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personal slavery. And those who are not, are in a wealth-so laudable when kept within proper limits, so scarcely less deplorable condition of political slavery, to base and mischievous when it exceeds them—so infecbarbarous chiefs—who value neither life nor any other tious in its example-an infection to which I fear we human right-or enthralled by priests to the most abject have been too much exposed-should be pursued by no and atrocious superstitions. Take the following testi- arts in any degree equivocal, or at any risk of injustice mony of one of the few disinterested observers, who to others. So surely as there is a just and wise goverhas had an opportunity of observing them in both situ- nor of the universe, who punishes the sins of nations ations.* “The wild savage is the child of passion, un- and communities, as well as of individuals, so surely aided by one ray of religion or morality to direct his shall we suffer punishment, if we are indifferent to that course; in
consequence of which his existence is stained moral and intellectual cultivation of which the means with every crime that can debase human nature to a are furnished to us, and to which we are called and level with the brute creation. Who can say that the incited by our situation. slaves in our colonies are such? Are they not, by com I would to Heaven I could express, as I feel
, the conparison with their still savage brethren, enlightened viction how necessary this cultivation is, not only to beings? Is not the West Indian negro, therefore, our prosperity and consideration, but to our safety and greatly indebted to his master for making him what he very existence. We, the slave holding States, are in is—for having raised him from the state of debasement a hopeless minority in our own confederated republic, in which he was born, and placed him in a scale of civi- to say nothing of the great confederacy of civilized lized society? How can he repay him? He is pos- States. It is admitted, I believe, not only by slave sessed of nothing—the only return in his power is his holders, but by others, that we have sent to our comservitude. The man who has seen the wild African, mon councils more than our due share of talent, high roaming in his native woods, and the well fed, happy character and eloquence. Yet in spite of all these most looking negro of the West Indies, may, perhaps, be able strenuously exerted, measures have been sometimes to judge of their comparative happiness: the former I adopted which we believed to be dangerous and injustrongly suspect would be glad to change his state of rious to us, and threatening to be fatal. What would boasted freedom, starvation and disease, to become the be our situation, if, instead of these, we were only re• slave of sinners, and the commiseration of saints.” Il presented by ignorant and grovelling men, incapable of was a useful and beneficent work, approaching the raising their views beyond a job or perty office, and heroic, to tame the wild horse, and subdue him to the incapable of commanding hearing or consideration ? use of man; how much more to tame the nobler animal May I be permitted to advert-by no means invidi. that is capable of reason, and subdue him to usefulness ? ously-to the late contest carried on by South Carolina
We believe that the tendency of slavery is to elevate against federal authority, and so happily terminated the character of the master. No doubt the character by the moderation which prevailed in our public coun: especially of youth-has sometimes received a taint cils ? I have often reflected, what one circumstance, and premature knowledge of vice, from the contact and more than any other, contributed to the successful issue association with ignorant and servile beings of gross of a contest, apparently so hopeless, in which one weak manners and morals. Yet still we believe that the and divided State was arrayed against the whole force entire tendency is to inspire disgust and aversion to- of the confederacy-unsustained, and uncountenanced, wards their peculiar vices. It was not without a know even by those who had a common interest with her. It ledge of nature, that the Spartans exhibited the vices of seemed to me to be, that we had for leaders an unusual slaves by way of negative example to their children. number of men of great intellectual power, co-operating We flatter ourselves that the view of this degradation, cordially and in good faith, and commanding respect and mitigated as it is, has the effect of making probity more confidence at home and abroad, by elevated and honorstrict, the pride of character more high, the sense of able character. It was from these that we-the folhonor more strong, than is commonly found where this lowers at home-caught hope and confidence in the institution does not exist. Whatever may be the pre- gloomiest aspect of our affairs. These, by their elovailing faults or vices of the masters of slaves, they quence and the largeness of their views, at least shook have not commonly been understood to be those of dis- the faith of the dominant majority in the wisdom and honesty, cowardice, meanness or falsehood. And so jusiice of their measures-or the practicability of carry, most unquestionably it ought to be. Our institutions ing them into successful effect, and by their bearing and would indeed be intolerable in the sight of God and well known character, satisfied them that South Caroman, if, condemning one portion of society to hopeless lina would do all that she had pledged herself to do. ignorance and comparative degradation, they should Without these, how different might have been the result? make no atonement by elevating the other class by And who shall say what at this day would have been higher virtues, and more liberal attainments-if, besides the aspect of the now flourishing fields and cities of degraded slaves, there should be ignorant, ignoble, and South Carolina ? Or rather without these, it is probadegraded freemen. There is a broad and well marked ble the contest would never have been begun; but that line, beyond which no slavish vice should be regarded without even the animation of a struggle, we should with the least toleration or allowance. One class is have sunk silently into a hopeless and degrading sub cut off from all interest in the State-that abstraction jection. While I have memory-in the extremity of so potent to the feelings of a generous nature. The age-in sickness under all the reverses and calamities other must make compensation by increased assiduity of life-I shall have one source of pride and consolation and devotion to its honor and welfare. The love of that of having been associated-according to my hum
* Journal of an officer employed in the expedition, under the bler position—with the noble spirits who slood prepared command of Capt. Owen, on the western coast of Africa, 1822. to devote themselves for Liberty-the Constitution
the Union. May such character and such talent, never condition with respect to female virtue. Here, there is be wanting to South Carolina.
