of right or justice, or in reference to its pecuThe sketch of “the best natured man in the world,” liar adaptation to the agriculture or polity of thai diswill be recognized by many as an old acquaintance, and trict of our country in which it exists. The whole by not a few, as their domiciliary companion. The consists of an assemblage of what she saw and heard number of those who have not yet learned how to say no! in reference to slavery in the south, much distorted, with is by no means small in every large community, and if occasionally a sub-sentimental reflection upon the melan. the fate of Leniter Salix will but present before them a choly condition of the slave. Miss M. is an abolitionist view of the gloomy future, towards which they are by her own admission, and the following. extract will hastening, Mr. Neal will not have labored in vain. prove her an amalgamationist of the foulest kind, and We commend this little book to such of our readers therefore she can neither view the institution of slavery as may be in quest of amusement, and we doubt not, with an unprejudiced eye, nor descant rationally upon that they will be delighted with the skill of the marks- its ultimate influence upon the moral or political condiman, “shooting folly as it flies.”

tion of the United States.

"She turned round upon me with the question

whether I would not prevent, if I could, the marriage “Retrospect of Western Travel. By Harriet Martineau, author of a white person with a person of color.' I replied of “Society in America,” “Hlustrations of Political Economy,' that I would never, under any circumstances, try to sepa

rate persons who really loved, believing such to be truly This political savante has dismounted from the ram- those whom God had joined; but I observed that the pant pony she rode with Gilpin speed over this western case she put was not likely to happen, as I believed the world, and by a more staid and temperate gait begins blacks were no more disposed to marry the whites, to discover some glimmerings of rationality, civiliza- than the whites to marry the blacks. You are an tion and christianity, among a people whose only sin amalgamationist!' cried she. I told her that the against her, was an unbounded hospitality, amounting party term was new to me: but that she must give almost to servile attendance. “Society in America” what name she pleased to the principle I had declared is just such a return as our gullibility merits; for throw in answer to her question." about a well clad foreigner the title of Count, Earl, or We unhesitatingly say, that the intention of the what is more magical, a literary mantle, however thread-writer was to shape a new work for the British public, bare or worn out, and the whole press, from Maine to suited to its taste, and at the expense of our statesFlorida, prefaces his migratory movements, by Count men and institutions. It bears upon its front prejudice B. has arrived in our country, or the intelligent and and fanaticism ; and in catering for her countrymen, interesting Miss M. is expected to visit our city Miss M. has labored to conciliate one of the political during the next week. This amiable trait in our coun. parties of our country, by detracting from the political trymen, is the fruitful source of the abuse and denun- and private character of its opponents. We shall be ciation heaped upon us by a band of unprincipled greatly deceived if this attempt to secure the patronage scribblers, who, unaccustomed to a courteous notice by of an intelligent and high-minded political party be their aristocratic superiors at home, cannot appreciate successful. that spirit of courtesy and hospitality characteristic of No one who reads the Retrospect will recognize the every well regulated American community. These political economist in the credulous and prepossessed rich returns will, ere long, teach us the necessity of Lourist ; at one moment the slave of her own prejudices; circumspection, and he, who then panders for the cor at the next, the dupe of a fanatical sectional jealousy. rupt taste of an English rabble, or measures his veracity and conscience by pecuniary reward, will, Trollop

"A Voyage Round the World, including an Embassy to Musca like, be compelled to gather his “first impressions” of

and Siam, in 1835, 1936, and 1837. By W. S. W. Ruschen. “Society in America,” from the filthy and half-starved berger, M. D., Surgeon U. S. Navy, &c. &c. Philadelphia : creatures who have but recently been ejected from the Carey, Lea & Blanchard. 1838." poor-houses and prisons of his own “blest land." Dr. Ruschenberger deserves the sincere thanks of his

We are far from regarding Miss Martineau as having fellow countrymen for the highly entertaining history made the amende honorable, in her late "Retrospect of of his voyage round the world ; and we regret that we Western Travel.” It is true, that much of the vindic- have not time and room to extract largely, that we tive temper with which the first impressions were might afford the readers of the Messenger a part of the penned, has been softened down, and a more fair and I enjoyment we have experienced. Faithful narratives

of travels and voyages are emphatically the most useful Mr. Nicklin would have us believe, that the present and valuable productions of the press; for although system operates to the advantage of American authors they do not captivate our fancy by the brilliant crea- and the reading public. But the history of the past lions of genius, nor move the heart with "melting tales would teach us a different lesson. American authors of woe,” yet they bring us in juxta-position with the now, are at the mercy of the publishers, and grosser inhabitants of distant lands,-unfolding to us their ca- instances of injustice cannot be found than are dispabilities and resources, and exposing the physical and played in the purchase of manuscripts. The immense moral peculiarities of their inhabitants; we join hands number of interesting works of science, and general with the interesting traveller and accompany him in literature, which are yearly issued from the foreign rapid flight over the same scenes; and even those of press, bearing no copy-right protection in this country, us, who are tied down by the harassing pursuits of furnish ample materials to employ the American publife, become cosmopolites. We are rejoiced to see our lishers, and, as they are available without the cost of a intelligent officers turning their attention to letters, and dollar, they are naturally selected to the exclusion of are proud that while our gallant navy is defending the American productions. The result is, when an author honor of our flag, it is contributing to the general stock presents his manuscript, (the effect of a long and laboof knowledge, and securing to itself and country lite. rious application,) he is told that the vast influx of rary distinction.

