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applauded that fine passage which is doubtless “ What are you stopping the song for?” was an historical fact
“ Go on, Billy ; don't mind him.”
“Huldy, Huldy, hear me for one moment, “ When Dacres came on board,
please.” To deliver up his sword,
“ Are you a fair fool to-night?" He was loath to part with it, it looked so handy 0. “ Not more so than common. Huldy, do hear
' You may keep it,' says brave Hull :
• What makes you look so dull ? Cheer up, and take a glass of good brandy 0!'"
Speak out at once, then, and don't keep asking me to hear you.”
Huldy, we are great folks now. Riches is At this moment, Timothy Pettigrew rushed in, looking wild, and still carrying in his arms
come upon we Pettigrews !" the baby," which luckily was in a deep sleep, Mrs. Corndaffer, starting up and clapping her
Oh, I'm so glad !” fervently exclaimed with its head hanging over its father's shoulder.
hands for joy. Fixing his eyes on his consort, he exclaimed"Huldy! wifey!”
(To be concluded in our next.)
HISTORY OF THE INCAS OF PERU.
BY W. B.
Some authors mention that Huelva, a Spanish of the Incas to be the descendants of one or pilot, driven by a tempest across the Atlantic, other of these chiefs. The general tradition of touched at an island now known as Santo Do- the origin of the Incas, as stated by themselves, mingo; claims also have been advanced by the is the following: Portuguese in favour of Martin Behem, who, The sun and moon, perceiving the miserable they assert, discovered Brazil in 1482, and condition of the people, sent from heaven two of sailed as far south as the Straits of Magellan ; their children, a son and a daughter, to collect and lately we are informed of the discovery of the Indians together, to govern and give good the eastern shores of America (North), by the laws, so that the previously wandering tribes Northmen, at a very early date; but there can should become reasonable beings, to reside in be no doubt that the great Columbus discovered habitations, labour the earth, tend their flocks, the New World in 1492, not accidentally, but by and, above all, to adore the sun, as their ever the result of years of patient investigation, study, beneficent deity. and great anxiety.
The origin of the name of Peru, Piru, or In 1510, the intrepid Balboa settled on the Perou, is involved in obscurity. The Indian Gulf of Darien; Pizarro, the conqueror of Peru, appellation of the country is Tahuantinsuyo, or being one of his followers ; and “Cortez would the four parts of the empire. It may be derived have been of this party had not illness detained from pelu (a river), or Beru,” the answer an him at Hispanola; but which delay hastened Indian made on being asked his name, or the the conquest of Mexico, under his command. name of the country, by one of the discoverers; Balboa was the first Spaniard to see the Pacific the native name, however, of the Inca's subjects Ocean at Panama, in 1513, which led to the dis- was, “ O Incaprunam.” covery of Peru, by Pizarro, about 1526; the The Peruvian empire, when discovered by conquest of which he completed in a few years, Pizarro, was bounded on the north, near to amassing great wealth, particularly in gold, Quito, by the Ancasmayer (blue river); on the silver, and precious stones.
south by the river Maule, in Chili
, giving a We will no .v retrace our steps, and offer a length of nearly 4,000 miles ; on the west, the short account of the history of the Incas. Pacific Ocean laved its shores; and on the east
It would appear that long before the period of it was bounded by the cordillera of the Andes. the Incas, the aboriginal inhabitants of Peru I. Inca (ruler), Manco CAPAC,* made his were in a most barbarous state, living in woods appearance, with his wife, Dello Huacat near to and caverns, worshipping animate and inanimate the lake Titicaca, about the year A.D. 1038, objects, and each having his own particular when the sun, their parent, or Pachacamac, I good and evil deity. The sea was believed to be thus addressed them :-"My children, when the most powerful divinity; they sacrificed their you have brought the surrounding tribes to obey prisoners, and even ate of their flesh; and some there were “who lived as wild beasts, surpassing them in brutality.” Approaching nearer to the
* Capac, from capa, the sole lord and master; times of the Incas, Peru was, in all probability, capac, rich and powerful in arms. governed by powerful caciques, or chiefs; and # Pacha, the world; camac, to animate : from some Spanish writers state that these left behind
cama, the soul.
