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AFFAIR OF AZURDUY.

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colours which the amazon, (this is a figure of speech, intended for a compliment,) Doña Juana Azurduy, took on the rugged hills of La Plata, eleven leagues to the east of Chuquisaca, in the action which is detailed by the Commandant Padilla, who, from modesty, does not ascribe the glory to the said lady, his wife, although I know to a certainty that she herself wrested the flag from the ensignbearer, with a dauntless courage, very uncommon in her sex.” Then comes the detail of Azurduy, a very interesting one, as pourtraying the guerilla warfare which was carried on, in the course of which he says, that in dividing her force into small parties, he placed his wife in Villar, with thirty fusileers and two hundred men of all arms. The desultory engagement lasted from nine in the morning till six in the evening; “and as the intention of the enemy," says Padilla, in one part of his despatch, “was to cut off my rear-guard, he threw himself upon Villar, where my wife, making a bold sally, repelled him completely, with the loss on his part of fifteen men killed.” Padilla concludes by saying, he holds the splendid ensign itself, at the disposal of Belgrano.

On the 29th of July, Pueyrredon made his public entry into Buenos Ayres, as Supreme

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INTERFERENCE OF THE PORTUGUESE.

Director, and in September, the Porteños celebrated with great pomp and rejoicing the oaths of allegiance taken in virtue of the declaration made by Congress, of the absolute independence of the country.

Towards the close of this year we find that the Portuguese, that is, the Brazilians, were once more intent on occupying the Banda Oriental. Brazilian vessels of war took up their station at Maldonado, while a land force under General Lecor, quietly advanced upon that point. Naturally jealous of these movements, the Government of Buenos Ayres sent in the first place an envoy to Lecor, to demand explanations, at the same time, that it resolved to adopt other means of meeting the aggression; and Pueyrredon made an appeal to Artigas, “ the chief of the Orientales,” to co-operate in repelling the enemy.

This warmth, however, on the part of Buenos Ayres soon cooled down; for Monte Video refusing afterwards to adhere to the Supreme Government, as elected by the Congress, the Director determined to leave Artigas to deal himself with the Brazilians as he best could.

It was resolved at this same time “to extend hostilities by sea and by land, in order to make

PUEYRREDON AND THE FEDERALISTS.

more palpable to King Ferdinand the prejudice he had already suffered ;” and, accordingly, letters of marque were offered to all adventurers, many of whom soon after started up to claim the privilege of this licensed sea plunder; a species of piracy authorized by international law indeed, but one which forms an indelible disgrace to those civilized nations which have had recourse to it.

Before the end of the year, and ere Pueyrredon had been five months Supreme Director of the State, we find him waging open war with the federal party in Buenos Ayres. A violent decree of expatriation was issued against Colonel Manuel Dorrego, a most extraordinary man, who, at a future period, became for himself too fatally celebrated as a leading public character; and this arbitrary act of the Government was the prelude to others of a similar character, and still more unwarrantable in their application. The surveillance of the police became more close and severe; foreigners of every class were included in their odious and inquisitorial regulations; and, in short, everything betokened a coming severity in the rule of the new military supreme head of the republic.

On the other hand, General San Martin, with a noble disregard of the petty workiugs of intrigues

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SAN MARTIN'S PREPARATIONS.

and party spirit at the seat of Government, was at Mendoza, unobtrusively, but with system and energy, bringing to a happy conclusion all his preliminary operations for his great project of the invasion of Chile. He received little or no assistance from Buenos Ayres; we might almost say, he was neglected by Pueyrredon ; but he was nobly seconded in his arduous undertaking by the provinces of Cuyo, particularly by Mendoza, as he himself gratefully sets forth in one of his despatches;* and it must be confessed, that his eulogy of the poor Mendozinos is a strong though indirect condemnation of the capital, hitherto so prodigal of its resources, in aid of the great cause of the revo

lution.

Your's, &c.,

THE AUTHORS. P.S. We have given you so much historical detajl without the intermission of any lighter matter, that it may be agreeable both to the writers and their readers here to make a pause. We purpose to carry our historical review in these volumes down to the end of 1819; and the last three years will form the concluding portion of our third volume.

* See Appendix.

LETTER XLI.
THE AUTHORS TO GENERAL MILLER.

Statistical Account of Buenos Ayres-Its Extent and Boundaries

The Grecian Republics—Origin of the name of the River Plate - The City of Buenos Ayres—Its Trade and Population-Its Debt to England-Trade of Buenos Ayres with other Countries

-Singularly advantageous position for Commerce-Introduction of Horned Cattle and Horses—Increase of the Cattle-Shipment of Specie-Particulars of Buenos Ayres Incumbrances-Paper Money-Pampa Indians— Their Mode of Life—Their Meals-Their Traffic-Milk-venders or Lecheros—Their Practices.

London, 1842. As it appears only reasonable that a short portion of our work should be dedicated to the giving of some statistical account of Buenos Ayres, we now proceed to do so; and for some particulars we shall avail ourselves of a work of accredited authority, by Don Vicente Pazos, published in New York, in 1819.

The republic of the united provinces of South America, comprehends, with some exceptions, the same territory as the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, which was established in 1778.

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