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stances of mitigation, and moments of vivid enjoyment, wants and sufferings of infancy, sickness, and old age. of which the more seemingly happy can scarcely con- Laborers too will be less skilful, and perform less ceive; though the lives of individuals be shortened, the work-enhancing the price of that sort of labor. The aggregate of existence is increased; even the various poor laws of England are an attempt—but an awkward forms of death accelerated by want, familiarized to the and empirical attempt to supply the place of that contemplation, like death to the soldier on the field of which we should suppose the feelings of every human balıle, may become scarcely more formidable, than heart would declare to be a natural obligation, that he what we are accustomed to regard as nature's ordinary who has received the benefit of the laborer's services outlets of existence. If we could perfectly analyze during his health and vigor, should maintain him when the enjoyments and sufferings of the most happy, and he becomes unable to provide for his own support. the most miserable man, we should perhaps be startled They answer their purpose, however, very imperfectly, to find the difference so much less than our previous im- and are unjustly, and unequally imposed. There is no pressions had led us to conceive. But it is not for us attempt to apportion the burden according to the beneto assume the province of omniscience. The particu- fit received and perhaps there could be done. This is lar theory of the author quoted, seems to be founded on one of the evils of their condition. an assumption of this sort--that there is a certain stage | In periods of commercial revulsion and distress, like in the progress, when there is a certain balance between the present, the distress, in countries of free labor, falls the demand for labor, and the supply of it, which is principally on the laborers. In those of slave labor, it more desirable than any other—when the territory is so falls almost exclusively on the employer. In the for thickly peopled that all cannot own land and cultivate mer, when a business becomes unprofitable, the employthe soil for themselves, but a portion will be compelled er dismisses his laborers or lowers their wages. But with to sell their labor to others; still leaving, however, the us, it is the very period at which we are least able to wages of labor high, and the laborer independent. It is dismiss our laborers; and if we would not suffer a fur. plain, however, that this would in like manner partake ther loss, we cannot reduce their wages. To receive of the good and the evil of other states of society. the benefit of the services of which they are capable, we There would be less of equality and less rudeness, than must provide for maintaining their health and vigor. in the early stages ; less civilization and less suffering, In point of fact, we know that this is accounted among than in the latter.
the necessary expenses of management. If the income It is the competition for employment, which is the of every planter of the southern states were permanentsource of this misery of society, that gives rise to all ex. ly reduced one half, or even much more than that, it cellence in art and knowledge. When the demand for would not take one jot from the support and comforts labor exceeds the supply, the services of the most ordi- of the slaves. And this can never be materially altered, narily qualified laborer will be eagerly retained. When until they shall become so unprofitable that slavethe supply begins to exceed, and competition is estab- ry must be of necessity abandoned. It is probable lished, higher and higher qualifications will be required, that the accumulation of individual wealth will cerer until at length, when it becomes very intense, none but be carried to quite so great an extent in a slave holding the most consummately skilful can be sure to be em-country, as in one of free labor ; but a consequence will ployed. Nothing but necessity can drive men to the be, that there will be less inequality and less suffering. exertions which are necessary so to qualify themselves. Servitude is the condition of civilization. It was deBut it is not in arts, merely mechanical alone, that this creed, when the command was given, “ be fruitful, and superior excellence will be required. It will be extend- multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it," and ed to every intellectual employment; and though this when it was added, “in the sweat of thy face shalt thou may not be the effect in the instance of every individual, eat bread.” And what human being shall arrogate to yet it will fix the habits and character of the society, himself the authority to pronounce that our form of it is and prescribe every where, and in every department, worse in itself, or more displeasing to God than that the highest possible standard of attainment.