foreign books, without cost, gives ample employment to

their capital, and they feel unwilling to take much risk “Remarks on Literary Property. By Philip H. Nicklin, A. M. in publishing a work, the reputation of the author of

Member of the American Philosophical Society; of the Ash- which, is not entirely established. A paltry sum hardly molean Society, Oxford ; and of the Natural History Socie- enough to pay him for the paper and ink consumed, ty, Hartford. Philadelphia : 1838.”

is forced upon the author, and thus closes a bargain Mr. Nicklin feels, thinks, and writes like a publisher belween an American author and publisher. and boookseller, and has, we think, made the best use But how differently would this transaction be conof the arguments in support of the great cause in which ducted, if the foreign author possessed the privilege of he has enlisted; which, when stripped of its wordy our copy-right? A bonus being required, the publisher dress, and exposed in its naked deformity, is, the emol would be compelled to use a suitable circumspection, ument of the bookseller, against the rights and fame of | in selecting works for re-publication, and without we the author; and involves the question, whether the admit that American talent and genius is inferior to author, whose nightly labors are frittering away his European, our authors would occasionally obtain the mental and corporeal powers, and inviting disease and just meed of approbation,-a preference over an imdeath, shall be possessed of a pittance, resulting from sported and inferior production. We hold it, then, as the sale of his own productions; or whether the cormo- the first step in redressing the wrongs of native writers, rant publisher, shall swallow all, to appease an insa- and expunging the oppressions of an unrestrained spirit iiable appetite for gain. This effort of a publisher to of speculation, which respects not the talent and labor snatch from intellectual labor its just, reward, is in


which it riots. keeping with the gross position of an ignorant rabble, Nor will its benefits be confined to native authors; that physical exertion is alone worthy of pecuniary it will extend to the community, and ere the lapse of compensation. We had hoped, for the honor of man

one year from the commencement of its operation, the kind, that our intelligent and enterprising publishers polluted streams which now flood the country, will be would not murmur nor raise the hand of opposition purged of their poison. The literature of the day will against an effort, (so liberal and worthy of an enlight- be exalted, and for the insipid and oftentimes senseless ened and free people,) to secure protection to those who effusions of a brainless author, will be substituted solid are contributing a toilsome life to the intellectual ad- works of science, or the effusions of a really creative rancement of the world, and are drawing from their and chastened fancy. Who would not pay a fraction rich and almost exhaustless imaginations, materials for more for such works ? its amusement. The claim is one of unquestioned It is a reflection upon the taste and intelligence of right, and admits of no debate ; it involves but two our country, that while foreign inventions and improvesimple christian axioms,-"The laborer is worthy of ments in the arts are protected by the patent laws, his hire,”—“Do unto others as you would they should intellectual labor-which knows no repose, and premado unto you."

turely wears away the springs of life-is neglected and Regarding the position of the distinguished chairman overlooked. Mr. Nicklin's arguments appear specious, of the committee, Hon. H. Clay, (to whom was referred and are lost upon us, strongly impressed as we are of the petition of foreign authors for the extension of the the justice and expediency of our national legislature copy-right protection to their productions,) as entirely responding favorably to the petitioners. just, that the republic of letters should be considered The style of the pamphlet is free, and would grace a one great community, co-extensive with civilization, we better cause, saving the air of pedantry in the introwould hail them denizens, admitted to equal rights with duction of an unnecessary number of Latin phrases our own literati. No legislative action could be more seldom illustrating the subject discussed. worthy of a free and intelligent nation than the exten. sion of the security asked ; and none would be received with greater enthusiasm by the authors of America, “ History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic. most of whom, to their credit, have united in this peti By Wm. H. Prescott. 3 Vols.—20 Edit. tion to guaranty to their trans-atlantic brethren their We will not anticipate the labors of the reviewer, in rightful possessions.

whose hands this work is placed, by a detailed account

Boston : 1839."


of its contents. We wish merely to welcome it among "A Visit to the Red Sulphur Springs of Virginia, during the us, and to promise the readers of the Messenger, a full

Summer of 1937; with Observations on the Waters. By Henry criticism of the manner in which Mr. Prescott has exe.

