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A concise history of the Moravia | tongue. In 861, Cyril and Me

Ans, or UNITRAS FRATRUM, of thodius, two Greek bifhops, well their settlement in the American versed in the Sclavonian language, States ; and of their zeal, per visited Moravia, and were instrufeverance, and success, in propa- mental of converting Swataplux, gating the gospel.

king of the Moravians, and his THE history of the Moravi- subjects, to the Christian faith.

ans is fo new and singular, They also converted the Bohemitheir persecutions and sufferings for ans about the same time. It hence the gospel's fake have been so appears, that these countries were great, and their zeal, perseverance christianized by means of the castand success in propagating it, in ern churches, and were initiated Heathen countries, so rare and a- into the Christian religion, accordpoftolical, that it is imagined, it ing to the doctrines and ceremonies cannot fail of being highly interest of the Greek church. The bishing, instructive and entertaining to ops of Rome, at an early period, all pious readers.

began their antiscriptural impofi. The Moravians claim their re- tions on the Bohemian and Moraligion from the apostles ; especially vian churches, and persecuted them from the apoftle Paul, and from with great heat and cruelty. Otho, Titus, one or both of whom they the Roman Emperor, having conimagine preached in Illyricum and quered Bohemia, in 940, by the Dalmatia.* These were provin- express order of the Pope, enjoinces of Sclavonia, in which Mora. ed the Roman liturgy in Latin... via and Bohemia were included. This was extremely disagreeable In the fourth century, Jerome, and offensive to the Bohemians ; who was born at Strido, a city of and from that time there commence Illyricum, with a view to advance ed a severe contest between them, the progress of the gospel, in his and the Roman pontiff : The latown country, is said to have tranf- ter constantly imposing and infiltlated the bible into his own mother ing upon the Romish mode of wor

ship, and the former as obstinately • Rom. xv. 19. and 2 Tim. iv. 1o. I and firmly refifting his impofitions, Vol. I. No. 2.

The Pope attempted to impose ce- he was made redor of the univer. libacy on the clergy of Bohemia ; fity. Two years after, Pope John and to that succee ted the doctrine published indulgencies to be distriof transubstantiation. Both were | buted to all people, who would opposed with as much zeal and ob take up arms in behalf of the Roftinacy as they were enjoined. mish church, against the King of

When Charles IV. Emperor of Naples. The Bohemians burned the Romans, was about founding the bulls of the pope, and the letthe university of Prague, in the ters of the prelates, which accomyear 1361, he invited and conven- panied them, in the public market ed many German, French and Ital: place. The pope was so exasperian naasters and doctors. These ated with the Bohemians, that he having been accustomed to receive fummoned Huss to Rome, and by only one of the elements in the sa- an edict, prohibited divine wer: cramental supper, vehemently in | ship, and the celebration of the filted that the cup Maould not be re. | Lord's supper, at Prague. Upceived in the holy communion.- on this, Hufs withdrew from the The Bohemians as warmly main- university and city, and itinerated, tained the duty of communicating preaching from town to town, in the cup. John Milicius, canon through the kingdom. At length of Prague, and his fuccessor, Mat- he was summoned to Constance, thias Janovius, who was confessor whither he and Jerome went un. to Charles IV. were both very der the safe conduct of the Empe. zealous affertors of the commun- ror Sigismond. But notwithstandion in both the elements. For this ing the Emperor's letter, they reason they were both banished the were, contrary to all good faith, kingdom.

I both of them condemned to the About this time, the Bohemians flames. John Huss was burned on began, with their whole strength, the 6th of July 1415, and Jerome to oppose the impofitions of the suffered martyrdom on the 30th of Romish church. John Huss in May the succeeding year. This particular, who was professor of exceedingly inflamed the Bohemithe university at Prague, in a very ans and Moravians, both nobles bold and explicit manner, exclaim and commonalty, against the poped against the numerous errors and ish party. The rage of the people impofitions of the Romish church. | arose to such an height, in 1419, In the year 1400, he was greatly that the governor and twelve senaItrengthened and animated by the tors were thrown out at the winwritings of John Wickliff, the first dows of the council house, and of the English reformers. These fell on the points of the spears' of were handed to him, from Eng. the armed men. Soon after war land, by one Peter Payne, an was proclaimed by the Papists, aEnglishman. Some of these he gainst the Hussites, as they were translated into the Bohemian lan- then called. After the council of guage. He encouraged Jerome, Bafil, the protesting Bohemians unof Prague, to oppose the errors of happily divided among themselves, popery with the same zeal and firm and formed into two parties, oppo. ness, in the schools, with which fing each other with great bitterhe combated them in the church. riefs and animosity. One party This procured him grcat applause demanded the use of the cup only among the people, and in 1409,' in the holy supper, and were called Calixtines. The other party, | clergy ordained the three Moraviadhering strictly to all parts of ans bishops, vesting them with powJohn Huss' doctrine, were propers to ordain. At the same time erly denominated Hussites. Such they declared unto them, what was the opposition of these parties great persecutions they had suffer. to each other that they came final ed, in France and Italy, for the ly to blows, and open violence. sake of Christ and his gospel, and