which exists elsewhere? Shall it be said that the ser. But how is it that the existence of slavery as with us, vitude of other countries grows out of the exigency of will retard the evils of civilization ? Very obviously. their circumstances, and therefore society is not responIt is the intense competition of civilized life, that gives sible for it? But if we know that in the progress of rise to the excessive cheapness of labor, and the exces. things it is to come, would it not seem the part of wissive cheapness of labor, is the cause of the evils in dom and foresight, to make provision for it, and thereby, question. Slave labor can never be so cheap as what is if we can, mitigate the severity of its evils ? But the called free labor. Political economists have established fact is not so. Let any one who doubts, read the book as the natural standard of wages in a fully peopled to which I have several times referred, and he may be country, the value of the laborer's subsistence. I satisfied that it was forced upon us by the extremest exi. shall not stop to inquire into the precise truth of this gency of circumstances, in a struggle for very existence. proposition. It certainly approximates the truth. Without it, it is doubtful whether a white man would Where competition is intense, men will labor for a be now existing on this continent–certain, that if there bare subsistence, and less than a competent subsistence. were, they would be in a state of the utmost destitution, The employer of free laborers obtains their services weakness and misery. It was forced on us by necesduring the time of their health and vigor, without the sity, and further fastened upon us, by the superior aucharge of rearing them from infancy, or supporting thority of the mother country. I, for one, neither them in sickness or old age. This charge is imposed on deprecate nor resent the gift. Nor did we institute the employer of slave labor, who, therefore, pays higher slavery. The Africans brought to us had been, speak. wages, and cuts off the principal source of misery—theling in the general, slaves in their own country, and
only underwent a change of masters. In the countries | freeman. The change was made in subserviency to of Europe, and the states of our confederacy, in which the opinions and clamor of others, who were utterly inslavery has ceased to exist, it was abolished by positive competent to form an opinion on the subject; and a legislation. If the order of nature has been departed wise act is seldom the result of legislation in this spirit. from, and a forced and artificial state of things intro- From the fact which I have stated, it is plain that they duced, it has been, as the experience of all the world less need protection. Juries are, therefore, less wiling declares, by them and not by us.
to convict, and it may sometimes happen that the guilty That there are great evils in a society where slavery will escape all punishment. Security is one of the comexists, and that the institution is liable to great abuse, pensations of their humble position. We challenge the I have already said. To say otherwise, would be to comparison, that with us there have been fewer murders say that they were not human. But the whole of of slaves, than of parents, children, apprentices, and human life is a system of evils and compensations. Other murders, cruel and annatural, in societies where We have no reason to believe that the compensations slavery does not exist. with us are fewer, or smaller in proportion to the evils, But short of life or limb, various cruelties may be than those of any other condition of society. Tell me practised as the passions of the master may dictate. of an evil or abuse ; of an instance of cruelty, oppres. To this the same reply has been often given that they sion, licenciousness, crime or suffering, and I will point are secured by the master's interest. If the state of out, and often in five-fold degree, an equivalent evil or slavery is to exist at all, the master must have, and abuse in countries where slavery does not exist. ought to have, such power of punishment as will com
Let us examine without blenching, the actual and al. pel them to perform the duties of their station. And is leged evils of slavery, and the array of horrors which not this for their advantage as well as his ? No human many suppose to be its universal concomitants. It is being can be contented, who does not perform the dusaid that the slave is out of the protection of the law; ties of his station. Has the master any temptation to that if the law purports to protect him in life and limb, go beyond this? If he inflicts on him such punishment it is but imperfectly executed; that he is still subject to as will permanently impair his strength, he inflicts a excessive labor, degrading blows, or any other sort of loss on himself, and so if he requires of him excessive torture, which a master pampered and brutalized by labor. Compare the labor required of the slave, with the exercise of arbitrary power, may think proper to those of the free agricultural, or manufacturing laborer inflict; he is cut off from the opportunity of intellectual, in Europe, or even in the more thickly peopled portions moral, or religious improvement, and even positive of the non-slave holding states of our confederacyenactments are directed against his acquiring the rudi- though these last are no fair subjects of comparisonments of knowledge; he is cut off forever from the they enjoying, as I have said, in a great degree, the ad. hope of raising his condition in society, whatever may vantages of slavery along with those of an early and be his merit, talents, or virtues, and therefore deprived simple state of society. Read the English parliamenof the strongest incentive to useful and praiseworthy ex. lary reports, on the condition of the manufacturing oneertion; his physical degradation begels a corresponding ratives, and the children employed in factories. And moral degradation ; he is without moral principle, and such is the impotence of man to remedy the evils which addicted to the lowest vices, particularly theft and the condition of his existence has imposed on him, that falsehood; if marriage be not disallowed, it is little bet- it is much to be doubted whether the attempts by legis. ter than a state of concubinage, from which results genelation to improve their situation, will not aggravate its ral licentiousness, and the want of chastity among evils. They resort to this excessive labor as a choice females-this indeed is not protected by law, but is of evils. If so, the amount of their compensation will subject to the outrages of brutal lust; both sexes are be lessened also with the diminished labor; for this is a liable to have their dearest affections violated ; to be matter which legislation cannot regulate. Is it the sold like brutes; husbands to be torn from wives, chil- part of benevolence then to cut them off even from this dren from parents ;—this is the picture commonly pre- miserable liberty of choice? Yet would these evils exsented by the denouncers of slavery.