Thus the sun is called, in the them stone buildings of great magnitude. If Peruvian language, “ eternal animator, or soul of this be true, it is not difficult to trace the origin the world"-also, " the true, but unknown God.”
you, govern them justly, and be unto them as cotton and flax were known in the earliest times fond parents to dutiful children. It is I, thy to them. father, who goes round the world daily, to see As to vegetable productions, the following what may be wanted on earth for the comfort of only will be enumerated : The all-important those who inhabit it.”
maize, or Indian corn, used as bread, and by Cuzco was the first city founded by the Inca, fermenting the meal of this grain with water, an where he built temples to the sun, moon, and invigorating liquid, called chicha, was made; stars,ỹ of cyclopean construction. The scattered quinoa, a species of inillet ; the potato, and Indian tribes were brought together, so that in many tuberose roots and tropical fruits. The a few years the Inca was able to form armies to leaves of the cuca plant were chewed, as the repel the attacks of surrounding nations, and, betel-nut is in India, and said to have highly ultimately, to subject them to his sway. The sustaining qualities. formation of roads cominenced; and, during Their garinents would consist of skins; then, the first Inca's reign, more than a hundred in process of time mantles, of wool, cotton or towns were founded, some containing a thousand flax, which, at a later period, were fashioned like "fires," or habitations.
a tunic; a girdle round the waist, and sandals Manco Capac having brought many nations on the feet. to live in towns, commenced civilizing and in- Manco Capac is said to have invented a plough, structing them. He appointed curacas (chiefs various tools, instruments, &c.; likewise the or governors), to teach, and commanded them manner of conveying water, by canals, from to treat the Indians as their children. The great distances, even through mountainous counancient idolatry was extirpated, temples to the tries, so as to irrigate the lands. Under the sun erected, and the people taught to adore the Incas, the poorer lands in the valleys on the bright luminary as their deity. When there coast were rendered prolific by the use of guano. were a sufficient number of females of the In- His coya (or queen) taught the females to spio, carial family, these were dedicated to the service and instructed thein in the necessary duties of of the temples under the names of virgins of household affairs. To the first Inca is also atthe sun; the male progeny became warriors, tributed the following: the instructing of his priests, amautas (or learned men), with whom, people in the belief of the immortality of the in all probability, originated the quippus (or soul; that the human being was “animated knotted coloured strings), by which their history, earth,” composed of a body and soul, but that such as we have it, and traditions, have been the animal creation had nó soul or reasoning handed down. At no period do they appear to faculty; that, after death, the good went to a land have had pictorial or hieroglyphical characters. of joy and tranquillity; the wicked, to cupaypu
The Inca was distinguished by a crown, called huacin (or the devil's house). And it would ap, the llautu, composed of a parti-coloured bandage, pear that some vague ideas relative to a general or fillet, going several times round the head; a resurrection were entertained, when each would tassel banging in front, and two small feathers resume his original earthly form, and receive
, one on each side. The llautu of the heir to the from Pachacamac, rewards or punishments. throne was yellow; that of a chief, black. The The worship of the sun, moon, and stars was chiefs had their hair cut after a particular fashion, fully established
; sacrificing to the sun, domestic which was done by instruments made of sharp animals, birds, plants (particularly the cuca stone (iron being unknown to them, but they plant), and the beverage called chicha ; but it had a method of hardening copper); as also the appears that there were no human sacrifices
, privilege of piercing their ears, with the introduc- either amongst themselves or of their prisoners; tion of certain substances into the perforations, which fact distinguished the Peruvians as a more such as wood, wool, ornaments, &c.
docile race, froin the sanguinary Mexicans, and At this period skins of animals were used as other Indian nations in the New World. clothing, and their flesh as food-particularly Manco Capac instituted the order of priests that of the llama, alpaca, huanacu, and vicuna; for the services of the temples, taking them these four are known as the camels, or sheep, of from his own family, particularising the cerePeru-the two former being tame; the latter, monies, sacrifices, and the ornamenting of the wild. Then there was the deer, bear, biscacha (a sacred edifices, which was done with the precious species of hare), opposum, armadillo-all these inetals and gems. were good for food. The puma (maneless lion), The people were enrolled in a public register
, jagua (the ounce), with the various species of having chiefs of different grades, such generally leopard and tiger-cats, would afford valuable being empowered with civil as well as military furs. They had birds and fowl of great variety, authority. There were judges also; and, although and their lakes, rivers, and coasts were filled the laws enacted by the înca were severe, they with fish. There is also reason to believe that do not appear to have been unjust. There were
many languages and dialects in Peru; but the Colcampata was the name of the palace of the
Ymara and the Quechua were, and are still, the first Inca, Manco Capac.