that certain and marked line, above which there is no I am sure that it is unnecessary to say to an assem- toleration or allowance for any approach to license of bly like this, that the conduct of the master to his slave manners or conduct, and she who falls below it, will should be distinguished by the utmost humanity. That fall far below even the slave. How many will incur we should indeed regard them as wards and dependants this penalty? on our kindness, for whose well being in every way we And permit me to say that this elevation of the female are deeply responsible. This is no less the dictate of character is no less important and essential to us, than wisdom and just policy, than of right feeling. It is the moral and intellectual cultivation of the other sex. wise with respect to the services to be expected from It would indeed be intolerable, if, when one class of so. them. I have never heard of an owner whose conduct ciety is necessarily degraded in this respect, no compenin their management was distinguished by undue seve- sation were made by the superior elevation and purity of rily, whose slaves were not in a great degree worthless the other. Not only essential purity of conduct, but the to him. A cheerful and kindly demeanor, with the ex utmost purity of manners, and I will add, though it may pression of interest in themselves and their affairs, is, incur the formidable charge of affectation or prudery, perhaps, calculated to have a better effect on them, than a greater severity of decorum than is required elsewhat might be esteemed more substantial favors and where, is necessary among us. Always should be indulgencies. Throughout nature, attachment is the strenuously resisted the attempts which have been reward of attachment. It is wise too in relation to the sometimes made to introduce among us the freedom of civilized world around us, to avoid giving occasion to foreign or European, and especially of continental manthe odium which is so industriously excited against ners. This freedom, the remotest in the world from ourselves and our institutions. For this reason, public that which sometimes springs from simplicity of man. opinion should, if possible, bear even more strongly and ners, is calculated and commonly intended to confound indignantly than it does at present, on masters who the outward distinctions of virtue and vice. It is to practise any wanton cruelty on their slaves. The mis- prepare the way for licentiousness-to produce this creant who is guilty of this, not only violates the law effect--that if those who are clothed with the outward of God and of humanity, but as far as in him lies, by color and garb of vice, may be well received by society, bringing odium upon, endangers the institutions of his those who are actually guilty may hope to be so too. It country, and the safety of his countrymen. He casts may be said, that there is often perfect purity where a shade upon the character of every individual of his there is very great freedom of manners. And, I have fellow-citizens, and does every one of them a personal no doubt, this may be true in particular instances, but injury. So of him who indulges in any odious excess it is never true of any society in which this is the geneof intemperate or licentious passion. It is detached ral state of manners. What guards can there be to instances of this sort, of which the existence is, per- purity, when every thing that may possibly be done inhaps, hardly known among ourselves, that, collected nocently, is habitually practised; when there can be no with pertinacious and malevolent industry, afford the impropriety which is not vice? And what must be the most formidable weapons to the mischievous zealots, depth of the depravily when there is a departure from who array them as being characteristic of our general that which they admit as principle ? Besides, things manners and state of society.