ist in the same degree, if the laborers were the property It is a somewhat singular fact, that when there exist of the master-having a direct interest in preserving ed in our state no law for punishing the murder of a their lives, their health and strength ? Who but a drislave, other than a pecuniary fine, there were, I will velling fanatic, has thought of the necessi:y of protectventure to say, at least ten murders of freemen, for one ing domestic animals from the cruelly of their owners ? murder of a slave. Yet it is supposed they are less And yet are not great and wanton cruelties practised on protected, or less secure than their masters. Why, they these animals ? Compare the whole of the cruelties inare protected by their very situation in society, and flicted on slaves throughout our southern country, with therefore less need the protection of law. With any those elsewhere, inflicted by ignorant and depraved por. other person than their master, it is hardly possible for lions of the community, on those whom the relations of them to come into such sort of collision as usually gives society put into their power-of brutal husbands on their rise to furious and revengeful passions; they offer no wives; of brutal parents—subdued against the strongest temptation to the marderer for gain ; against the mas- instincts of nature to that brutality by the extremity of ter himself, they have the security of his own interest, their misery-on their children ; of brutal masters on and by his superintendence and authority, they are apprentices. And if it should be asked, are not similar protected from the revengeful passions of each other. I cruelties infficted, and miseries endured in your society? am by no means sure that the cause of humanity has I answer in no comparable degree. The class in quesbeen served by the change in jurisprudence, which has tion are placed under the control of others, who are inplaced their murder on the same footing with that of al terested to restrain their excesses of cruelty or rage.
Wives are protected from their husbands, and children | taken to give any sanction to slavery as it exists in from their parents. And this is no inconsiderable com- America. Yet human nature is the same in all coun. pensation of the evils of our system ; and would so ap- ries. There are very obvious reasons why in those pear, if we could form any conception of the immense countries there should be a nearer approach to equality amount of misery which is elsewhere thus inflicted in their manners. The master and slave are often of The other class of society, more elevated in their po- cognate races, and therefore tend more to assimilate. sition, are also (speaking of course in the general) more There is in fact less inequality in mind and character, elevated in character, and more responsible to public where the master is but imperfectly civilized. Less opinion.
labor is exacted, because the master has fewer molives But besides the interest of their master, there is to accumulate. But is it an injury to a human being, another security against cruelty. The relation of mas- that regular, if not excessive labor should be required ter and slave, when there is no mischievous interference of him? The primeval curse, with the usual benignity between them, is, as the experience of all the world de- of providential contrivance, has been turned into the soclares, naturally one of kindness. As to the fact, we lace of an existence that would be niuch more intolerable should be held interested witnesses, but we appeal to without it. If they labor less, they are much more subuniversal nature. Is it not natural that a man should ject to the outrages of capricious passion. If it were be attatched to that which is his own, and which has put to the choice of any human being, would he prefer contributed to his convenience, his enjoyment, or his to be the slave of a civilized man, or of a barbarian or vanily? This is felt even towards animals, and inani- semi-barbarian ? But if the general tendency of the inmate objects. How much more towards a being of su- stitution in those countries is to create kindly relations, perior intelligence and usefulness, who can appreciate can it be imagined why it should operate differently in our feelings towards him, and return them? Is it not this? It is true, as suggested by President Dex-with natural that we should be interested in that which is the exception of the lies of close consanguinily, it forms dependant on us for protection and support? Do not one of the most intimate relations of society. And it men every where contract kind feelings towards their will be more and more so, the longer it continues to es. dependants ? Is it not natural that men should be more ist. The harshest features of slavery were created by attached to those whom they have long known—whom, those who were strangers to slavery–who supposed perhaps, they have reared or been associated with from that it consisted in keeping savages in subjection by infancy-than to one with whom their connexion has violence and terror. The severest laws to be found on been casual and temporary ? What is there in our al- our statute book, were enacted by such, and such are mosphere or