This was the distracted state of how they had continued the fucBohemia for nearly thirty years, cession of the ministry, from the until those who were more peace- apostolic age, to the then present ably inclined, about 1450, formed time. The same year Stephen, a coalition. Laying aside all party bishop of the Waldenses, was apdistinctions, they united in the prehended, by the Papists, and common principles to which all | burnt alive at Vienna. The Walcould affent. After maturing their denses were scattered and many of plan, on the first of March 1457, them joined the United Brethren they formed into a distinct congre. in the mountains of Moravia. gation, as they supposed, after The persecutions they endured the apostolic fimplicity, by the were incxprelible, and almost inname of Fratres legis Christi i, e. credible.f The Papists attempted Brethren according to the law of totally to extirpare them, and to Christ. Finding that some peo- destroy their bibles and good books. ple considered them as a new and They were obliged to meet for diparticular order of monks, they vine worship in the night only, and called themselves simply Brethren. to keep their bibles and other books Perceiving afterwards that their in the most secret places. Some numbers considerably increased, of them emigrated and were reand that they were happily united ceived into England as early as the in sentiment and brotherly affection, reign of Edward VI. So vehe. they gave themselves the name of ment was the persecution, that the Unitas Fratrum, or the United Moravian churches became in a Brethren.

manner lost, and invisible to the , That they might live in peace, / world. At the dawn of the refand serve God with a pure con- ormation, by the preaching of Luscience, king Podicbrad granted ther and Calvin, great praises were them the Barony of Letiz, in the given by them to the United Drethmountainous places of Moravia, ren. These, after they had been in the neighbourhood of Silcfia. | imprisoned, tortured and made to To this many of the citizens of endure every kind of perfecution, Prague, bachelors and masters of which Romish bigotry and malice arts, nobles and the common pcos could devise ; and after not only ple retired, with the learned and their enenries, but even their friends unlearned, from all parts of Bohe- imagined they were entirely ey mia and Moravia. As they were tinet, under the kind of crice desirous of a regular ministry, they elected three men by lot, and sent them to the Waldenses, in Austria, of x hitory of these persecutions, that they might receive episcopal

apd of those of the Sclayonian church

es was written by Amos Comenius, ordination. Bishop Stephen with one of the Moravian bisbops. Ha another of the bishops of the Wal-printed it in England, and presented denses, aslifted by several of their 'it to King Charles 11. A. D. 1560.

of the Great Shepherd, again made there began a settlement. The their appearance.

trustees, under whom the settle. About the year 1712, the Pa- ment of that colony commenced, pists commenced a new persecution I promised them, agreeably to the against them; their goods were provision made, by act of parliaseized by the Jesuits, and they ment, exemption from all personal were imprisoned, and tortured with services in war. But on the Spangreat violence and inhumanity. In ish invasion of that colony the inthis distressed situation, they sought | habitants obliged them to take up an asylum, where they might en. arms. This was such a grievance, joy rest and liberty of conscience. that they left their settlement and Count Zinzendorf, in upper Luc poffeffions in Savannah, and in the fatia, gave them countenance, and spring of the year 1741, began to leaving their houses and farms, they build Bethlehem in the forks of repaired with the small remains of Delaware, in Northampton countheir property, which had been ty, about fifty miles north of Phikept from the hands of the Jesu- ladelphia. This is their principal its, to him ; and settling on his ef. settlement in the United States. tate, built Hernhuth, now a place | In the year 1793, they had twenof confiderable fame, in the Sax. ty-five settlements and churches on dominions. But even here, within the limits of the United their rest was but of short contin- States. Their whole number at uance. The imperial court, dil. that time within said limits was pleased with the emigration of the computed at 4,700.7 Each of Moravians, made complaint to the king of Poland, then elector of t In 1740, the Brethren purchased Saxony, and Count Zinzendorf 300 acres, in Pennsylvania, for a setwas banished the Saxon dominions,

tlement at Bethlehem. Since that

| time several other considerable puron account of the proteciion which

chases have been made. This is lituahe had given to these oppressed ted on the river Lehigh, the western Protestants. Exiled from Saxo. | branch of the Delaware, in lat. 40°, ny, he fought for places in other | 37'. It is built partly on a high riling kingdoms, where the Moravians

| ground, and partly on the banks of a

fine creek, called the Manakes. This and Bohemians might find an aly- | affords trout and other fifh. The fit. lum.

