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elementary course of a normal school, shall qualify the holder as principal of a free higu school having four years' course of study. [1907 c. 579 s. 2; 1913 c. 514]

Diplomas of other universities, etc. SECTION 458c. The holder of a diploma granted by any incorporated college or university whose regular collegiate courses are fully and fairly equivalent to corresponding courses of the University of Wisconsin, or the holder of a diploma granted by a state normal school whose courses of study are fully and fairly equivalent to the courses of study in the Wisconsin normal schools, may present such diploma, together with evidence of the required standing of the college, university or normal school granting the same, to the board of examiners. The applicant shall furnishi therewith testimonials of good moral character and of two years' successful teaching in a public school after the date of said diploma. The holder of any such diploma recommended favorably by the board shall be entitled to receive an unlimited state certificate. The holder of a diploma granted upon the completion of a course of study accredited as herein provided, upon which a state certificate has not been issued, upon the recommendation of the board of examiners made in pursuance of such examination as to learning, moral character and ability to teach as said board may require, may receive from the state superintendent a license qualifying the holder to teach in any public school in the state for one year from the date of issuance, upon the presentation of satisfactory evidence of successful teaching for one year in the public schools of the state. Such license may be renewed for one year by the state superintendent. [1830 с. 209; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 458a; 1893 c. 156; 1895 c. 243; 1897 c. 354 s. 458a sub. 3; Stats. 1898 s. 453c; 1999 c. 237 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 458c; 1907 c. 118; 1913 c. 514]

SECTION 458d. [Repealed by 1907 c. 579]

Revocation of state certificate, etc. SECTION 458e. Any.state certificate or license, or the equivalent of them, may be revoked by the state superintendent for incompetency or immoral conduct; but before any such revocation the holder shall be served with a written statement of the charges against him and shall have an opportunity for defense. (1.39.5 c. 243 s. 5; 1897 c. 354 s. 458a sub. 5; Stats. 1898 s. 458e]

SECTION 458f. [Repealed by 1911 c. 182]
SECTIONS 4589 and 458h. (Repealed by 1907 c. 579]

Psychology and pedagogy, when required. SECTION 458ha. After the first day of July, 1900, graduates of colleges and universities, in order that their diplomas may become an authorization to teach in the public schools of this state, as now provided by law, must present with them to the state superintendent of public instruction satisfactory evidence of having given to psychology and pedagogy at least as much study as is required, in this state, of candidates for a life certificate. [1399 c. 120 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 453ha; 1907 c. 118]

Diplomas, etc., to supervisors and teachers. SECTION 458i. The state superintendent is authorized and empowered to countersign diplomas and issue state certificates to persons who are engaged in supervising work in the public schools or teaching in colleges or normal schools, otlierwise legally qualified under existing statutes or are recommended by the state board of examiners. (1905 c. 231 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 458i; 1907 c. 113]

Special licenses. SECTION 458). The state superintendent may issue a special license good only until the next meeting of the state board of examiners in cases where the applicant gives satisfactory evidence that his qualifications and credentials shall meet the requirements of the board of examiners; said temporary license to be issued only in urgent cases and in order that the school board, or board of education may be legally authorized to pay the salary of said teacher from the funds of the district for services rendered. (1905 c. 231 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 458j; 1907 C. 118]

Special certificates. SECTION 458k. The state superintendent may upon the recommendation of the state board of examiners, grant a special certificate legally qualifying the holder to teach such special branch or branches in the public schools as may be named on the face of the certificate. [1905 c. 231 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 4.58k; 1997 c. 118]

Limited special certificates. SECTION 4581. Upon the recommendation of the state board of examiners an applicant may be granted a limited special certificate qualifying him to teach not more than one special branch in the public schools, said certificate being limited to one particular school or district to be named in the certificate, said certificate to be null and void in any other school or district. [1905 c. 231 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 4581; 1907 c. 118]

SECTION 458m. [Repealed by 1907 c. 579]

