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issued by him or his predecessors, the examination papers, both questions and the answers thereto examined by him or his predecessors, and upon which the certificate was issued; provided, that this section shall not prevent the transfer of papers to the state superintendent, as provided in section 6 of this act. [1901 C. 439 s. 3; Supl. 1906 s. 450b; 1907 C. 118]

Issue of certificate on transfer of papers. SECTION 450c. If any person holding a certificate desires to teach in any county or superintendent district other than the one for which his certificate was issued, the county superintendent of that county or district may request the county superintendent who issued the certificate to transfer to him the papers in his possession upon which the certificate was issued, whereupon it shall be the duty of the county superintendent so requested, to transfer the papers, if any. If these papers and standings are found satisfactory by the county superintendent to whom they were transferred, he may issue a certificate upon them of the same grade as the original certificate and coterminous with it, or one of a lower grade to be in force a shorter time, and he shall preserve the papers on file in his office. If the papers are found unsatisfactory, and the certificate is denied, he shall return the papers to the county superintendent from whom he received them. [1901 c. 439 s. 4; Supl. 1906 s. 450c; 1907 c. 118]

Qualifications for teachers' certificates. SECTION 450d. 1. On and after July 1, 1915, no person who shall not have taught in a public school for at least one year, shall be granted a county or city teacher's certificate to teach in the public schools of the state of Wisconsin, unless, in addition to passing an examination in all of the subjects required by law for a county or city teacher's certificate, he shall have completed the course of study provided for the common schools of the state of Wisconsin, or one equivalent thereto, or the course of study provided for a graded system of public schools containing at least eight grades, or one equivalent thereto, and shall have had at least two additional years of instruction in training, one year of which, or its equivalent, shall have been devoted to professional studies preparatory to the work of teaching; provided, that graduates of four-year high schools not maintaining training courses as provided in subsection 3 shall be required to have had, in addition to the regular work of the high school, only one additional year of training in the professional studies provided in subsection 2.

2. The term "professional studies," as used in this section, shall be interpreted to include a thorough review of the branches required by law to be taught in the common schools of the state of Wisconsin, the study of the manual of the course of study provided for the common schools, observation work, at least ten weeks of practice teaching, schcol management, school law, and such other studies as may be required by the state superintendent of public instruction to qualify a person to teach in the common schools; or, in lieu of the foregoing, a high school training course as provided in section 450—1 of the statutes.

3. The two years of additional instruction in training required in subsection 1 may be obtained at a state normal school, a county training school for teachers, or at a free high school having a course of study established for the purpose of training teachers, as provided in section 450—1 of the statutes; provided, that no course for the training of teachers shall be established in a free high school employing less than three teachers, including the principal, and unless the teacher employed to give instruction in professional work and to supervise observation work and practice teaching shall be a graduate of the advanced course from a Wisconsin state normal school, or its equivalent, and who shall, in addition, present evidence satisfactory to the state superintendent of having had at least two years' successful experience as a teacher; and, provided further, that no school shall be continued on the list of schools offering courses for the training of teachers unless the work done therein shall meet the approval of the state superintendent. [1913 c. 417]

Third grade certificates; examination branches; professional instruction. SECTION 450—1. 1. Every applicant for a third grade certificate shall be examined in orthoepy, spelling, reading, penmanship, arithmetic, elementary composition and grammar, geography, the history of the United States, the civil government of the United States and of the state of Wisconsin, physiology and hygiene with special reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system, school management, the manual of the elementary course of study for the common schools of Wisconsin, the elements of agriculture and rural economics, and after January 1, 1915, in the cataloging and use of schcol libraries; and in addition to passing examinations in the aforesaid branches, he shall have attended a professional school for teachers for at least six weeks and shall have received in such school standings in school management, and in the methods of teaching reading and language, arithmetic and geography, provided, however, that the provisions of this section relative to attendance at professional schools for teachers shall not apply to persons who have taught successfully in the public schools for at least eight months prior to July 1, 1910, nor to graduates from free high school teachers' training courses

which had been especially approved by the state superintendent prior to July 1, 1910, nor to graduates from teachers' training courses equivalent thereto, which, since. July 1, 1910, have been, or which in the future may be, adopted by any high school board or board of education, and approved by the state superintendent.