institutions, to produce a perversion of the still found to be the severest masters. As society begeneral feelings of nature? To be sure, in this as in all comes settled, and the wandering habits of our country. other relations, there is frequent cause of offence or ex. men altered, there will be a larger and larger proportion citement-on one side, for some omission of duty, on of those who were reared by the owner, or derived to the other, on account of reproof or punishment inflicted. him from his ancestors, and who therefore will be more But this is common to the relation of parent and child; and more intimately regarded, as forming a portion of and I will venture to say that if punishment be justly his family. inflicted—and there is no templation to inflict it un It is true that the slave is driven to labor by stripes; justly—it is as little likely to occasion permanent es. and if the object of punishment be to produce obedience trangement or resentment as in that case. Slaves are or reformation, with the least permanent injury, it is perpetual children. It is not the common nature of the best method of punishment. But is it not intolera. man, unless it be depraved by his own misery, to de. ble, that a being formed in the image of his Maker, light in witnessing pain. It is more grateful to behold should be degraded by blows ? This is one of the percontented and cheerful beings, than sullen and wretched versions of mind and feeling, to which I shall have ones. That men are sometimes wayward, depraved occasion again to refer. Such punishment would be and brutal, we know. That atrocious and brutal cru degrading to a freeman, who had the thoughts and as. elties have been perpetrated on slaves, and on those who pirations of a freeman. In general it is not degrading were not slaves, by such wretches, we also know. But to a slave, nor is it felt to be so. The evil is the bodily that the institution of slavery has a natural tendency to pain. Is it degrading to a child ? Or if in any particuform such a character, that such crimes are more com- lar instance it would be so felt, it is sure not to be inmon, or more aggravated than in other states of society, flicted—unless in those rare cases which constitute the or produce among us less surprise and horror, we ut- startling and eccentric evils, from which no society is terly deny, and challenge the comparison. Indeed Iexempt, and against which no institutions of society have little hesitation in saying, that if full evidence can provide. could be obtained, the comparison would result in our The slave is cut off from the means of intellectual, moral favor, and that the tendency of slavery is rather to hu- and religious improvement, and in consequence his more! manize than to brutalize.
character becomes depraved, and he addicted to degrading The accounts of travellers in oriental countries, give vices. The slave receives such instruction as qualifies a very favorable representation of the kindly relations him to discharge the duties of his particular station. which exist between the master and slave; the latter The Creator did not intend that every individual buman being often the friend, and sometimes the heir of the for being should be highly cultivated, morally and intellecmer. Generally, however, especially if they be Eng-tually, for as we have seen, he has imposed conditions lish travellers--if they say any thing which may seem on society which would render this impossible. There to give a favorable complexion to slavery, they think it must be general mediocrity, or the highest cultivation necessary to enter their protest, that they shall not be must exist along with ignorance, vice, and degradation.
But is there in the aggregate of society, less opportunity | sion is defective, and the employment is lo them an for intellectual and moral cultivation, on account of the unusual and laborious one. There are but very few existence of slavery? We must estimate institutions who do not enjoy other means, more effeclual for relifrom their aggregate of good or evil. I refer to the gious instruction. There is no place of worship opened views which I have before expressed to this society. It for the white population, from which they are excluded. is by the existence of slavery, exempting so large a I believe it a mistake, to say that the instructions there portion of our citizens from the necessity of bodily given are not adapted to their comprehension, or calculabor, that we have a greater proportion than any other lated to improve them. If they are given as they people, who have leisure for intellectual pursuits, and ought to be practically, and without pretension, and the means of attaining a liberal education. If we throw are such as are generally intelligible to the free part of away this opportunity, we shall be morally responsible the audience, comprehending all grades of intellectual for the neglect or abuse of our advantages, and shall capacity, they will not be unintelligible to slaves. I most unquestionably pay the penalty. But the blame doubt whether this be not better than instruction, ad. will rest on ourselves, and not on the character of our dressed specially to themselves-which they might look institutions.