Other diplomas; special license. SECTION 458n. The holder of a diploma granted by any manual training school or school of domestic science, upon the completion of a training course for teachers in either subject fully and fairly equivalent to the course of instruction for teachers in the same subjects prescribed by the board of regents of normal

schools, may present such diploma, together with the evidence of the required standing of the training school issuing such diploma, to the state board of examiners. The applicant shall furnish therewith testimonials of good moral character and of two years' successful teaching of manual training or domestic science, as the case may be, in the public schools of the state after the date of such diploma. The holder of any such diploma, recommended favorably by the board, shall be entitled to receive a certificate issued by the state superintendent, qualifying the holder as a teacher of manual training or of domestic science, until the same shall be annulled. The holder of a diploma granted upon the completion of a course of study, accredited as herein provided, upon which a state certificate has not been issued, upon the recommendation of the board of examiners made in pursuance of such examination as to learning, moral character and ability to teach as said board may require, may be given a special license by the state superintendent to teach manual training or domestic science as recommended by the board, for two years in the public schools of the state. [1903 c. 64 s. 2; Supl. 1906 s. 458n; 1907 c. 118]

City superintendents' certificates. 'SECTION 4580. It shall be the duty of the city superintendent of schools, in those cities of the third and fourth class in which the office of city superintendent of schools has been created or may hereafter be created by the common council thereof under the provisions of section 925—23 of the statutes of 1898, to examine and license teachers, and under the direction of the board of education to supervise and manage the schools. (1901 c. 316 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 4580; 1907 c. 118]

City superintendents' special certificates. SECTION 458p. Any city superintendent of schools may issue certificates to teachers of special branches, qualifying them to teach such branches in the schools under his supervision, after such examination as to their fitness to teach such branches as may be provided by the school board and approved by the state superintendent. [1899 c. 148 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 458p; 1907 c. 118]

Kindergarten training school diploma to entitle to state certificate, when. SECTION 458q. 1. The holder of a diploma granted by any kindergarten training school whose course of instruction is fully and fairly equivalent to the course of instruction in kindergarten training prescribed by the board of regents of normal schools in any of the state normal schools, may present such diploma, together with evidence of the required standing of the kindergarten training school issuing such diploma to the state board of examiners.

2. The applicant shall furnish therewith testimonials of good moral character and of two years' successful teaching in a kindergarten or primary grades in the public schools in Wisconsin after the date of such diploma.

3. The holder of any such diploma recommended favorably by the board shall be entitled to receive a certificate issued by the state superintendent qualifying the holder to teach in any public kindergarten or primary grade in the state, until the same shall be annulled.

4. The holder of a diploma granted upon the completion of a course of study accredited as herein provided, upon which a state certificate has not been issued, upon the recommendation of the board of examiners made in pursuance of such examination as to learning, moral character and ability to teach as said board may require, may be given a special license by the state superintendent to teach for one year in any kindergarten or in primary grades in the public schools of Wisconsin. (1901 c. 317 s. 1; 1903 c. 69 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 4589; 1907 c. 118, 317; 1913 c. 514]

Unlimited certificates. SECTION 458r. An unlimited state certificate qualifying the holder to teach in any public kindergarten in the state until annulled, shall be issued by the state superintendent to any person recommended for such certificate by the state board of examiners, after such examination as shall satisfy the examiners that the applicant possesses the requisite scholarship in all the branches prescribed in the course of instruction for kindergarten training by the board of regents of normal schools for any of the state normal schools; provided, further, that the applicant shall furnishi to the examiners such evidence of good moral character, experience, and success in teachiing as they may require. [1901 c. 347 s. 2; Supl. 1906 s. 458r; 1907 c. 118]

