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fastnesses of the Cevennes and the Vivarez to defy the power of down to a yet more narrow and hazardous spot. But their their sovereign. It was a fierce and protracted contest ; and, at the motions were too quick for the poor lunatic; and, as the infatuated time when our tale opens, the sieur de Montrevel, an officer of peasantry saw their prophetess rudely seized, her powerless hands high repute, had been sent against the rebels. The severity with bound with leathern belts, while her head sunk despairingly on her which he treated those who fell into his hands, struck no terror breast, they again sent forth a howl, which startled the wolves in into the survivors ; they seized every opportunity of making stern their dens. It was in vain that Cavalier now strove to rally the reprisals ; and, as he advanced farther into the heart of their undisciplined insurgents ; astounded, panic-stricken at an event so territory, carrying devastation among their humble cottages, and unexpected as the capture of La Grande Marie, they lifted not a the fields which they had almost created on the bare rocks, they hand against the triumphant soldiery, but hovered along the fought him at every pass with frenzied courage.
precipices above the road, and gazed in stupid amazement at their He arrived one sunny morning at a defile, which led down into progress. When Cavalier reminded them, that she had the power a green valley, whose peaceful hamlet was to be reduced to ashes. to save herself yet from the hands of the destroyer, and would Not a human being appeared along the grey cliffs above, not a undoubtedly put it forth in some unlooked-for miracle, a gleam of living thing stirred in the silent village; a few smokes rose from hope brightened their rugged faces; but they only watched the the cottages, but no children sported on the green, no old men sat more intently for the anticipated exhibition of superhuman power. before their doors, no dogs barked at the stranger's approach. On Montrevel and his party at length disengaged themselves in safety marched the well-trained soldiers into the scene of their work; from the passes where alone their enemies could annoy them, and and, in a few minutes, brands, snatched from the lately deserted marched down with floating banners and gay music upon the green hearths, kindled a crackling conflagration ; the red flames and plains. The mountaineers still kept them in view from the nearest black smoke rushed up, and the soldiers, again forming into ranks
striving with sad and wishful eyes to distinguish the form on a green slope where the rising breeze drove the smoke from of the prophetess. Instead of proceeding with rapid steps to the them, sent forth a shout of triumph to the surrounding rocks. white town, which glittered in the sunshine at a few miles' distance, The rocks echoed it back again and again, and, as the last rever- Montrevel no sooner found himself on level ground, safe from the beration died away among the hills, another and yet wilder sound assaults of hill-warfare, than he halted near a solitary tall tree, answered it from the depths of their forests. A yell of mingled which stretched its branches abroad, as if to invite the heated voices arose from unseen spectators, which might have thrilled traveller to its shadow. There was a pause ; the soldiers were stouter hearts than those of the armed myrmidons of power. The taking breath after their hurried march ; there was a bustle ; but march was again resumed ; there appeared to be no farther passage they did not disperse, nor sit down on the grass to rest their weary through the everlasting barrier that rose beyond the village, and limbs ; and in a few minutes more, their march was resumed with the sieur de Montrevel led his men back through the defile he had increased speed. As they cleared the ground under the large tree, descended so quietly an hour before. But at a sudden turn in the the distant spectators caught sight of a fearful object. It was the road, his quick eye discerned the figures of several mountaineers, well-known scarlet drapery,-it was the body of their prophetess, vanishing behind the trees and rocks; and he halted, that his men, -suspended from one of the lower branches of the oak. No cry already panting with the fatigue of climbing the steep, might take burst now from their lips; not daring to believe their own eyes, breath before encountering the next and still more precipitous they strained their gaze, then looked in each other's faces with ascent. It was a sudden and fortunate pause ; the next minute a blank and speechless horror. Still doubting, -still hoping, fearful sound was heard breaking the solemn stillness ; his men's Cavalier was the first to rush down to the place of execution, eyes turned wildly in every direction, not knowing at first whence while the sound of martial music yet came on the breeze, and the it proceeded ; but presently a tremendous rock came thundering cloud of dust raised by the troops, who had now reached a high and crashing down the precipice on their right, bearing earth, road, was still in view. La Grande Marie was dead. Her body stones, and trees before it; and dashing into the centre of the road, was yet warm, but the spirit had forsaken it; and never more with a weight and fury which would have crushed to the dust the should the bold accents of her prophecies kindle the souls of the leader and front rank of the party, had they not halted at the Camisards against their oppressors. With reverent hands they moment they did. Disappointed in their purpose, the peasants bore her remains away to a cavern among their remote fastnesses ; now appeared armed with rude weapons of every description, and for in the minds of some, there lingered even now the hope of a fast and heavy came down showers of stones upon the soldiers, as miracle more stupendous than any hitherto performed by their they obeyed their commander, and hastened to scramble over the departed friend. Upon the brow of Cavalier, however, a cloud fallen rocks and rubbish. Not a shot was fired till Montrevel had settled, such as that open placid countenance had never yet espied two figures, which might well arrest his attention, even in