upon as a device of the master's, to make them more I add further, notwithstanding that equality seems to obedient and profitable to himself. Their minds, genebe the passion of the day, if, as Providence has evidently rally, shew a strong religious tendency, and they are decreed, there can be but a certain portion of intellec- fond of assuming the office of religious instructers lo tual excellence in any community, it is better that it each other; and perhaps their religious notions are not should be unequally divided. It is better that a part much more extravagant than those of a large portion should be fully, and highly cultivated, and the rest utter of the free population of our country. I am not sure ly ignorant. To constitute a society, a variety of offices that there is a much smaller proportion of them, than must be discharged, from those requiring but the lowest of the free population, who make some sort of religious degree of intellectual power, to those requiring the very profession. It is certainly the master's interest that they highest, and it should seem that the endowments ought should have proper religious sentiments, and if he fails to be apportioned according to the exigencies of the in his duty towards them, we may be sure that the consituation. In the course of human affairs, there arise sequences will be visited not upon them, but upon him. difficulties which can only be comprehended, or sur If there were any chance of their elevating their mounted by the strongest native power of intellect, rank and condition in society, it might be matter of strengthened by the most assiduous exercise, and en- hardship, that they should be debarred those rudiments riched with the most extended knowledge—and even of knowledge which open the way to further attainthese are sometimes found inadequate to the exigency. ments. But this they know cannot be, and that further The first want of society is-leaders. Who shall esti- attainments would be useless to them. Of the evil of mate the value to Athens, of Solon, Aristides, Themis- this, I shall speak hereafter. A knowledge of reading, tocles, Cymon, or Pericles? If society have not leaders writing, and the elements of arithmetic, is convenient qualified as I have said, they will have those who will and important to the free laborer, who is the transactor lead them blindly to their loss and ruin. Men of no of his own affairs, and the guardian of his own integreat native power of intellect, and of imperfect and resis—but of what use would they be to the slave ? su perficial knowledge, are the most mischievous of all — These alone do not elevate the mind or character, if none are so busy, meddling, confident, presumptuous, such elevation were desirable. and intolerant. The whole of society receives the If we estimate their morals according to that which benefit of the exertions of a mind of extraordinary should be the standard of a free man's morality, then I endowments. Of all communities, one of the least di- grant they are degraded in morals—though by no means sirable, would be that in which imperfect, superficial, to the extent which those who are unacquainted with half-education should be universal. The first care of the institution seem to suppose. We justly suppose, a state which regards its own safety, prosperity and that the Creator will require of man, the performance honor, should be, that when minds of extraordinary of the duties of the station in which his providence has power appear, to whatever department of knowledge, placed him, and the cultivation of the virtues which art or science, their exertions may be directed, the are adapted to their performance; that he will make means should be provided of their most consummate allowance for all imperfection of knowledge, and the cultivation. Next to this, that education should be as absence of the usual helps and motives which lead widely extended as possible.
10 self-correction and improvement. The degradation Odium has been cast upon our legislation, on account of morals relates principally to loose notions of honesty, of its forbidding the clements of education to be com- leading to petty thefts; lo falsehood and to licentious municated to slaves. But in truth what injury is done intercourse between the sexes. Though with respect to them by this ? He who works during the day with even to these, 1 protest against the opinion which seems his hands, does not read in intervals of leisure for his to be elsewhere entertained, that they are universal, or amusement, or the improvement of his mind-or the that slaves, in respect to them, might not well bear a exceptions are so very rare, as scarcely to need the comparison with the lowest laborious class of other being provided for. Of the many slaves whom I have countries. But certainly there is much dishonesty leadknown capable of reading, I have never known one to ing lo petty thefts. It leads, however, to nothing else. read any thing but the Bible, and this task they imposed They have no contracts or dealings which might be a on themselves as matter of duty. Of all methods of temptation to fraud, nor do I know that their characters religious instruction, however, this, of reading for them have any tendency that way. They are restrained by selves, would be the most inefficient—their comprehen- the constant, vigilant, and interested superintendence