Intipampa, a large principal ones spoken. square, in front of the principal temple of the sun.
The Inca being now in years, called unto him Coricancha, gardens of temple of the sun. AB' | his family, the amautas (or learned inen), chiefs
, Vahuan, residence of the virgins of the sun. Sacs- and people, telling them that he was about to huaman, the fortress of Cuzco.
leave them and return to his father, the sun;
whom they should adore and love, as well as the operation was performed with the point of a moon and stars; and that they should be faith- sharp stone. ful to his male successors, who were to be called As larger buildings and temples were now re
Incas ;” also to the coyas, nustas, and pallas-quired, so their ideas in geometry would be the females of his race.
called forth; and in later times, plans and He is said to have reigned forty years, and models were made. Their calculations were left many children. In his last moments, he effected by their quippus, or grains of maize, or gave the most politic instructions for the govern- pebbles, and by tens. A sort of fute was now ment of the country, leaving his son as inheritor invented; some progress in singing and poetry to the Peruvian throne.
was attained, and they had rude theatrical II. INCA, SINCHI Roca (prudent and valiant). representations. Their poets (or haricicus) sung After the death of his father, he had him em- the praises and valorous acts of the Incas and balmed (a custom continued by the Peruvians), chiefs. The following is a specimen of one of and deposited in the huaca (or sacred resting- their love-songs :place). The wife of this Inca was his sister, Dello Coya; and in this manner was perpetuated
My song the race of the Incas.
shall lull thee to sleep; Chaupituta
and I will come, my love, After the period of mourning for his father was
and watch over thee. oper, Sinchi Roca called his chiefs together, to assist him in extending his empire, which was Iron was unknown to the Peruvians; but done in a peaceable manner, bringing many edge-tools were manufactured from copper, nations to acknowledge his sway. He was not which, as well as gold and silver, was separated, a warlike prince ; but famed for his great per- or smelted, from its ores. The heat was increased sonal strength. He had a quiet reign of thirty by blowing with the mouth through reeds. The years, leaving behind him many children. His spines of the cactus were used by the women as son was the
pins; and their mirrors were of polished stone, III. Inca, LloQui YUPANKI.* His queen silver, or copper. Rude earthenware was now was named Coya Cava. To extend his posses- invented, which, in after times, was highly orsions he raised a large army, and, after much namented with grotesque figures. Everything opposition from former tribes, he succeeded in was peculiar to them, having no relation with subduing many of them, erecting on his frontiers any other people on the same continent-much pucaras (or fortresses); which he kept well gar- less with nations of the Old World. The risoned.
general opinion, in our times, as to the origin of Some years afterwards he recommenced his the Peruvians, as well as that of the other conquests; abolishing the idolatrous and savage nations of the New World, is, that at a very customs in the country of Collasuyo, and estab- early period, they came from Asia; and if so, lishing there the worship of the sun. Previously the vicinity of Behring's Straits was probably to his death, having reigned thirty years, he the point of transit. visited the whole of his empire, so as to investi- IV. Inca, Mayra CAPAC. His queen was gate, personally, the conduct of his chiefs and Coya Cuca. Like his predecessors, he extended people. He ordered canals to be dug, edifices his dominions, although, in his wars with the and temples to be erected, and was the first to Collas, he at first sustained great losses. One throw swinging or suspension-bridges across of the celebrated works of this Inca was the rivers
. His last days were passed in peace and throwing a suspension-bridge, of two hundred tranquillity at home, and honoured by the na-paces in length, across the river Apurimac, tions he had brought together. He left his em- about eight leagues from Cuzco. The bridge pire to his son, Mayta Capac. During the being finished, such was the admiration of surreign of Sloqui Yupanki, the amautas increased; rounding nations, that they immediately suband the study of the motions of the heavenly mitted to him, believing that one who could bodies occupied their attention. Sixteen towers produce so wonderful and so useful a structure were erected at Cuzco; eight to the east, and must be more than human. This Inca moreeight to the west, about twenty feet distant from over made roads through marshy lands; paving each other : the spaces through which the sun them with stones. Having extended his em. passed from the rising to the setting, was the pire, he returned to Cuzco; and the remainder solstitial point. The months were counted by 1 of his days was occupied in the interior organizamoons, twelve of which made a year. From the tion of his country. He reigned thirty years, eclipses nothing favourable was prognosticated. leaving his empire to his son, the
The rainbow, on account of its beauty, and as v. Inca, CAPAC YUPANQUI. His queen being caused by the sun, was an object of great was Coya Curyllpay. Acosta says that this Inca veneration. They believed that when the sun expelled his father and an elder brother from the set, it had descended into the sea, to rest, so as throne; but this, Garcillaso, the historian, deto reappear the following day, with fresh energy. nies. They were not skilled in medicine; but bleeding they knew to be of service in certain cases; which
(To be concluded in our next.)
