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being that of Canelones, commanded by Colonel Alvarez. Confounded and bewildered by these movements, originating wholly in dislike to himself personally, and to his government, Alvear was shaken, but not subdued.

He menaced the town with his army from without. Hereupon fosses were cut, stockades thrown up, every citizen armed, and preparations not less formidable than those made for the reception of General Whitelock, were now adopted to repel an attack meditated by one of their own countrymen.

Simultaneously with this movement the different armies in the provinces, Artigas being at the head of that at Santa Fé, prepared to march upon the obnoxious Director, whom now they styled a rebel.

Seeing that the game was fairly up with him, and beginning to distrust many of his followers, Alvear surrendered at last the directorial staff, which he had only wielded three little months. He did not bring his troops to an engagement, stipulating only for the safety of his property, and liberty to take refuge on board of the British frigate. These terms were granted; but all his adherents were left to their fate, and cast into prison under terrible menaces of confiscation and death.




The South Americans, however, are essentially a goodnatured people, and every person there has a compadre, or protector, of some kind to make interest for him. So that after the heat of the moment had passed, and the state prisoners had lingered quite comfortably in their quarters for about a month, they were, with two or three exceptions, liberated, kept their goods and chattels, and returned to their families.

Alvear might probably have landed if he had pleased, but he thought himself in better custody on board of an English frigate than on shore.

The troops all returned to their allegiance, Artigas recrossed the Paraná, and Alvarez Tomas took quiet possession of the government. But most of the inland towns pronounced against any further dependence on Buenos Ayres; and thus was kept alive and increased that split between the capital and the provinces which has been, and still continues to be, the pest of the land and the bane of its prosperity.

All the promotions made by Alvear were subjected to strict revision, and seven-eighths of them cancelled. So ended this serious affair without bloodshed, or the gratification of more than a passing spirit of party malice or personal dislike.



San Martin was now elected governor of Men. doza, which, like the other towns, declared its independence of Buenos Ayres, but, like them, professed itself ready to enter with it, on terms of reciprocity and equality, into treaties of commerce and alliance.

Everything began to wear a more favourable aspect, and especially in Peru, where Rondeau pushed his vanguard to Potosi, and took possession of Pezuela's entrenchments at Cotagayta.

Soler resigned his command of the army in the Banda Oriental, and was replaced by Alvarez on the 3rd of June. Rondeau remained in Potosi, and accepted his appointment as Supreme Director of Buenos Ayres; but he continued with the auxiliary army in the hope of bringing the Limenian general to a decisive action. This latter, with four thousand men, kept retreating upon La Paz and Oruro, before the Buenos Ayrean army, of about the same force, and of which the head-quarters were at Ayouma. On the 26th of September Pezuela was at Oruro, and on the 2nd of October Rondeau at Chayanta.

Although on the 24th of October the advance posts of the two armies met, and the Buenos



Ayreans claimed the best of the day, it is certain that they were repulsed; and on the 29th of the same month Rondeau was defeated at Sipé-Sipé, with the loss of two thousand men. He retreated with precipitation to La Plata, where he was on the 7th of December, with a view to recruiting his army in the province of Cinti, and once more trying his fortune in the field with the Limenian general, Pezuela. This officer seems always to have been too much for the Buenos Ayreans, whenever he could tempt them to come near the Desaguadero.

Among the miscellaneous events of this year may be mentioned the commencement of General San Martin's preparations for crossing the Andes ; and the death of Candiote, the patriarch, and at the time also governor of Santa Fé.

Osorio, the Spanish general, was in possession of Chile; a desultory but successful warfare was going on in Cochabamba. Vague rumours were afloat, and disturbed the people, of the equipment of a large expedition in Spain, with a view to the complete reconquest of all the revolted colonies: but it was destined never to come. Your's, &c.,


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Forced Loans-Exportation of specie prohibited-Affair of Sipé

Sipé-Education-Splits among the Americans--Sovereign will of the people-A Bando-Resolutions of the people-Remarks The Government's quarrel with Captain Fabian-Tribute of justice to his Excellency Don Manuel de Morenom The people again assemble--General Viamont-Despatch from TucumanThe National Congress at Tucuman—The Spanish Minister at Washington—Pueyrredon elected Director.

London, 1842. The year 1816 commenced a system, which was not despotic merely, but laid a foundation of fraudulent principle, unjust and unequal taxation, which, when carried out, brought the finances of the country into complete disorganization. This system was one of " forced loans;" of which the very terms are odious and contradictory. For how can that be a loan, in the ordinary sense of the word, to which you are forced to contribute ?

Yet the South American Governments, devoid of foresight, or extravagant beyond their means, were continually harassing the people, and exciting their

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