It was not despair which brooded on his heart; but a such a moment as this
. On a cliff which overlooked the scene, profound sorrow, and a feeling that all now depended on his own and from whose ragged side it was plain that the rock had been unaided and desperate efforts. It is only on the unreflecting, that hurled, knelt a female in an attitude of earnest and almost frantic a sense of increased responsibility falls lightly. supplication ; her bare arms thrown wildly up, her hands clasped, It was scarce high noon, when the party of royalists encamped - her hair and scarlet drapery streaming on the wind,--her eyes in safety near the town of N-, after their merry morning's fixed on the blue sky. She was apparently heedless of the confusion work. Before nightfall, Cavalier had scoured the mountains in below; and, above all the din, her shrill but unintelligible accents the neighbourhood; and, either in person or by his emissaries, had could be plainly distinguished. By her side stood a slight but drawn together a large and furious body of peasants. As the sun graceful young man leaning with perfect composure on his hunting. sunk towards the west, black clouds gathered round his couch, and, spear, and occasionally giving directions with his voice and glowing like fire at his approach, soon shrouded the blazing orb in gestures to his rude followers. He was clad, like many of them, premature twilight. The wind howled among the hills with those in a white tunic; but a single eagle-feather in his cap marked him portentous sounds which, to the practised ear, foreboded a sudden as the youthful leader of the Camisards, the celebrated Cavalier. and violent storm ; and Cavalier smiled triumphantly as he looked No sooner did Montrevel behold this apparition, than a cry burst at the gloomy heavens, and hurried over the rocks to the place of from his lips :-" They are there ! to the chase! to the chase !" rendezvous. A voice calling him by name arrested him on his way, and in a moment the soldiers were climbing the rough sides of the and, ere he had time to answer the call, a boy scarce fifteen, clad pass, driving the peasants before them in the sudden onset, firing in the ordinary dress of a shepherd, sprang into his arms. and reloading continually. The prophetess,-La Grande Marie, “My brother ! my Philip !'' exclaimed the young leader, “why as she was termed, -was dimly seen through the smoke, still on are you here? why have you left the upper mountains ?" her knees and immovable, while the sounds of the musket-shots I have come to fight, with you," cried the lad. came nearer and nearer. Cavalier, confident that more than “ My child,” returned Cavalier, "you know not what you say. earthly power would defend the being he thought supernaturally with that beardless cheek and feeble hand, what should you do in gifted, had rushed to direct the operations of his scattered followers. these fierce battles ?” To his amazement, however, she remained in her ecstatic trance, “I have fought with the wolves, and I can fight a soldier," said till a ball whizzed by her; and then, rising slowly, she looked the boy ; " let me go with you ; I cannot stay there among the around with an eye from which gleamed the light of insanity. It women and children." seemed as if a consciousness of her danger then crossed her mind, “ But you must,till you are a man," said Cavalier ;
who for she glanced with some eagerness to the right and left, as if will tend our flocks, if our boys neglect their charge ? examining her means of escape ; and, as two French soldiers sprang “Let the women watch sheep, or let the wolves eat them," upon the ledge she occupied, she made an effort to throw herself answered the lad; “ I am old enough, and strong enough, and bold
enough, to fight these robber-soldiers ; and if you will not let me his error, endeavoured to fight his way back with a bravery worthy go with you, brother, I will fight them alone. People say they of the sons of freedom themselves. The slaughter among his have taken La Grande Marie ; they have hung her on a tree! Is followers was great ; and they might perhaps have been utterly cut it true?"
to pieces, had Cavalier retained the same presence of mind, which Cavalier's countenance, which had brightened as he looked on had marked him throughout the night. But, while he was his brave young brother, grew sad as he whispered, “ It is too engaged in superintending the motions of his troops, he suddenly true ; God and his angels left her, --we know not why,—unless perceived a conflict going on, upon the very edge of a cliff at no that we might revenge her murder."
great distance, which made his blood run cold. It was a boy, " Then let me go, let me go !” cried Philip, vehemently, as the sword in hand, -fighting most gallantly with a young royalist blood rushed into his face; and he strove to drag his brother officer. His cap was off,—the moon shone full on his face, -it forward.
