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Who can calculate in how many of those critical junctures when there never was a moment when greater improvements were 10 affairs of weightiest import hang upon the issue of an hour, be expected : and this for the very reason that so much has Prudence and Forecast have triumphed over blind Casually, by already been done,.--that truth, in its nature, is at once boundbeing enabled to measure with precision the flight of time, in iis less and creative,.--and that every existing art, invention, and smallest subdivisions! Is it not something more than mere me. discovery, is but an instrument of further improvement. Even chanism, which watches with us by the sick-bed of some dear when any particular art or machine seems to have reached the friend, through the livelong solitude of night, enables us to highest attainable point of excellence, nothing is more likely than count, in the slackening pulse, nature's trembling steps toward that it will, by some wholly unexpected discovery or improve. recovery, and to administer the prescribed remedy at the pre- ment, be greatly advanced; or that, by accidental or natural cise, perhaps the critical, moment of its application? By means association, it will lead to some other very important improve. of a watch, punctuality in all his duties, - which, in its perfec-ment in a branch of art wholly dissimilar ; or, finally, ihat it tion, is one of the incommunicable attributes of Deity,--is will be superseded by something quite different, but producing brought, in no mean measure, within the reach of man. He is the same result. Take, as an example, the art of printing. Tho enabled, if he will be guided by this half-rational machine, crea simple process of printing with moveable types, and a press ture of a day as he is, to imitáte that sublime precision which moved by hand, does not seem, in the lapse of four hundred leads the earth, after a circuit of five hundred millions of miles, years, to have undergone any very material improvement; but back to the solstice at the appointed moment, without the loss of the introduction of solid plates, and the application of artificial one second, no, not the millionth part of a second, for the ages power to the press, are improvements wholly disconnected, in on ages during which it has travelled that empyreal road.* their nature, from the art oi printing, and yet adding incalculaWhat a miracle of art, that a man can teach a few brass wheels, bly to its efficacy and operative power. In a word, che products and a little piece of elastic steel, to out-calculate himself; to of art are the creations of rational mind, working with intelligive him a rational answer to one of the most important ques. gent and diversified energy, in a thousand directions ;---bound. iions which a being travelling toward eternity can ask! What a ing from the material to the moral world, and back from specumiracle, that a man can put within this little machine a spiritt lation to life ; producing the most wonderful effects on moral that measures the flight of time with greater accuracy than the and social relations by material means, and again, in an improunassisted intellect of the profoundest philosopher; which | ved political and moral condition, finding instruments and en. watches and moves when sleer palsies alike the hand of the couragement for new improvements in mechanical art. In this maker and the mind of the contriver, nay, when the last sleep mighty action and reaction, we are continually borne on to rehas come over thein both! I saw the other day, at Stockbridge, sulis the most surprising. Physical and moral causes and effects the watch which was worn on the sth of September, 1755, by produce moral and physical effects and causes, and every thing the unfortunate Baron Dieskau, who received his mortal wound discovered tends to the discovery of something yet unknown. It on that day, near Lake George, at the head of his army or rarely, perhaps never, happens that any diecovery or invention French and Indians, on the breaking out of the seven years' is wholly original; as rarely, that it is final. As some portion of war. This watch, which marked the fierce, severish moments its elements lay in previously existing ideas, so it will waken of the battle as calmly as it has done the fourscore years which new conceptions in the inventive mind. The most novel mecha. have since elapsed, is still going; but the watch-maker and nical contrivance contains within itself much that was known baron have now for more than three-fourths of a century been before ; and the most seemingly perfect invention-..if we may gone where time is no longer counted. Frederic the Great was judge the future by the past.