which may perhaps be practised innocently where they I would by no means be understood to intimate, that are familiar, produce a moral dilaceration in the course a vigorous, as well as just government, should not be of their being introduced where they are new. Let us exercised over slaves. This is part of our duty towards say, we will not have the manners of South Carolina them, no less obligatory than any other duty, and no changed. less necessary towards their well being than to ours. I have before said that free labor is cheaper than the I believe that at least as much injury has been done labor of slaves, and so far as it is so, the condition of and suffering inflicted by weak and injudicious indul- the free laborer is worse. But I think President Dew gence, as by inordinate severity. He whose business is has sufficiently shown that this is only true of northern to labor, should be made to labor, and that with due countries. It is matter of familiar remark that the tendiligence, and should be vigorously restrained from ex- dency of warm climates is to relax the human constitucess or vice. This is no less necessary to his happiness lion and indispose to labor. The earth yields abunthan to his usefulness. The master who neglects this, dantly—in some regions almost spontaneously-under not only makes his slaves unprofitable to himself, but the influence of the sun, and the means of supporting discontented and wretched—a nuisance to his neighbors life are obtained with but slight exertion : and men and to society.
will use no greater exertion than is necessary to the I have said that the tendency of our institution is to purpose. This very luxuriance of vegetation, where no elevate the female character, as well as that of the other cause concurs, renders the air less salubrious, and other sex, and for similar reasons. In other states of even when positive malady does not exist, the health society, there is no well defined limit to separate virtue is habitually impaired. Indolence renders the constituand vice. There are degrees of vice from the most flation more liable to these effects of the atmosphere, and grant and odious, to that which scarcely incurs the these again aggravate the indolence. Nothing but the
censure of society. Many individuals occupy an une. coercion of slavery can overcome the repugnance to quivocal position ; and as society becomes accustomed labor under these circumstances, and by subduing the to this, there will be a less peremptory requirement of soil, improve and render wholesome the climate. purity in female manners and conduct; and often the Icis worthy of remark that there does not now exist on whole of the society will be in a tainted and uncertain the face of the earth, a people in a tropical climate, or
one approaching to it, where slavery does not exist, that soil; rolled the tide of conquest, not as in later times, is in a state of high civilization, or exhibits the energies from the south to the north ; extended their laws and which mark the progress towards it. Mexico and the their civilization, and created them lords of the earth. South American republics,* starting on their new career of independence, and having gone through a farce
“What conflux issuing forth or entering in;
Prætors, pro.consuls to their provinces, of abolishing slavery, are rapidly degenerating, even
Hasting, or on return in robes of state. from semi-barbarism. The only portion of the South
Lictors and rods, the ensigns of their power, American continent which seems to be making any fa Legions and cohorts, turms of horse and wings : vorable progress, in spite of a weak and arbitrary civil
Or embassies from regions far remote,
In various habits, on the Appian road, government, is Brazil, in which slavery has been retain
Or on th' Emilian; some from fartherest south, ed. Cuba, of the same race with the continental re
Syene, and where the shadow both way falls, publics, is daily and rapidly advancing in industry and Meroe, Nilotic isle, and more to West, civilization ; and this is owing exclusively to her slaves. The realms of Bacchus to the Blackmoor sea; St. Domingo is struck out of the map of civilized
From th’ Asian kings, and Parthian among these ;
From India and the golden Chersonese, existence, and the British West Indies will shortly be
And utmost Indian isle, Taprobane, On the other continent, Spain and Portugal are
Dusk faces, with white silken turbans wreathed; degenerate, and their rapid progress is downward. From Gallia, Gades and the British West; Their southern coast is infested by disease, arising from Germans, and Scythians, and Sarmatians, North causes which industry might readily overcome, but that
Beyond Danubius to the Tauric Pool !
All nations now to Rome obedience pay." industry they will never exert. Greece is still barbarous and scantily peopled. The work of an English Such was and such is the picture of Italy. Greece physician, distinguished by strong sense and power of presents a contrast not less striking. What is the observation,t gives a most affecting picture of the con cause of the great change? Many causes, no doubi, dition of Italy—especially south of the Appennines. have occurred; but though With the decay of industry, the climate has degenerated towards the condition from which it was first
“War, famine, pestilence, and flood and fire
Have dealt upon the seven-billed city's pride,” rescued by the labor of slaves. There is poison in every man's veins, affecting the very springs of life, I will venture to say that nothing has dealt upon it dulling or extinguishing, with the energies of the body, more heavily than the loss of domestic slavery. Is not all energy of mind, and often exhibiting itself in the this evident ? If they had slaves, with an energetic civil most appalling forms of disease. From year to year government, would the deadly miasma be permitted to the pestilential atmosphere creeps forward, narrowing overspread the Campagna and invade Rome herself? the circles within which it is possible to sustain human Would not the soil be cultivated, and the wastes relife. With disease and misery, industry still more claimed ? A late traveller* mentions a canal, cut for rapidly decays, and if the process goes on, it seems miles through rock and mountain, for the purpose of that Italy too will soon be ready for another experi- carrying off the waters of the lake of Celano, on which ment in colonization.