was Philip! Cavalier sprang towards him, but at the same moment "Nay,” returned Cavalier, calmly, “hear me, Philip. You he was himself set upon by two soldiers, and compelled to fight for and I are alone in the world. We have no parents to love us, no his own life. Still he glanced continually at the rock beyond ; he brothers, no sisters. This day they have taken away the only saw that Philip was unaware of the precipice behind,—that his other earthly being for whom I cared, and have cut deep into my antagonist gained upon him,--that the boy was yielding, retreating, heart. If I lose you too,—you are but a child, Philip ; a noble but but still parrying the thrusts aimed at his body ; Cavalier uttered a feeble boy, and your arm could not ward off the death-stroke a warning cry, but it was unheard, and in an instant more, as aimed against you. I should behold some ruthless sword drinking Philip again stepped back to avoid the desperate lunge of his foe, your life-blood, and the sight would palsy my own right arm. Go -he disappeared! A mist came over the eyes of Cavalier ; he back, dear Philip! you are too young and weak for these bloody fought like a blind man; and, had not some of his own friends encounters."
come to his rescue, that night would have seen two of the boldest " But you are scarce twenty,” rejoined the boy, “and you have spirits of the Cevennes for ever extinguished. As it was, his not the stout limbs of a mountaineer ; yet men say, God has given faculties seemed benumbed ; and, deprived of his wise command, you such a wise head and bold heart, that you can lead them to the mountaineers suffered the soldiers to extricate themselves from battle. I only ask to follow after you."
their perilous position, and march back with some show of order “ In time, Philip, in time! Do you love me, my dear brother?" to their quarters, under the grey dawn.
The younger Cavalier looked up in the speaker's face with This was but one of a thousand conflicts, which those unhappy amazement, and then throwing his arm round his neck, exclaimed, regions beheld. But, whether in defeat or victory, from that night “You know I do, Louis !"
the private and profound sorrows of Cavalier found no utterance. “Then go back to the heights, and take care of your precious The gravity of premature manhood was on his brow; and, having days, Philip; for I tell you, that, if you are in this conflict to-night, but one object for which to live, his energies were wholly absorbed my thoughts will not be my own. I have more need of the clear in the cause of freedom. The uneducated son of a peasant, he had head than of the strong hand, to guide yonder brave but undisci-naturally imbibed those superstitions, which had led him to yield plined men,--and will you add to my perplexities, Philip?" all deference to the claims of the maniac prophetess ; and many a
The boy's bright colour faded, and his head drooped, as he said time, in the dead watches of the night, did he groan in spirit as he dejectedly, “I will do as you bid me, brother."
remembered her murder ; many a time did the tears gush from his Cavalier pressed him to his heart: “ That is well, my noble eyes in those solitary hours, as he recollected the heroic boy, the boy! I love you all the better for your bold purpose, and better darling of his heart, whom he had seen dashed in pieces, as it were, still that you can submit to disappointment. God knows if I do before his face. The fortunes of the fight had led him far from not love you too well, for I feel that to lose you would almost break the dreadful spot before daylight; and no funeral rites had honoured my heart. Away, then, to the upper hills ! it grows late.” So the object of such fond affection; but his early virtue, his precocious saying, he disengaged himself hastily from the lad, and rushed down courage, and sad fate, were treasured in the bosom of his brother. the rocks. As he looked back now and then through the deepening For weeks and months the weary contest went on. The valour twilight, he discerned Philip still standing in a melancholy attitude, and cool judgment of Cavalier had exalted him to supremacy above and repeatedly waved his hand to him to depart. But it was not the other leaders of the Camisards ; his fare had spread far and till Louis had entirely vanished from his sight, that the gallant wide ; and, when he had succeeded in cutting off a large detach. boy turned, with a heavy sigh, and with lingering steps began to ment of the royal troops near Martinargue, Montrevel was recalled ; ascend the mountain.
and a general of no less reputation than Marshal Villars was sent Cavalier's plans had been wisely laid. He was aware, that a against the once despised rebels of the Cevennes. In a few blow must be immediately struck, to revive the drooping spirits months more, Villars himself came to the conclusion, that the of the insurgents. He knew that reinforcements for Montrevel's warfare must be interminable ; it was possible to harass and party were on the march, and would probably arrive the next day; distress, but not to conquer. So indomitable was the spirit of the and that no time was to be lost. Before midnight, the storm enemy, so impregnable the fastnesses of their mountains, that all commenced, as if in league with the oppressed; it was accompanied hope of putting an end to the war by force of arms was abandoned by a violent wind, and, in the midst of its fury, his followers, by this able leader. And in the heart of Cavalier, who beheld the divided into parties, approached the camp of Montrevel unper- incessant sufferings of the peasantry from fatigue and famine, there ceived, from three quarters, and burst upon the bewildered soldiers, also arose a secret longing for the return of peace to their valleys. while the thunder roared over their heads, and the hurricane Fearful was this conscientious young man, however, lest the voice whirled their light tents into the air. Flushed with success, the of inclination should drown the commands of duty; he scarcely assailants piked their victims without mercy, and pursued them dared trust his own judgment; and it was not till he ascertained, into the very outskirts of the town.