--admils of further improvements. another and a vastly more important personage of the same For this reason, the more that is known, discovered and conwar. His watch was carried away from Potsdam by Napoleon, trived, the ampler the materials out of which new discoveries, who, on his rock in mid-ocean, was wont lo ponder on the inventions, and improvements, may be expected. hours of alternate disaster and triumph, which filled up the life “ Perfect as the steam engine seems, it is a general persuasion of his great fellow.destroyer, and had been equally counted on that we are in the rudiments of its economical uses. The prodi. its dial-plate. The courtiers used to say, that this watch stop. gious advances made in the arts of locomotion, teach nothing ped of its own accord, when Frederic died. Short-sighted adu. more clearly, than the probability that they will be rendered sation! for if it stopped at his death, as is time was no longer vastly more efficient. The circulation of ideas by means of the worth measuring, it was soon put in motion, and went on, as if press is probably destined to undergo great enlargement. Ananothing had happened. Portable watches were probably intro- lytical chemistry has, within the last thirty years, acquired in. duced into England in the time of Shakspeare; and he puts one struments which enable the philosopher to unlock mysteries of into the hand of his fantastic jester, as the text of his morality. nature before unconceived of. Machinery of all kinds, and for In truth, if we wished to borrow from the arts a solemn monition every purpose, is daily simplified and rendered more efficient. of the vanity of human things, the clock might well give it to us. Improved manipulations are introduced into allthe arts, and each How often does it not occur to the traveller in Europe, as he and all of these changes operate as efficient creative causes of hears the hour tolled from some ancient steeple,--that iron further invention and discovery. Besides all that may be hoped tongue in the tower of yonder old cathedı al, unchanged itself, for by the diligent and ingenious use of the materials for improve has had a voice for every change in the fortune of nations! Imeni afforded by the present state of the arts, the progress of has chimed monarchs to their thrones, and knelled them to science teaches us to believe that principles, elements and pow. their combs; and, from its watch-tower in the clouds, has, with ers are in existence and operation around us, of which we have the same sonorous and impartial stoicism, measured out their a very imperfect knowledge, perhaps no knowledge whatever. little hour of sorrow and gladness to coronation and funeral, Commencing with the mariner's compass in the middle ages, a abdication and accession, revolution and restoration ; victory, series of discoveries has been made connected with magn elism, tumuli, and fire:'; and, with like faithfulness, while I speak, electricity, galvanism, the polarity of light, and the electrothe little monitor by my side warns me back from my digression, magnetic phenomena which are occupying so much attention and bids me beware lest I devote too much of my brief hour, at the present day, all of which are more or less applicable to even to its own commendation. Let me follow the silent moni: the useful arts, and which may well produce the conviction that, tion, sustained, perhaps, by the impatience of the audience, and if in some respects we are at the meridian, we are in other res. hasten to the lasi topic of my address.”
pects in the dawn of science. In short, all art, as I have said, is Our last extract closes the address. Bright and improvement. And it is of the nature of every intelligence en.
a creation of the mind of man...an essence of infinite cap ucity for grand as are its anticipations of future improvement, dowed with such a capacity, however mature in respect to the none can deny them to be rational. And it is difficult pasi; ia be at all times, in respect to the future, in a state of hope. 10 perceive how any mechanic can hear, or read, the space before is immeasurable; and though the mind may’esti. concluding paragraph, without a conscious increase of is inadequate to measure the progress of which it is capable. that self-respect, and that real elevation of character, chanic Association,...PERSEVERE. Do any ask what you with which the whole address tends to inspire him. have done, and what you are doing for the public good ? Send
“So numerous are the inventions and discoveries that have them to your exhibition rooms, and let them see the walls of the been made in every department, and to such perfection have temple of American Liberty,* fitly covered with the products of many arts been carried, that we may, perhaps, be inclined to
American art. And while they gaze with admiration on these think that, in the arts, as on the surface of the globe, after all
creations of the mechanical arts of the country, bid them rethe brilliant discoveries in navigation in the last three centuries, member that they are the productions of a people whose fathers there is nothing left to find out. Though it is probable that, in
were told by the British ministry they should not manufacture
a hob-nail! Does any one ask in disdain for the great names particular things, no further progress can be made, (and even
which have illustrated the Mechanic Arts! Tell him of Ark. This I would not affirm, with any confidence,) yet, so far from considering invention as exhausted, or arı ała stand, I believe wright, and Watt, of Franklin, of Whitney, and Fulton, whose
will dwell in the grateful recollections of posterity, * It is not, of course, intended that the sidereal year is always when ihe titled and laurelled destroyers of mankind shall be of precisely the same length, but that its variations are subject to remembered only with detestation. Mechanics of America, res. a fixed law. See Sir Ino. Herschel's Trratise on Astronomy, $563. pect your calling, respect yourselves. The cause of human t Inclusus variis tamulatus spiritus astris
improvement has no firmer or more powerful friends. In the Et vivum certis motibus urget opus.