Three grades of kindergarten teachers established; examinations for; transfer. SECTION 458s. In addition to the foregoing there are hereby established three grades of certificates for kindergarten teachers, to be known as first, second, third. Every applicant for a kindergarten certificate shall be examined in the 'subjects hereinafter mentioned for the several grades respectively, as follows: For the third grade in orthoepy, orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, physiology and hygiene with special reference to the physiology and hygiene of childhood, drawing, music, juvenile literature, and theory and art of kindergarten teaching. For the second

grade, in all the foregoing, and also in general literature and the elements of botany. For the first grade, in all the foregoing, and also in the history of education as related to the development of the kindergarten, and in the elements of zoology. If found qualified, the applicant shall receive the certificate of appropriate grade. The third grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach in any kindergarten for such period not more than one year, as may be specified therein, in any town or city in the superintendent district in which the applicant is examined, except that it may be limited by the county or city superintendent to one town or school therein. A second grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach in any kindergarten in any town or city in such superintendent district, and be in force for two years from its date. A first grade certificate shall entitle the holder to teach in any kindergarten in any town or city in such superintendent district, and be in force for four years from its date; but the county or city superintendent may limit the same to one year and remove the limitations upon satisfactory evidence that the holder has successfully taught a public kindergarten in this state for at least six months. If a person pass a satisfactory examination by any county or city superintendent and obtain a certificate of either grade, and propose to teach in another superintendent district, it shall be lawful for the superintendent holding the papers written at the examination for such certificate, upon the request of any county or city superintendent, to transfer such papers to him, and if found satisfactory, a certificate thereon, of the proper grade, to be conterminous with the original certificate, may be issued by him, to the same effect as though he had examined the applicant himself. [1901 c. 347 s. 3; Supl. 1906 s. 4588; 1907 c. 118]

Legally qualified teacher must hold certificate. SECTION 458t. After July 1, 1902, no person shall be deemed a legally qualified kindergarten teacher in the state of Wisconsin who does not hold a certificate granted by the proper officer under the provisions of sections 4589, 458r and 458s; provided, that nothing herein shall operate to invalidate kindergarten certificates issued under the authority of the board of education of any city prior to the passage of this act; nor to affect the validity of kindergarten certificates issued under the provisions of section 458g of statutes, and provided further, that the provisions of sections 458q, 458r and 458s shall not apply to cities of the first class. [1901 c. 347 s. 4; Supl. 1906 s. 458t; 1907 c. 118; 1911 c. 663 s. 25]

School month; primary election days; attendance at teachers' meetings. SECTION 459. Twenty days of teaching shall constitute a school month unless it be otherwise specified in the contract, and all legal holidays, except the day of any primary election or any general election, occurring on school days shall be counted although no school be taught; but school taught on legal holidays shall not be counted for two school days, and no Saturday shall be counted. The board may give to any teacher employed, without deduction from his wages, the whole or any part of any time spent by him in attending the sessions of any institute held in the county embracing any part of the district, in attending a school board convention, or in attending the meeting of any teachers' association, upon such teacher furnishing to the clerk, to be filed by him, a certificate of regular attendance on such institute, school board convention, or teachers' association, signed by the person conducting the institute or convention or by the secretary of the association. [1867 c. 30 s. 4; 1869 c. 151 s. 43; 1871 c. 168 s. 1; 1876 c. 39; R. S. 1878 S. 459; 1887 c. 440; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 459; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 459; 1903 c. 326 s. 1; Supl. 1906 s. 459; 1907 c. 92, 118; 1913 c. 255]

School register; teacher's report. SECTION 460. The teacher shall enter in the register furnished by the clerk the names, ages and studies of all scholars attending school, and daily their attendance and absence and such other facts as the county superintendent or state superintendent may require; which register the teacher shall deliver to the clerk at the close of his service or whenever it may be required for the use of the board. The teacher shall make in writing and transmit to the board or to the county superintendent a report concerning any matter relating to his school in such form or manner as the board or superintendent may prescribe; and any teacher who shall wilfully neglect or refuse to make entries in the register as above required shall forfeit his wages for teaching during the time of such neglect or refusal. [1854 c. 80 s. 32; R. S. 1858 c. 22 s. 33; 1863 c. 155 s. 45, 131; 1867 c. 111 s. 5; R. S. 1878 s. 460; Ann. Stats. 1889 s. 460; 1897 c. 354; Stats. 1898 s. 460]

TEACHERS' RETIREMENT FUND.