that ten thousand rebels would lay down their arms if fitting Cavalier alone was cool in the midst of the general confusion ; conditions should be offered, that he consented to hold an amicable and his ear was the first to catch the sound of drums beating to parley with the enemy. arms within the town. He divined the truth instantly. Seeing An interview first took place between Cavalier and Lalande, an the approach of the tempest, the officer sent to the aid of Montrevel officer of high rank under Marshal Villars. Lalande surveyed the had hurried forward, and had quartered his troops among the worn garments and pale cheeks of the young hero, whose deeds inhabitants, not two hours before the attack of the Camisards ; had reached the ear and troubled the mind of Louis the Fourteenth, and now it required the utmost powers of the young leader to in the midst of his mighty foreign wars; he looked upon the body, bring together his scattered and raging adherents, and draw them guard of the rebel chief, and saw there, too, signs of poverty and off in good order to the mountains. He succeeded, however ; and extreme physical suffering; and believed that he understood how by turning occasionally to face his antagonists, then flying as if in to deal with men in such a condition. After a few words of consternation, tempted them on from the plains, into the broken courtesy, he drew forth a large and heavy purse of gold, and soil at the base of the mountains. Before this was accomplished, extended it towards Cavalier. The mild eye of the youth rested the brief fury of the tempest had spent itself; the clouds were op it a moment with surprise ; he looked in the officer's face, as if breaking away ; and the moon, nearly full, looked out at times, unable to comprehend his meaning ; then, composedly folding his from her quiet chambers in the sky, on the scene with unwonted arms and stepping back, he shook his head, with an expression of brilliancy. Encouraged by this circumstance, the hot-headed countenance so cold, resolute, and dignified, that Lalande blushed young officer who commanded the fresh troops of the royalists, at his own proffer. Glancing at the poor fellows who stood behind suffered himself to be lured among the hills; and then, soon finding Cavalier, with ready address he intimated that the sum was but
intended for a free gift to relieve their distress, and scattered the Briskly indeed the business went on. The cloud had vanished glittering coin on the turf before them. Their eyes rested on it from the brow of Cavalier, the load had been lifted from his heart, wishfully, as they thought of their half-famished wives and and, both parties having the same object honourably in vier, a children ; but, so perfect was the subordination into which they friendly arrangement was speedily concluded, in which the interest had been brought by their extraordinary chief, that not a man of the monarch and of the long-oppressed subject were alike stirred hand or foot, till, after a brief conference, Cavalier signified consulted. his pleasure that they should accept the donative. That was not It was not till many years after, that the Governor of Jersey,till he had made satisfactory preliminary arrangements with the veteran of Almanza,—the trusted servant of the English Lalande, and a final interview had been appointed between Lalande crown,-quietly departed this life of shadows in the ordinary and himself.
course of nature, leaving behind a high and unblemished reputation. It was on the 6th of May, 1704, that the renowned French That honoured Officer was Louis Cavalier, once the rebel Peasant marshal,—the antagonist of Marlborough,—descended into the of the Cevennes. Garden of the Recollets, at St. Césaire, near Nismes, to discuss peace and war with the son of a mountain peasant. He first
FLOWER upon the green hill side, reached the appointed spot; a grass-plot surrounded by formal
Thou, to shun the threatening blast, gravel-walks and trim hedges, bright with the verdure of spring.
In the grass thy head dost hide, He stood musing by a fountain, careless of the songs of a thou
By the tempest overpast. sand birds; for the interests of his master were at his heart ; and he
Then to greet the azure skies, was eager to terminate a contest, most annoying in the present crisis
And to feel the soothing sun, of the monarch's affairs. Cavalier approached him with a brow
Brighter, sweeter thou dost rise, equally perturbed ; for, though the sufferings of his countrymen had
Tell me, flower, how this is done ?" made him resolve on peace, if it could be honourably obtained, yet
“ I will tell thee as thy friend, the forms of his departed friend and brother had haunted his
Artless, timid, whispering low; dreams through the past night. His own wrongs swelled in his
To the blast 'tis good to bend bosom ; and he felt, that Peace, with her sweetest smiles, could
He who made me taught me so ! not bring back the murdered to cheer the loneliness of his lot.