Definition. 2. In this act "professional school for teachers” shall mean a state normal school, a county training school for teachers, any school in rank above a high school, offering a course for teachers equivalent to that offered in the state normal schools of Wisconsin, in counties where county training schools or joint county training schools have not been established, a free high school which provides and maintains a teachers' training course approved as to course of study and qualifications of teachers, by the state superintendent, or a teachers' institute maintained under such conditions and restrictions as may be provided for by the board of regents of normal schools, provided that such institute shall be taught by at least two teachers and be of not less duration than six weeks, and shall have in connection therewith a model or practice school.

Force; renewal. 3. A third grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach for such period, not more than one year, as may be specified therein, in the superintendent's district in which the certificate is issued. A third grade certificate may be renewed if the holder shall during the life of the certificate attend a professional school for teachers for a period of not less than six weeks and shall receive in such school credits in at least two subjects required for a second grade certificate. The holder of a third grade certificate may also renew the same by passing an examination in all the subjects required for a third grade certificate. [1909 C. 378; 1911 c. 132, 569; 1911 c. 663 s. 20; 1913 c. 144, 491]

Second grade; examination; branches; experience. SECTION 450—2. 1. An applicant to receive a second grade certificate shall have taught successfully in the public schools for at least eight months and shall pass à satisfactory examination in all the branches required for a third grade certificate, and in addition in physical geography, American literature, English composition, and in the cataloguing and use of school libraries. The county or city superintendent may transfer the standings of a third grade certificate in force to a second grade certificate if the holder of such third grade certificate has taught a school successfully for at least eight months and has attended, since receiving such third grade certificate, a professional school for teachers for at least six weeks and received credits in at least two subjects required for a second grade certificate.

Force. 2. A second grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach in the superintendent's district where it is issued and shall be in force three years from the date of its issue.

Renewal. 3. A second grade certificate may be renewed if the holder thereof shall pass an examination in all the subjects required for a second grade certificate. A second grade certificate may also be renewed without examination provided the holder thereof has taught successfully for two years during the life of such certificate and has attended a professional school for teachers for at least six weeks and received credits in at least two subjects required for a first grade certificate. [1909 c. 378; 1911 c. 663 s. 22]

First grade; examination; branches; experience. SECTION 450—3. 1. An applicant to receive a first grade certificate shall have taught successfully for at least eight months in the public schools and shall pass a satisfactory examination in all the branches required for a second grade certificate, and in addition in English literature, theory and art of teaching, algebra, physics and English history. The county or city superintendent may transfer the standing of a second grade certificate in force to a first grade certificate if the holder of such second grade certificate has taught a school successfully for at least eight months and has attended, since receiving such secord grade certificate, a professional school for teachers for at least six week and received credits in at least two subjects required for a first grade certificate.

Force. 2. A first grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach in the superintendent's district in which it is issued and shall be in force for five years.

Renewal. 3. A first grade certificate may be renewed by the county or city superintendent for one or more periods of five years each, provided the holder has taught successfully for a period of ten years. [1909 C..378; 1911 c. 663 s. 23]

Special third grade certificates. SECTION 450-4. Whenever the supply of legally qualified teachers in any county has been exhausted the county or city superintendent with the approval of the state superintendent may issue special third grade certificates on examination in the subjects required for such certificates to as many persons as are necessary to supply the schools, provided that not more than one such certificate shall be issued to the same person. [1909 C. 378] Certificates; issue; unlawful renewal and transfer. SECTION 450–5.

1. No first, second or third grade teacher's certificate shall be issued after July 1, 1910, except as

provided in sections 450–1 to 450—4, inclusive, of this act, provided further that nothing in this act shall repeal the provisions of section 450a of the statutes.