great Temple of Nature, whose foundation is the earth,.-- whose Claudian. in Sphær. Archimides. pillars are the eternal bills,--whose roof is the star-lit sky,... | The associations here alluded to have lately been rendered whose organ-tones are the whispering breeze and the sounding familiar to the public by the Mayor's spirited translation and storm,::.whose architect is God,.--there is no ministry more adaptation to music of Schiller's splendid poem of The Bell. sacred than that of the intelligent mechanic!" The idea was originally glanced ai in one of Mrs. Elizabeth Montague's Leuers.
* The exhibition was held in Faneuil Hall....Ed. Messenger.
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PAGE Biography of the late Hon. Dabney Carr, one of the Judges Review of “Hallam's View of the State of Europe during of the Virginia Court of Appeals. By a Virginian....... 65 the Middle Ages.” By a Soucherner......
111 Review of N. P. Willis's Poems. By a Virginian......... 70 | Review of Dr. Johnson's Tragedy of "Irene." By a Na. Lord Bacon. Part II. His Character, and Writings.-The tive of Virginia...
113 Bacovian Philosophy; its chief peculiarity; its end Fruit: The Truce Ground. A Tale of the Revolutionary War. Bacon contrasted with Seneca; superiority of the Bacon. Scene in South Carolina, during Gen. Marion's exploits. jan, to the ancient Philosophy, even to that of Socrates, From the Diary of an Invalid. No. III. By a Lady of still more, to that of Epicurus; Fruitlessness of ancient this State..... philosophy; why? its disdain of the merely useful ; its An Address on the Utility of Astronomy: delivered before disrepote, even before Bacon's time; its false use, and the “ Young Men's Society” of Lynchburg, Sept. 26th, false estimate, of the Sciences; arithmetic; geometry ; 1837, by Professor Landon C. Gotland, of Randolph Maastronomy; alphabetical writing; medicine : differupce of coa College ; and published by request of the Society in Bacon in these respects. (Prepared for the Messenger.) 73 the Southern Literary Messenger...................... 123 Human Nature Vindicated.......................
80 Something on Sonnets. By James F. Olis......
........... 180 Discourse on American Literature. By George Tucker, Specimen of Causticity...
........... 182 Esq. Professor of Belles-Lettres and Natural Philosophy, Shakspeare and the Critics. By a Marylander.......... 132 fa the University of Virginia.. ,
81 The Lyceum-No. VI. Advices to sundry kinds of people. Lexicographic Acamen.......
88 By Gulliver the Younger. Chapter III. Rules for ConJournal of a Trip to the Mountains, Caves and Springs of versation...
187 Virginia By a New-Englander. Dedicated to Charles Dialogue between Lord Bacon and Shakspeare. (Selected.) 141 L. Sherman, Esq. of Mobile, Ala. Chapter I. Locomo Samuel Johnson and David Hume compared. (do.)..... 143 ure from Boston to Providence ; Railroads and railings; Sleepers in Steamboats ; New York, New Jersey, and
ORIGINAL POETRY. Philadelphia; Judge Marshall; Baltimore; Page's; RipRaps; Hampton Roads; James River; Steamboat Ra. The Mother for her Son. By B. W. Huntington, of South cing; Arrival at Richmond.. 89 Carolina......
79 Heretical Beasts....
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93 The Pilgrim. By B. W. Huntington, of South Carolina.. 105 The Far West and its Native Inhabitants,-being a Review Remorse. Lines written by Miss Marion Horton, and set
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113 West" By a Virginian.... 100 A Farewell to Mary. By a Virginian.....
137 The Deserter : a Romance of the American Revolution, The Dean of Badajos. A Spanish Tale. (Selected.).... 139
founded on a well authenticated incident. Chapter X, Ode. Translation of Dr. Johnson's Ode from the Isle of and last, with an Appendix. "By à Mississippian....... 106 Skye. By a Gentleman of Richmond....
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