| uation is healthy and pleasant. In Upon this new dispersion, num- / the summer season it is frequently visbers of the United Brethren emi.ited by the gentry from Philadelphia grated to the British dominions and other parts. and were admitted to certain ex. l of Nazareth, 5,000 acres, of the Rev.

In 1741, they purchased the Barony emptions and privileges by act of George Whitefield. This is in Penr.: parliament. Particularly an act sylvania, and the settlement began the was passed for their encourage next year after the purchase. In 1749, ment to settle in the North-Amer

they made a purchase of 100,000 a16.Danlonies. This granted them

cres of Lord Granville, in his district,

in North-Carolina. This is situated an exemption from oaths and from between Dan and Yadkin rivers, about personal services in war. Their

| 10 miles south of Pilot mountain, in affirmation is taken instead of an the county of Surry. It is called oath.

Wachovia, after an estate of Count ; Their first arrival in North. A Zinzendorf in Austria. They have merica, was in 1735.

fix settlements on this tract. The first

A colony commenced 1753, called Bethabara ; came to Savannah in Geogia, and the second, Bethany 1759; the third

the congregations, tho' {mall, has, and his apostles, as plainly exa particular minister.

pressed, in the holy scriptures is With respect to doctrine, they the only ground of the faith of fay, “ We agree with the doc- the brethren, the only rule of • crinal articles of the Lutheran • their faith and their life.” • church, as they are laid down Baptism is administered to chil.

in the Augsburg confession, which dren, in a public meeting, as soon • the brethren have adopted every as possible after their birth. After • where, being persuaded that they a short discourse, the child to be

are conformable to the holy scrip- / baptized is presented before the

tures. The xxxix articles of communion table, and the minif• the English Episcopal church ter makes a prayer in its behalf. « harmonize with it. We differ The water, in baptism, is poured ' with all doctrine that is against on its naked breast. There are • the holy scripture, in regard to commonly thrce, and in some pla• the fall of man, of redemption ces five persons, who are witnesses

by Jesus Christ, of the operation of the baptism, and who with the • of the Holy Spirit, and such as minister, after the administration • tends to deny the Godhead of of it, lay their hands upon the « Jesus Christ. We differ with child and bless it. • them who preach reprobation, The holy communion is cele

or predestination for damnation. brated in all the churches of the We preach Christ as the atone- brethren once every month. Those ment, propitiation for our sins, who administer it are clothed in " and the fins of the whole world, white raiment. After the conse

and that Christ is willing and cration, the communicants receive • able to save all ; but we also in- | the bread standing; a piece is bro• fift on the words, Whosoever I ken in two, and given to two breth• does not believe shall be damned. ren, and so fucceflively until all

• The Brethren never taught have in like manner received their o perfection on this side of the portion. None eats of the bread grave. The doctrine of Jesus until all have received it, that they

| all may eat together at the same inSalem 1966. These are the principal

Itant When the distribution is settlements, on this tract. Salem is finished, the communicants instantabout the center of it, and is the chief I ly prostrate themselves and eat upon Tettlement. In 1769, the brethren their knees, the minister repeating purchased 1000 acres for a settlement

the words of the institution, Take, in West-Jersey. This is called Hope, and the settlement began immediately

eat, this is my body, &c. During after the purchase. In Lancaster coun the whole transaction, suitable verty they purchased 500 acres the pre ses of plalms or hymns are sung. ceding year. This is called Litiz ; its | Much in the same manner the cup situation is in the township of War.

is received, and all the communi. wick 8 miles from Lancaster, and about 70 west of Philadelphia. These

cants drink of it. The whole is are the settlements of the brethren in | concluded with the kiís of peace, the United States-Thcir whole num- / or charity. But as the males and ber at this time may amount to five or females are kept entirely in distinct fix thoulands. A great proportion of places, there are no promiscuous them are mechanics. They are an indus

salutations between brethren and crious, peaceable, inoffensive people ; and by their arts are beneficial to their

| Gleis.
lite

The holy supper is ad. peighbours.

| ministered on Saturday evening ;

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