Lloqui, left-handed; yupanki, capable of great deeds.
THE POETRY OF CHARLES H. HITCHINGS.*
Our pages have been so often and so largely' from wide sympathy, of looking at life and indebted to the genius of Mr. Hitchings, that seizing the poetical aspect from many points of our readers are perhaps the last in the world view, he has still his own individual forte; it is who need attention drawn to his merits, or an when standing as it were on the boundary-line introduction to the volume he has recently pub- of the past and present, he looks back far lished; but though the part of usher is thus enough to win a grace from some romantic inquite an unnecessary one, there is no reason cident, yet gathers together the moral force that we should not have a gossip about this true which the present yields to him, as poetry; just as one might choose to talk to a companion about the high qualities of a mutual
"The heir of all the ages in the foremost files of
Books are-in one sense—like precious stones. This is essentially and precisely the case in his A diamond the size of a pea outvalues a score of beautiful poem of “The Resignation.” The common jewels, each many times its circum- story enshrines a sort of feudal incident; but ference; thus a sonnet may shine out like a gem no poet of feudal times would ever have dreamed of purest water, while a heavy tome of blank of so treating his subject. It would have been verse may seem, in comparison, but a block of more objectively tragic, and less subjectively cornelian. Now the little volume before us, heroic in his hands; and the prayerneatly and nicely got up, but unpretending in style, and only running to some hundred and “ Pluck out this haunting Self from me" fifty pages, is literally a string of precious jewels, would, most surely, have been wanting. without one of low degree-without one unfit to star a regal crown among them. The com
“THE RESIGNATION. parison might seem strained
and far-fetched, or it would not be difficult to carry the metaphor
Povero cor, tu palpiti, farther, and show how some of these poems
Nè a torto in questo dì shine out, as if with the passionate fire-heart of
Tu palpiti così, the ruby, the shifting lights of the opal, or the
Povero core. limpid-like prism of the diamond. Like other
METABTAS10. poets, no doubt Mr. Hitchings has written in
PART I. ferior verses ; but he has shown the rare discretion not to publish them. He has not tolerated his ricketty offspring, or asked others
She bowed her head she took the crown to foster them; and the consequence is that his
In silence from her bended browvolume is a book of real poetry, in which even
She layed the golden sceptre down, an ill-natured and venomous critic would find it
And in her heart unsaid the vow. difficult to say “strike out this,” or
Without a tear, without a sigh, that."
Without a single thought of pain, Every writer must be indebted, more or less, She put the imperial purple by, to those who have gone before; nor would any And said, “ I am a girl again!" one wish it otherwise, except those raving idiots who talk nonsense about "originality" and The bells were ringing loud and clear
uneducated genius." It is from the best Gay voices sang in every street : stores of literature heaped up before the modern
She heard them shout, “ T'he prince is near!" author, that he is able to pile it still higher, and
And, pale and trembling, ran to meet. make on the hill-top his own bright fresh flowers
In robe of white she issued forth, to bloom. But do not say, be use he wisely
A simple rose-bud in her hair
Search well the world from south to north, and gladly seizes the vantage-ground before You shall not find a face so fair. him, that he is not original; on the contrary, there is no greater proof of width of mind and She stood before the palace-gateself-reliance (other phrases for originality) than Low at the prince's feet she bowed, prompt recognition and avoidance of a fault, To take his own that came in state, quickness and readiness to improve on a hint, Attended by a flattering crowd. and to perceive a beauty, and see to what other She only thought, “ Can these be gay?" excellence that beauty points. In this sense,
She only said, “ Can these forget but in no other, has Mr. Hitchings profited by
I was their queen but yesterdaythe long line of English poets of which he is a
I am their loving sister yet? worthy younger brother. Having the capacity,
“ I loved them with a tender heart
I ruled them with a gentle hand; * POEMS: BY CHARLES H. HITCHINGS, of the But cannot bid my love depart, Middle Temple. Fscp. 8vo. (Bosworth.)