Election of board of trustees. SECTION 460—1. 1. There is created a teachers' insurance and retirement fund, which shall be managed by a board of trustees to be known as the board of trustees of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund. Such board

shall consist of five members. The state treasurer and the state superintendent of public instruction shall be ex officio members of said board; three members, one of whom shall be a woman, shall be elected by the members of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund at their annual meeting, as provided in subsection 2 of this section. One such elective member may be a retired member of the fund. No teacher shall be elected as a member of the board of trustees by the members of said fund, who is not a member of said fund at the time of election. The term of office of elective members of said board of trustees shall be three years, except as provided in subsection 3 of this section, and shall begin on the first day of January, next succeeding after such election takes place, provided that the elective members of the first board of trustees shall assume office immediately after their election.

2. At the time and place of meeting of the Wisconsin state teachers' association for the year 1911, those teachers described in and complying with section 460–8 shall be qualified to meet for the purpose of electing from such qualified teachers members of the board of trustees of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund, as provided in section 460_1.

3. The teachers qualified, as provided in section 460—8, shall at the annual meeting for 1911 elect as members of the board of trustees, as provided in section 460—1, one male teacher for a term of one year, one male teacher for a term of two years, and one female teacher for a term of three years; and annually thereafter, at the time and place of meeting of the Wisconsin state teachers' association, the board of trustees shall call a meeting of the members of the fund for the purpose of electing members of the board of trustees, of making the annual report of said fund, and for the transaction of such other business as may pertain to the interests of the fund.

4. In case any vacancy occurs among the members of the board elected at the annual meeting of said members of the fund, said board shall fill said vacancy until the next → annual meeting of the members of the fund, when said members at said annual meeting shall elect a trustee for the unexpired term.

5. In the interval of time between the passage of this act and until the elective members of the first board of trustees assume office, as provided in subsection 1 of this section, the state superintendent of public instruction and the state treasurer shall constitute a temporary board of trustees of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund. Said temporary board shall account for all its transactions pertaining to the fund in the same manner as the said board of trustees. [1911 c. 323; 1911 c. 664 s. 78]

Organization of board; secretary. SECTION 460—2. Said board of trustees shall organize by the election of a president. The state treasurer shall be ex officio treasurer of said board, and shall receive and make payments from and account for said funds in the same manner as for other state funds. Said board may employ a secretary to be chosen for such a term as shall be determined by said board. Said secretary shall perform such duties in connection vith the teachers' insurance and retirement fund as may be prescribed by the board. [1911 c. 323]

Board meetings; rules. SECTION 460—3. Said board shall meet during the month of September of each year at its office at a time to be fixed by the board and at any other time on the call of the president or of any two members thereof. Said board may adopt rules for the government of its meetings and for membership in the fưnd, payments thereto and therefrom, and for other matters which will be calculated to aid teachers in securing the benefit of the fund. [1911 c. 323]

Traveling expenses of board members; salary of secretary; disbursements. Section 460—4. Members of said board shall receive no compensation except their necessary traveling expenses incurred in attending the meetings, to be paid from the teachers' insurance and retirement fund upon the certificate of the president and secretary; but if the board shall elect one of its members secretary, such member shall receive compensation for services rendered as secretary. The secretary of said board shall receive a salary to be fixed by the board, at an amount not to exceed eighteen hundred dollars per annum. The compensation of the secretary and any other necessary expenses incurred by said board in carrying out the provisions of sections 460—1 to 460—20, inclusive, shall be paid from the fund. [1911 c. 323; 1911 c. 664 s. 78; 1915 c. 332]

Control and investment of fund. SECTION 460–5. Said board shall have charge of the fund and shall invest the same under the same conditions as the trust funds of the state may be invested. [1911 c. 323]