2. Any person so desiring, may, however, qualify for the several grades of certificates, provided for in this act, as therein required, at any time after its passage and publication. [1909 c. 378]

Equivalent substitute for teacher's examination. SECTION 450—6. In an examination for the issuance or for the renewal of a county or city teacher's certificate, the county or city superintendent may, at his discretion, accept as a substitute for examination in any required subject, in which the applicant shall have previously passed a satisfactory examination in writing for a teacher's certificate, evidence of the satisfactory reading by the applicant during the life of the certificate then in force, or which expired not more than two months previously, of one book included in the list of books of the Wisconsin teachers' reading circle, which list shall have been approved by the state superintendent, and which shall have been prescribed for the group of teachers to which the applicant belongs. Such reading shall have been additional to that required for registration of the applicant's certificate and in the case of each book shall have been done within the period when it was on the said reading circle list. [1915 c. 220]

Standard of attainment in branches required for certificates. SECTION 451. Each county superintendent shall establish for his county, ubject to the approval of the state superintendent, the standard of attainment in each branch of study which must be reached by each applicant before receiving a certificate. The standard so established shall be uniform in the county or superintendent district and no certificates shall be issued until the standard is established. The standard in the branches of study common to the third grade and the second grade certificates shall be higher for the second than for the third grade certificate, and the standard in the branches common to the second grade and the first grade branches shall be higher for the first grade than for the second grade certificate. The county superintendent may demand an examination in such additional branches as the applicant may be required to teach, and whenever he shall deem it necessary he may require a re-examination of any teacher in his county or superintendent district for the purpose of ascertaining his qualifications to continue as such teacher. [1862 c. 176 s. 6,8; 1863 c. 155 s. 105, 106; R. S. 1878 s. 451; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 451; 1897 c. 351; Stats. 1898 s. 451; 1901 c. 439 s. 5; Supl. 1906 s. 451; 1907 c. 118]

Appeal to state superintendent from markings by county superintendent. SECTION 452. Any applicant refused a certificate as teacher by the county superintendent, may apply to the state superintendent for a re-examination. The superintendent, upon demand, shall give any applicant refused a certificate a written statement of the reasons of such refusal, which shall be presented to the state superintendent by the person desiring re-examination. If upon such re-examination the state superintendent shall be satisfied that such applicant is legally qualified, he shall issue a certificate of the proper grade, which shall entitle him to the same privileges as if it had been issued by the county superintendent. In the exercise of his powers of general supervision of the schools, the state superintendent is hereby authorized to call for the examination papers, both questions and answers, of any person to whom a certificate has been granted, and it is made the duty of all county superintendents to furnish such papers when so called for. If, upon examination of the papers, the state superintendent is satisfied that the person to whom the certificate has been granted is not qualified, he may annul the certificate. [1863 c. 102 s. 1; 1863 c. 155 s. 110; R. S. 1878 s. 452; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 452; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 8. 452; 1901 c. 439 s. 6; Supl. 1906 s. 452; 1907 c. 118]

High school diploma countersigned as certificate. SECTION 452a. The free high school board shall make out and deliver to each graduate of the high school at the time of graduation, a certificate of his standing in the branches pursued by him in such school; and if such graduate of a high school, having a four years' course, receive a first grade certificate from any county superintendent, and furnish to him or to any other county superintendent, satisfactory proof of having taught successfully at least one school year, under such first grade certificate, such county superintendent may countersign his certificate of graduation or diploma at any time before the expiration of the first grade certificate, and affix the date of such signature thereto. The diploma so countersigned shall have for the period of five years thereafter, the force and effect of a first grade certificate. It shall be lawful for more than one county superintendent to countersign the diploma, but no countersignature shall have the effect of extending the diploma as a first grade certificate, beyond the expiration of the five years immediately following the date of its first countersignature. [1885 c. 311; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 452a; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1893 8. 452a; 1901 c. 439 s. 7; Supl. 1906 s. 452a; 1907 c. 118; 1911 c. 179]