thirty thousand Roman slaves were employed for eleren Yet once it was not so, when Italy was possessed by years, and which remains almost perfect to the present the masters of slaves; when Rome contained her mil. day. This, the government of Naples was ten years lions, and Italy was a garden ; when their iron energies in repairing with an hundred workmen. The imper. of body corresponded with the energies of mind which ishable works of Rome which remain to the present made them conquerors in every climatc and on every day, were for the most part executed by slaves. How
different would be the condition of Naples, if for her * The author of England and America thus speaks of the Co. wretched lazzaroni were substituted negro slaves, emlombian republic:
“During some years, this colony has been an independent ployed in rendering productive the plains whose fertility state ; but the people dispersed over those vast and fertile plains, now serves only to infect the air ! have almost ceased to cultivate the good land at their disposal ; To us, on whom this institution is fastened, and who they subsist principally, many of them entirely, on the flesh of could not shake it off, even if we desired to do so, the wild cattle; they have lost most of the arts of civilized life a few of them are in a state of deplorable misery; and if they great republics of antiquity offer instruction of inestishould continue, as it seems probable they will, to retrograde as
mable value. They teach us that slavery is compatible at present, the beautiful pampas of Buenos Ayres will soon be with the freedom, stability and long duration of civil fit for another experiment in colonization. Slaves, black or government, with denseness of population, great power, yellow, would have cultivated those plains, would have kept and the highest civilization. And in what respect iogether, would have been made to assist each other ; would, does this modern Europe, which claims to give opinions by keeping together and assisting each other, have raised a sur. plus produce exchangeable in distant markets; would have to the world, so far excel them-notwithstanding the kept their masters together for the sake of markets; would, by immense advantages of the christian religion and the combination of labor, have preserved among their masters the discovery of the art of printing? They are not more arts and habits of civilized life." Yet this writer, the whole free, nor have performed more glorious actions, nor dispractical effect of whose work, whatever he may have thought or intended, is to show the absolute necessity, and immense be played more exalted virtue. In the higher departments nefits of slavery, finds it necessary to add, I suppose, in deser. of intellect-in all that relates to taste and imaginaence to the general sentiment of his countrymen, “ that slavery tion—they will hardly venture to claim equality. might have done all this, seems not more plain, than that so Where they have gone beyond them in the results of much good would have been bought too dear, if its price had mechanical philosophy, or discoveries which contribute been slavery." Well may we say that the word makes men
* Eight days in the Abruzzi.-Blackwood's Magazine, Norem. 1 Johnson on Change of Air.
to the wants and enjoyments of physical life, they have tions, which demand all and more than all the labor done so by the help of means with which they were which our country can supply. Are these regions of furnished by the Grecian mind—the mother of civiliza- fertility to be abandoned at once and forever to the tion-and only pursued a little further the track which alligator and tortoise—with here and there perhaps a that had already pointed out. In the development of miserable, shivering, crouching free black savage ? intellectual power, they will hardly bear comparison. Does not the finger of heaven itself seem to point to a Those noble republics in the pride of their strength and race of mennot to be enslaved by us but already engreatness, may have anticipated for themselves as slaved, and who will be in every way benefitted by the some of their poets did for them--an everlasting duration change of masters--to whom such climate is not unconand predominance. But they could not have antici- genial, who though disposed to indolence are yet patient pated, that when they had fallen under barbarous arms, and capable of labor; on whose whole features, mind that when arts and civilization were lost, and the whole and character, nature has indelibly written—slave;earth involved in darkness-the first light should break and indicate that we should avail ourselves of these in from their tombs—that in a renewed world, unconnect- fulfilling the first great command to subdue and replened with them by ties of locality, language or descent, ish the earth ? they should still be held the models of all that is profound It is true that this labor will be dearer than that of in science, or elegant in literature,-all that is great in northern countries, where under the name of freedom, character, or elevated in imagination. And perhaps they obtain cheaper and perhaps better slaves. Yet when England herself, who now leads the war with it is the best we can have, and this too has its compenwhich we are on all sides threatened, shall have fulfil sation. We see it compensated at present by the supeled her mission, and like the other glorious things of the rior value of our agricultural products
. And this suearth, shall have passed away; when she shall have perior value they must probably always have. The diffused her noble race and noble language, her laws, southern climate admits of a greater variety of producher literature and her civilization, over all quarters of the tions. Whatever is produced in northern climates, the earth, and shall perhaps be overrun by some northern same thing, or something equivalent, may be produced hordesunk into an ignoble and anarchical democra- in the southern. But the northern have no equivalent cy,* or subdued to the dominion of some Cæsar,- for the products of southern climates. The conse, demagogue and despot,—then, in southern regions, quence will be, that the products of southern regions there may be found many republics, triumphing in will be demanded all over the civilized world. The Grecian arts and civilization, and worthy of British agricultural products of northern regions are chiefly for descent and Roman institutions.