Report of board. SECTION 460—6. Said board shall report annually as of the yea ending the first day of September. A copy of said report shall be transmitted to the annual meeting of the members of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund and to

the state superintendent of public instruction. Said superintendent shall include a copy of said report in his biennial report to the governor. [1911 c. 323]

Legal status of board; attorney-general to represent. SECTION 460—7. Said board shall not be a corporation, but may sue and be sued in the name of the board. All actions brought by or against the board shall be prosecuted or defended, as the case may be, by the attorney-general. [1911 c. 323]

Assessments to create fund; elective participation. SECTION 460–8. 1. Any person or officer authorized by law to pay the salaries of teachers—as defined in this act-shail retain on every pay day from the salary of each teacher the amounts herein provided. Each teacher shall be furnished a statement by such person or officer, showing the amount so deducted from his or her salary.

2. Every teacher shall be assessed upon his or her salary as teacher for a period of twenty-five years as follows: One per centum per annum, but not more than fifteen dollars per year, for each of the first ten years of service as teacher; and two per centum per annum, but not more than thirty dollars per year, for each successive year of service: as teacher, until said teacher shall have had a total of twenty-five years of teaching service when said assessments shall cease. The total amount paid into said fund by each teacher shall be based upon said twenty-five years of service as teacher with assessments as provided in this subsection; provided that such total amount shall not be less than the full amount of the annuity to which such teacher shall be entitled for the first. year.

3. In becoming a teacher in said public schools after September 1, 1911, he or she shall be conclusively deemed to undertake and agree to pay such assessments, and to lave such assessments deducted from his or her salary as herein provided.

4. Any person employed as teacher in said public schools, when sections 460—1 to 460—20, inclusive, take effect, may, at any time before September 1, 1912, elect to come within the provisions of sections 460—1 to 460-20, inclusive, by notifying in writing the board of trustees of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund.

5. At the time of giving said notice to the board of trustees, as herein provided, such teacher shall notify the local school board or any other managing body in writing of his or her election to come within the provisions of this act; and shall authorize said school board, as a part of said notice, to deduct from each payment of salary due him or her a sum equal to said per centum of such payment as provided in subsection 2 of this section. [1911 c. 323; 1911 c. 664 s. 78; 1915 c. 495]

Constitution of fund; reports of boards, superintendents and treasurers; transmission of assessments to state treasurer. SECTION 460—9. 1. Each such school district board, each high school district board, each town board of school directors, each board of education, or other managing body, shall each year, between the twentieth and thirtieth days of June, forward to the treasurer of the town, village, or city in which the schoolhouse of said teacher is located, a statement verified by the secretary or clerk thereof of the moneys so retained, in accordance with the provisions of section 460—8, together with said moneys so retained.

2. Said statement shall also include the following: Name and monthly salary of each of said teachers; number of months of school taught by each teacher in said public schools of the district, village, or city over which said school board, or other managing body, has jurisdiction during the school year for which the statement is made ; the number of months constituting a school year in such district, village, or city; the total salary of each teacher; the total amount withheld from the salary of each teacher, in accordance with the provisions of section 460—8; the total amount so withheld from the salaries of all of said teachers for the school year, next preceding; and the total number of years each teacher has taught in the public schools of the state.

3. Said school board shall at the same time ser:d a copy of said statement to the superintendent of the county, district, or city in which said schoolhouse is located.

4. If no teacher in such city, village, town, or school district comes under the provisions of section 460—8, the school board or other managing body of such city, village, town, or school district shall state this fact under the oath of the secretary or clerk thereof to the treasurer of said city, village, or town; and shall at the same time forward a copy of said statement to the superintendent of said county, district, or city.

5. Each county, district, and city superintendent shall each year, between the thirtieth day of June and the tenth day of July, report under oath to the board of trustees of the teachers' insurance and retirement fund. Said report shail contain an itemized account of the statements received by him from the school boards and a statement of the total amount with beld from the salaries of all of said teachers in said report.

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