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Superintendent may accept normal school standings. SECTION 452b. Any school superintendent or officer authorized to grant certificates to teachers in the common schools, is hereby authorized, in his discretion, to accept standings obtained by the completion of studies in any normal school of the state, when duly certified by the president of said normal school, in lieu of actual examination by said superintendent or examiner, at any time within three years after such standings were first obtained and recorded in said normal school. The provisions of this section shall apply to certificates of the first, second or third grades. [1899 C. 104 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 452b; 1907 c. 118]

SECTION 452c. [Repealed by 1915 c. 229]

Charges against teachers. SECTION 453. If any charges be made in writing to any county superintendent, over the signature of a complainant, against any teacher in the superintendent's district, affecting his moral character, learning or ability to teach the superintendent shall give to the complainant, the teacher and the board by whom he is employed at least ten days' notice in writing containing a statement of the charges and of the time and place when and where he will hear the same. He shall proceed according to the notice to hear the proofs on either side and give the accused a reasonable opportunity to defend himself; he may administer oaths, and if he find the charges sustained and sufficient annul his certificate; but the teacher shall not be disqualified thereby until notice containing his name, the date of and reasons for such annulment be filed in the office of the town clerk and a copy thereof delivered to the clerk of the district in which the teacher is employed. [1863 c. 155 s. 92, 108, 109; R. S. 1878 s. 453; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 453; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 453]

State certificates; high school principals' certificates. SECTION 454. The state superintendent shall, before the fourth Wednesday of August in each year, appoint three competent persons, residents of this state, who shall constitute a board of examiners. Said board shall meet at the capitol once or more each year, at such times and also at such other places as the state superintendent shall prescribe, for the examination of all applicants for state certificates; provided, the state superintendent is hereby authorized to examine principals of high schools and of free high schools who shall have been elected superintendents of the city schools containing such high school, and to grant certificates to successful candidates, valid for one year and in a single locality. The state superintendent shall prescribe the manner of making application, of conducting and managing such examinations, reporting the results thereof, and, with the advice of the examiners, in what branches of study, in addition to those fixed by law, the applicant for an unlimited state certificate shall be examined. [1868 c. 169 s. 1, 2, 5; R. S. 1878 s. 454; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 454; 1891 c. 457; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 454]

What branches; effect of certificate. SECTION 455. To entitle an applicant to a limited state certificate the examiners shall be satisfied and report to the state superintendent that he possesses the requisite scholarship in all the branches of study required for a first grade county certificate and also in mental philosophy and English literature. To entitle him to an unlimited state certificate they shall be satisfied and report that he possesses the requisite scholarship in all the branches above named and in such others as shall have been prescribed. He shall furnish to the examiners such evidence of good moral character, experience and success in teaching as they may require, and upon their recommendation the state superintendent shall issue to him such certificate as is awarded by their report. A limited state certificate shall qualify him to teach in any public school without further examination for five years from its date, unless sooner annulled, and an unlimited state certificate until annulled. [1868 c. 169 s. 3; 1873 c. 33 s. 1; R. S. 1878 s. 455; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 455; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 455]

Record of examination. SECTION 456. The state superintendent shall record the date of each certificate and the name, age and residence of the person to whom issued; and he shall preserve on file in his office all papers relating to the examination of applicants for state certificates. [1868 c. 169 s. 7; R. S. 1878 s. 456; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 456; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 456]

Revocation of certificate. SECTION 457. Any state certificate may be revoked by the state superintendent for incompetency or immoral conduct; but before any such revocation the holder shall be served with a written statement of the charges against him and shall have an opportunity for defense. [1868 c. 169 s. 4; R. S. 1878 8. 457; Ann. Slats. 1889 s. 457; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 457]

SECTION 458. [Repealed by 1913 c. 772 s. 125]