their own consumption. They must therefore apply If after a time, when the mind and almost the memo- themselves to the manufacturing of articles of luxury, ry of the republic were lost, Romans degenerated, they elegance, convenience or necessity,--which requires furnish conclusive evidence that this was owing not to cheap labor-for the purpose of exchanging them with their domestic, but to their political slavery. The their southern neighbors. Thus nature herself indicates same thing is obseryed over all the eastern monarchies; that agriculture should be the predominating employand so it must be, wherever property is insecure; and ment in southern countries, and manufactures in northit is dangerous for a man to raise himself to such emi- ern. Commerce is necessary to both—but less indispennence, by intellectual or moral excellence, as would sable to the southern, which produce within themselves give him influence over his society. So it is in Egypt, a greater variety of things desirable to life. They will and the other regions bordering the Mediterranean, therefore have somewhat less of the commercial spirit. which once comprehended the civilization of the world; We must avail ourselves of such labor as we can comwhere Carthage, Tyre and Phænecia flourished. In mand. The slave must labor and is inured to it; while short, the uncontradicted experience of the world is, the necessity of energy in his government, of watchfulthat in southern States where good government and ness, and of preparation and power to suppress insurpredial and domestic slavery are found, there are pros- rection, added to the moral force derived from the habit perity and greatness; where either of these conditions of command, may help to prevent the degeneracy of is wanting, degeneracy and barbarism. The former the master. however is equally essential in all climates and under The task of keeping down insurrection is commonly all institutions. And can we suppose it to be the supposed, by those who are strangers to our institutions, design of the Creator, that these regions, constituting to be a very formidable one. Even among ourselves, half of the earth's surface, and the more fertile half, and accustomed as we have been to take our opinions on more capable of sustaining life, should be abandoned this as on every other subject, ready formed from those forever to depopulation and barbarism? Certain it is whom we regarded as instructors, in the teeth of our that they will never be reclaimed by the labor of free- own observation and experience ; fears have been enmen. In our own country, look at the lower valley of tertained which are absolutely ludicrous. We have the Mississippi
, which is capable of being made a far been supposed to be nightly reposing over a mine, greater Egypt. In our own State, there are extensive which may at any instant explode to our destruction. tracts of the most fertile soil, which are capable of be- The first thought of a foreigner sojourning in one of ing made to swarm with life. These are at present our cities, who is awakened by any nightly alarm, is of pestilential swamps, and valueless, because there is servile insurrection and massacre. Yet if any thing is abundance of other fertile soil in more favorable situa- certain in human affairs, it is certain and from the most *I do not use the word democracy in the Athenian sense,
obvious considerations, that we are more secure in this to describe the government in which the slave and his master respect than any civilized and fully peopled society have an equal voice in public affaira.