As I let go my late command.
“ I love ye passing well,” she said,
As near and nearer still they drew; “ But better rest among the dead
Than wrong a heart whose love is true!"
With glances on a bashful troop
Of lads, that looked another way, There came beside a dancing group
Of bright-eyed damsels, blithe and gay. “ I love ye-love ye all,” she said,
As near and nearer still they drew; “ But better rest among the dead
Than wrong a heart whose love is true !"
“ Than wrong a heart !"-her tears fell fast
A tender conscience ached and stung, Till with the goading thought at last
Her soft and gentle soul was wrung. “ What heart? 0 Self, that can disguise
In mask of worth thine hideous mien ! What hope could lift Theodoric's eyes,
When he was page and I was queen ?
“ What heart to wrong? 'Tis I alone
The severance and the pang must bear; Mine, only mine, love's bitterest moan
None shall my patient sorrow share. And yet to part"--She raised her head
The westering sun was sinking lowHis last long beams their radiance shed
Upon her cheek, as pale as snow.
There went a pair of lovers by
She heard their whispers soft and meekShe saw the tear in either eye
That told what neither dared to speak. She heard deep words of severance said
O cruel severance !-godlike will ! “ Better to rest among the dead
Than duty's mandate unfulfil!”
She dropped upon her bended knee
She sought her God to lend her aid“ Pluck out this haunting Self from me;
Make strong this feeble heart,” she prayed. She snatched the pen-she scrawled in haste,
And slipped a pricely gem between; “ Thank God !" she cried, “ this pang is past ; Let love be as it ne'er had been!”
The sun sank down behind the hill
The crownless queen was crowned again, Who cast to earth her dearest will,
Her people's freedom to retain.
And all, save one, were blithe and gay, A youth went through the exulting crowd,
For ever from the court away.
Then learned they of her sacrifice,
Had else the fatal law returned ; Stood tears in all her people's eyes;
While love in every bosom burned. “ Now blessings on our lady's head!"
Before her feet their knees they threw. “ Better I die,” she meekly said,
"Than slight these hearts whose love is true!"
Thou wilt," she cried, “ that law restore,
Or ere I reigned that pressed them down; That drenched their streets with mingling gore,
And armed the crook against the crown. “Now, therefore, prince, a boon of thee
Thy promise, for this people's sakeAnd God be judge 'twixt thee and me,
If thou that promise falsely break : That law thou wilt no more revive :
The root of so much wrong and painSo may'st thou long and prosperous live
So may'st thou long and prosperous reign."
He raised her from the palace floor,
'He looked into her angel face, And felt, as ne'er he felt before,
How sweet compassion lendeth grace : Then answered in a softer tone,
“I have no heart to say thee nay. So thou wilt reign my queen, my own,
And call this day our bridal-day.” Then spake she forth : “ It cannot be.”
Whereat the prince in anger sware, "Well, lady, well : it rests with thee,
Thy people, if thou wilt, to spare. But, as I live, my former will,
Evil or good, shall hold its way, If thou thy part dost not fulfil
Before the sunset close the day.” The tears fell fast adown her cheek,
And heavy drooped her laden eyesSbe, struggling vainly, strove to speak,
But found no words. A storm of sighs Heaved her sweet bosom, till she fell
A fainting form before his sight, " Lady," he, passing, said, “ Farewell ! I wait to hear thy will to-night.”
In pain across her aching brow:
And bless but with a wish--and now—: She dashed her starting tears away,
She sat one moment calm and still, Bent down beneath the maddening sway
Of wounded love and struggling will. She thought on one whose voice's tone
Had thrilled so oft her listening ear; That spake of all save that alone
Had been her dearest joy to hear. “ He loves me-loves ine not !” she said :
“ Would God the fateful truth I knew ! Better to rest among the dead
Than wrong a heart whose love is true.” She turned to where the casement stood,
That looked into the crowded street; She lingered there in pensive mood,
Listening the tramp of clattering feet; She saw the fountains dance and play
The banners and the pomp she sawAnd called to mind the joyful day
That doomed to death the fatal law.
There came anear an aged man,
That leaned upon his daughter's arm : Her child beside them leaped and ran,
With cheeks like roses red and warın.
Is not this poem fresh and original, full of gentle tenderness and spiritual lustre, suggesting a hundred things which are not said-a fit com