Hunit, M. D. 1838. cuted the task confided to him. At the mention of the Dr. Huntt has given us an interesting account of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, every American heart curative powers of the Red Sulphur water, in diseases will beat with emotion. It perhaps was never before of the lungs; and for the benefit of our readers who allowed to one individual, to be the actor in so many may feel an interest in this subject, we will briefly important scenes, as distinguished the career of Isabel- state, that in the cure of the incipient stage of phthisis la,“the magnanimous, intelligent and courageous, yet pulmonalis, or consumption, recognised by hemorrhage, effeminate Spanish queen. With her name is asso- attended with a quick pulse, cough and hectic ferer, ciated the conquest of Granada, the conquest of Na- the Red Sulphur Spring has established an unrivalled ples, the establishment of the modern inquisition, the reputation. In all the cases of this form, which came expulsion of the Jews, the revival of letters, the dis- under the notice of the Doctor, the patients were much covery and colonization of America. The excellent benefited and most of them restored. Dr. H. was himlaste with which this work has been brought forth, self attacked with hemoptysis and other symptoms indireflects great credit upon the skill of the American cating an approaching pulmonary disease of a formidaStationers' Company.

ble character. A residence of a few weeks, at the Red Sulphur, with the free use of the water, accomplished a

We earnestly trust that all who repair to this “The Spirit of the Age." An Address delivered before the two medicinal fountain may be effectually restored, and

Literary Societies of the University of North Carolina, by that subsequent experience will establish the fact, that Hon. Henry L. Pinckney. Published by the request of the from the mountains of Virginia issues the healing balm, Philanthropic Society. 1936.”

the antidote to that dire scourge which moves unmolesWe have just received a copy of the above able ted through our land, despoiling it of the fairest portion address, and, notwithstanding considerable time has of our race. elapsed since its delivery, we shall venture a word of approbation. It is a well written and logically arranged essay, and reflects great credit upon the acquirements and morality of its highly gifted author. His extensive research and classic taste, has thrown about HISTORICAL ERROR CORRECTED. the subject all the ornaments of a well stored mind; while the occasion—the separation of youthful friends

In the 3d volume of Jefferson's Correspondence, page 393, is

a letter from Mr. Jefferson to Colonel John Taylor of Caroline at the close of a scholastic life-lends a peculiar interest county, dated June 1, 1798, which contains the following pas. to his christian counsel; and we doubt not, that in after sage : years, the graduates of 1836, will look back with pride which gave me an opportunity of observing what you said as to

“Mr. New showed me your letter on the subject of the patent, and gratitude to the admonitor of their youth.

the effect with you of public proceedings, and that it was not unuise now to estimate the separate mass of Virginia and North Carolina, with a view to their separate existence." After which Mr. Jefferson proceeds to urge a variety of arguments

against a division of the states. “ Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the University of

As the biographer of Mr. Jefferson, I was induced to refer to Virginia. Session of 1837-38.”

this letter for the purpose of repelling one of the calumnes

against him, and in paying a merited tribute to his just and This deservedly popular institution of learning con- patriotic views on the value of the Union, some of my remarks tinues to sustain its claim upon the South, and notwith-exhibited Colonel Taylor in disadvantageous contrast. standing the distracted state of the monetary affairs of Jefferson's original letter with the published copy, that be bad

, our country, has its usual number of students. The in citing Colonel Taylor's language to Mr. New, said, "it was

not unusual now to estimate," instead of not "unuise,"' &c., by number of the present class is 230, and although 39 reason of which mistake, Colonel Taylor is made to express, as less than the last, is no evidence of a decline in the his own, sentiments which he merely attributed to others.

This error has been the subject of a recent correspondence scholastic or literary departments, but entirely refer- between Mrs. William P. Taylor, Mr. T. J. Randolph, and able to the changes which occurred in the medical de- myself, and it appears, on investigation, to have arisen from the

obscurity of the press-copy, from which this letter, in common partment. We have appended the number in each with the others of the published correspondence, was printed class for the last two sessions.

These press-copies, though in general quite legible and plain,

are occasionally so faint that they can be decyphered only by the 1836–37.- Whole number of matriculates, 269. An- aid of the adjoining words; and it so happens that the letter in cient Languages, 78; Modern Languages, 65; Mathe question is one of the most imperfect in the collection. matics, 135; Natural Philosophy, 110; Chemistry, 130; as my agency in giving it diffusion, it is proper for

me to declare Medicine, 55; Anatomy and Surgery, 61; Moral Phi- written, I should not have felt myself warranted in making those losophy, 48; Law, 55. Number of tickets taken, 743. references to Colonel Taylor's opinions to which I have adverted,

I cannot forbear to add, that since the mistake has occurred, ! 1837-38.—Whole number of matriculates, 230. An- rejoice in its detection, not only because the injustice to Colonel cient Languages, 68; Modern Languages, 71; Mathe- Taylor's memory may be thereby repaired, but also because the matics, 115; Natural Philosophy, 88; Chemistry, 78; ciple of our national policy on which I consider erery odber to Medicine, 32; Anatomy and Surgery, 32; Moral Phi- be more or less dependent.

GEORGE TUCKER, losophy, 80; Law, 67. Number of tickets taken, 631.

University of Virginia, March 19, 1528. The decline in several of the academic schools is compensated by the increase in others, so that in this notice should be inserted in the Enquirer, Whig and Nations?

If It is the wish of the parties concerned that the preceding, department of the University there is no material fall. Intelligencer. ing off.

• Life of Jefferson, II. p. 36, 37.

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