upon the face of the earth. In every such society,
there is a much larger proportion than with us, of per-| especially when unfavorably distinguished by outward sons who have more to gain than to lose by the over- circumstances, is not ready to give credit when he is throw of government, and the embroiling of social cold that he is the victim of injustice and oppression ? order. It is in such a state of things that those who in effect, if not in terms, they have been continually were before at the bottom of society, rise to the surface. exhorted to insurrection. The master has been painted From causes already considered, they are peculiarly a criminal, tyrant and robber, justly obnoxious to the apt to consider their sufferings the result of injustice vengeance of God and man, and they have been asand misgovernment, and to be rancorous and embittered sured of the countenance and sympathy, if not of the accordingly. They have every excitement therefore of active assistance of all the rest of the world. We ourresentful passion, and every templation which the hope selves have in some mensure pleaded guilty to the imof increased opulence, or power or consideration can peachment. It is not long since a great majority of hold out, to urge them to innovation and revolt. Sup- our free population, servile to the opinions of those posing the same disposition to exist in equal degree whose opinions they had been accustomed to follow, among our slaves, what are their comparative means or would have admitted slavery to be a great evil, unjost prospect of gratifying it? The poor of other countries and indefensible in principle, and only to be vindicated are called free. They have, at least, no one interested by the stern necessity which was imposed upon us. to exercise a daily and nightly superintendence and Thus stimulated by every motive and passion which control over their conduct and actions. Emissaries of ordinarily actuate human beings—not as to a criminal their class may traverse, unchecked, every portion of enterprise, but as to something generous and heroicthe country, for the purpose of organizing insurrection. what has been the result ? A few imbecile and uncomFrom their greater intelligence, they have greater means bined plots--in every instance detected before they of communicating with each other. They may procure broke out into action, and which perhaps if undetected and secrete arms. It is not alone the ignorant, or those would never have broken into action. One or two who are commonly called the poor, that will be tempted sudden, unpremeditated attempts, frantic in their cha. to revolution. There will be many disappointed men, racter, if not prompted by actual insanity, and these and men of desperate fortune-men perhaps of talent and instantly crushed. As it is, we are not less assured of daring-to combine with them and direct their energies. safety, order and internal peace, than any other people; Even those in the higher ranks of society, who contem- and but for the pertinacious and fanatical agitation of plate no such result, will contribute to it, by declaiming the subject, would be much more so. on their hardships and rights.
This experience of security, however, should admoWith us, it is almost physically impossible, that there nish us of the folly and wickedness of those who have should be any very extensive combination among the sometimes taken upon themselves to supersede the reslaves. It is absolutely impossible that they should gular course of law, and by rash and violent acts to procure and conceal efficient arms. Their emissaries punish supposed disturbers of the peace of society. traversing the country, would carry their commission This can admit of no justification or palliation what. on their foreheads. If we suppose among them an in- ever. Burke I think somewhere remarks something to dividual of sufficient talent and energy to qualify him this effect,--that when society is in the last stage of for a revolutionary leader, he could not be so exten- depravity-when all parties are alike corrupt, and alike sively known as to command the confidence, which wicked and unjustifiable in their measures and objects, would be necessary to enable him to combine and di- a good man may content himself with standing neuter, rect them. Of the class of freemen, there would be a sad and disheartened spectator of the conflict between no individual so poor or degraded (with the exception the rival vices. But are we in this wretched condition ? perhaps of here and there a reckless and desperate It is fearful to see with what avidity the worst and most outlaw and felon) who would not have much to lose by dangerous characters of society seize on the occasion of the success of such an attempt; every one therefore obtaining the countenance of better men, for the purwould be vigilant and active to detect and suppress it. pose of throwing off the restraints of the law. It is Of all impossible things, one of the most impossible always these who are most zealous and forward in would be a successful insurrection of our slaves, ori- constituting themselves the protectors of the public ginating with themselves.
peace. To such men-men without reputation or prinAttempts at insurrection have indeed been made- ciple, or stake in society-disorder is the natural ele. excited, as we believe, by the agitation of the aboli- ment. In that, desperate fortunes and the want of all tionists and declaimers on slavery ; but these have been moral principle and moral feeling constitute power. in every instance promptly suppressed. We fear not They are eager to avenge themselves upon society. to compare the riots, disorder, revolt and bloodshed Anarchy is not so much the absence of government as which have been committed in our own, with those of the government of the worst-not aristocracy but any other civilized communities, during the same lapse kakistocracy-a state of things, which to the honor of of time. And let it be observed under what extraordi- our nature, has seldom obtained amongst men, and nary circumstances our peace has been preserved. For which perhaps was only fully exemplified during the the last half century, one half of our population has worst times of the French revolution, when that horrid been admonished in terms the most calculated to mad- hell burnt with its most lurid fame. In such a stale of den and excite, that they are the victims of the most things, to be accused is to be condemned-to protect grinding and cruel injustice and oppression. We know the innocent is to be guilty; and what perhaps is the that these exhortations continually reach them, through worst effect, even men of better nature, to whom their a thousand channels which we cannot detect, as if own deeds are abhorrent, are goaded by terror to be carried by the birds of the air-and what human being, forward and emulous in deeds of guilt and violence.