Teachers' state certificates of other states; acceptance in Wisconsin; special licenses. SECTION 458a. The holder of a teacher's state certificate granted, by another state, which is equivalent to the Wisconsin unlimited state certificate, may receive from the state superintendent, upon the recommendation of the Wisconsin state board of examiners, a Wis

consin unlimited state certificate. The applicant shall furnish such evidence of learning and good moral character as the board may require, and also of two years' successful experience in teaching in the public schools of Wisconsin subsequent to the date of issuance of the foreign state certificate. The holder of such state certificate upon which a Wisconsin state certificate has not been issued in accordance with the provisions herein mentioned, may, upon the recommendation of the state board of examiners, be granted a special license by the state superintendent, said special license legally qualifying the holder to teach for two years in a public school in Wisconsin. [1880 с. 209; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 458a; 1893 c. 156 s. 5; 1895 c. 243 s. 1; 1897 c. 354 s. 458a sub. 1; Stats. 1898 s. 158a; 1907 c. 579 s. 1, 2]

Normal graduates, kindergarten course; teaching licenses and certificates. SECTION 458b. The state superintendent shall issue to the holder of a diploma, granted by the board of regents of normal schools to any person who completed the kindergarten training course established by said board in any of the state normal schools, a license entitling the holder to teach in any public kindergarten in this state for one year. Upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence of successful teaching for one year in any public kindergarten in this state such license may be renewed for one year by the state superintendent. The holder of such a diploma may receive an unlimited state certificate, entitling him or her to teach in any public kindergarten in this state for life unless sooner revoked, upon the furnishing of evidence of good moral character, and two years' successful teaching after graduation, in a public kindergarten in the state of Wisconsin, together with the certificate required in section 4586—2. (1907 c. 579; 1913 c. 514]

Normal graduates, manual training and domestic science; teaching licenses and certificates. SECTION 4586–1. The state superintendent shall issue to the holder of a diploma granted by the board of regents of normal schools to any person who completes the training course for teachers of manual training or domestic science, established by said board in any of the Wisconsin state normal schools a license entitling the holder to teach manual training or domestic science for one year in any school forming a part of the public school system. Upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence of successful teaching for one year of manual training or domestic science in any school forming a part of the public school system such license may be renewed for one year by the state superintendent. The holder of such diploma may receive an unlimited state certificate entitling him to teach manual training or domestic science in any public school in this state for life, unless sooner revoked, upon furnishing evidence of good moral character, and two years' successful teaching of such branches, after graduation, in a public school in the state of Wisconsin, together with the certificate required in section 4586—2. [1907 c. 579 s. 2; 1913 c. 514]

University graduates in pedagogy; teaching license. SECTION 4586—2. 1. The president of the University of Wisconsin shall issue to all graduates of the regular collegiate courses of such university, a certified statement showing the name of the graduate, the date of graduation, the course from which graduated, and that said graduate has completed the course of pedagogical instruction prescribed by the university for all persons who intend to teach. This certificate when presented to the state superintendent, shall entitle the holder thereof to receive a license qualifying the holder to teach in any public school in the state of Wisconsin for one year from the date of issuance. Upon presentation of satisfactory evidence of successful teaching for one year in the public schools of the state, such license may be renewed for one year by the state superintendent.

Normal graduates; full course; teaching licenses. 2. The president of each state normal school shall issue to the graduates of the full course of the normal school, as well as to the persons completing the elementary course, a statement bearing even date with the diploma or certificate, setting forth the name of the person and the course from which graduated. This certificate when presented to the state superintendent, shall entitle the holder thereof to receive a license, qualifying the holder to teach in the public schools of Wisconsin for one year from date of issuance. Upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence of successful teaching for one year in the public schools of the state, such license may be renewed for one year by the state superintendent.

University and normal graduates; state certificates; high school principalship. 3. The state superintendent, upon the presentation of a statement hereinbefore mentioned in this section, and satisfactory evidence of good moral character, and two years' successful teaching after graduation in the public schools of the state of Wisconsin, shall issue certificates as follows: To any person who shall hold a university or normal school diploma, an unlimited state certificate; to any person who shall hold a normal school elementary certificate, a limited state certificate, qualifying the holder to teach in a public school for a period not to exceed six years from the date of issuance of the normal school certificate. Neither a limited state certificate, nor a license to teach based upon the certificate from the

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