which is exercised over them, from the commission of law from the outrages of violence. I answer, as with offences of greater magnitude-even if they were dis- respect to their lives, that they are protected by manposed to them—which I am satisfied they are not. ners, and their position. Who ever heard of such outNothing is so rarely heard of, as an atrocious crime rages being offered ? At least as seldom, I will venture committed by a slave; especially since they have worn to say, as in other communities of different forms of off the savage character which their progenitors brought polity. One reason doubtless may be, that often there with them from Africa. Their offences are confined is do disposition to resist. Another reason also may be, to petty depredations, principally for the gratification that there is little templation to such violence, as there of their appetites, and chese for reasons already given, is so large a proportion of this class of females who set are chiefly confined to the property of their owner, little value on chastity, and afford easy gratification to which is most exposed to them. They could make no the passions of men. It might be supposed, from the use of a considerable booty, if they should obtain it. representations of some writers, that a slave holding It is plain that this is a less evil to society in its conse country were one wide stew for the indulgence of quences and example, than if committed by a freeman, unbridled lust. Particular instances of intemperate and who is master of his owo time and actions. With refe shameless debauchery are related, which may perhaps rence to society then, the offence is less in itself—and be true, and it is left to be inferred that this is the unimay we not hope that it is less in the sight of God. Aversal state of manners. Brutes and shameless de. slave has no hope that by a course of integrity, he can bauchees there are in every country; we know that if materially elevate his condition in society, nor can bis such things are related as general or characteristic, the offence materially depress it, or affect his nieans of representation is false. Who would argue from the support, or that of his family. Compared to the free existence of a Col. Chartres in England, or of some man, he has no character to establish or to lose. He individuals who might, perhaps, be named in other porhas not been exercised to self-government, and being lions of this country, of the horrid dissoluteness of without intellectual resources, can less resist the solici- manners occasioned by the want of the institution of tations of appetite. Theft in a freeman is a crime; in slavery. Yet the argument might be urged quite as a slave, it is a vice. I recollect to have heard it said, in fairly, and it really seems to me with a little more jusreference to some question of a slave's theft which was lice—for there such depravily is attended with much agitated in a court, “courts of justice have no more to more pernicious consequences. Yet let us not deny or do with a slave's stealing, than with bis lying—that is extenuate the truth. It is true that in this respect the a matter for the domestic forum.” It was truly said morals of this class are very loose, (by no means so the theft of a slave is no oflence against society. Com. universally so as is often supposed,) and that the pas. pare all the evils resulting from this, with the enormous sions of men of the superior caste, tempt and find gratiamount of vice, crime and depravity, which in an Euro- fication in the easy chastity of the females. This is pean, or one of our northern cities, disgusts the moral evil, and to be remedied, if we can do so, without the feelings, and render life and property insecure. So with introduction of greater evil. But evil is incident to respect to his falsehood. I have never heard or observ. every condition of society, and as I have said, we
we have ed, that slaves have any peculiar proclivity to false- only to consider in which institution it most predomihood, unless it be in denying, or concealing their own offences, or those of their fellows. I have never heard Compare these prostitutes of our country, (if it is not of falsehood told by a slave for a malicious purpose. injustice to call them so,) and their condition with those Lies of vanity are sometimes told, as among the weak of other countries—the seventy thousand prostitutes of and ignorant of other conditions. Falsehood is not London, or of Paris, or the ten thousand of New York, attributed to an individual charged with an offence be. or our other northern cities. Take the picture given of fore a court of justice, who pleads not guilty—and cer- the first, from the author whom I have before quoted. tainly the strong temptation to escape punishment, in “The laws and customs of England, conspire io sink the highest degree extenuates, if it does not excuse, this class of English women into a state of vice and mifalsehood told by a slave. If the object be to screen a
sery, below that which necessarily belongs to their fellow slave, the act bears some semblance of fidelity,
condition. Hence, their extreme degradation, their and perhaps truth could not be told without breach of troopers' oaths, their love of gin, their desperate reekconfidence. I know not how 10 characterize the false. lessness, and the shortness of their miserable lives." hood of a slave.
“English women of this class, or rather girls, for fes I: has often been said by the denouncers of slavery,
of them live to be women, die like sheep with the rol; that marriage does not exist among slaves. It is diffi.
so fast that soon there would be none left, if a fresh cult to understand this, unless wilful falsehood were But a fresh supply is always obtained without the least
supply were not obtained equal to the number of deaths. intended. We know that marriages are contracted ; trouble : seduction casily keeps pace with prostiiutica may be, and often are, solemnized with the forms usual or mortality. Those that die, are, like factory children among other classes of society, and often faithfully ad- that die, instantly succeeded by new competitors for hered to during life. The law has not provided for misery and death." There is no hour of a summer's or making those marriages indissoluble, nor could it do so.
a winter's night, in which there may not be found in If a man abandons his wife, being without property, the streets a ghastly wretch expiring under the double and being both property themselves, he cannot be re tortures of disease and famine. Though less aggrava. quired to maintain her. If he abandons his wife, and ted in its features, the picture of prostitution in New lives in a state of concubinage with another, the law York or Philadelphia would be of like character. cannot punish him for bigamy. It may perhaps be In such communities, the unmarried woman who meant that the chastity of wives is not protected by I becomes a mother, is an outcast from society-and