While His teaching I obey, Sad, therefore, were the tones of his voice, and melancholy the
I but fall to rise and stand aspect of his countenance, as the conference opened between him
Brighter for the stormy day, and his noble adversary; and Villars looked on him with a deep
Leaning on His viewless hand. admiration and sympathy. He knew, from common report, what had been the keenest trials Cavalier had ever experienced; and
When to Him I've lowly bow'd, judged rightly, that, as the season of the year returned, which had
He with freshness fills my cup been marked by events of pain, the jocund voices of spring could
From the angry, scowling cloud ; bring no gaiety to a heart so full of bitter associations.
Then He gently lifts me up. time, he spoke of the objects for which they had met, but with a
So I fall; and so I rise; military frankness, calculated to place the uncourtierlike Cavalier
In the dark or sunny hour at his ease, questioned him of himself and his career ; and gave
Minding Him who rules the skies ! just praises to the troops he had formed from raw mountaineers.
He's my God, and I'm His flower !"— The Gift, 1839. At last the feelings uppermost in the heart of Cavalier could no longer be suppressed, and he broke forth, “My countrymen are DIFFERENCE OF MENTAL ACTION IN ANIMALS born free and fearless, and from their tenderest years can defend
AND MAN. themselves against oppression. I had a brother, General -" It has been maintained that, though there be a great difference
He could not go on, but Villars did not wait. “I know you between the capacities of man, and the thinking of animals, yet the had; a hero of fifteen ; the tale of that gallant boy's fate has difference is not in the kind but merely in the degree, and that the reached me since I came into these parts. You might well be mental powers of the highest animal approach so closely to those of proud of him.”
the lowest man, that, in fact, it may be said, there is no essential Cavalier's eyes were swimming in tears, as he repeated, in a difference, but merely a gradual transition, and that therefore no stifled voice, " Proud of him! I prized him while he was mine, conclusion, important in an ethic point of view, can be drawn and, when he was gone, I thought I had never prized him enough, from this difference. -noble, loving, beloved Philip!"
This objection may be answered thus : First, whether the exist“Were you satisfied, perfectly satisfied, that he perished in the ing state of mind of the lowest man approaches very closely to the pass of Montluc ? "
intellect of the highest animal, or sinks even below its level, is not “Alas ! he disappeared ; I saw him pressed over the brink of a the important point to be discussed. The question is-Can the precipice ; I knew it was not possible for flesh and bones to be low intellect of man be raised and developed or not? and is the dashed on the rocks below without destruction."
mind of the animal which approaches to that of the lowest man, in “Yet, if you remember, torrents of rain had fallen scarce an its highest manifestation ? Everything else is accidental, Dot hour before ; at least, so they tell me; and a deep basin of water essential. The eyes of a new-born eagle may be weaker, and, conhad been formed under the cliff whence he fell."
sidered in their actual state, more defective organs of sight, than Cavalier looked wildly in the Marshal's face, but spoke not. perhaps those of a mole ; yet the eyes of the eagle are far superior, “If,” continued Villars," he should have escaped death, should and differ strongly in their organization from those of a mole. have fallen into the hands of our troops, what ransom would you Secondly, I believe we do not venture too far, in considering it pay for such a prisoner ?"
as a settled truth, that the mental activity of the animal, which it Myself,—my liberty,-my life! I have nought else !" cried undoubtedly possesses, does not elevate itself above some of the the young man.
most elementary combinations of impressions received through the Villars turned away, a benevolent smile lighting up his war-wom senses—combinations which the mind of the brute performs with features, and raised his sword; the party of soldiers, who were out consciousness. We, ourselves, perform numerous combinatory drawn up at a little distance in a hollow square, opened, and there processes, without consciousness of the performance; e.g. when stood the slender stripling, Philip ; in another moment, he had
we avoid a disagreeable disturbance, which we have repeatedly met bounded like a mountain deer into the arms of his astonished with, on our usual walk, by taking a different direction, and become brother, whispering, as he clung round his neck, “Will you conscious of the cause only after we have been reminded of our forgive me, Louis ?"
change by the fact of having chosen already a different walk. The “He is yours," resumed the Marshal, dashing the tears from animal undoubtedly thinks, but man reflects.
" Amule," says we demand no ransom for those that wear no beards, Frederick the Great, in his Considerations on the Manner of even though taken sword in hand, as this young goose was, ten Waging War with Austria (1758), “ though it might have made minutes after he came dripping and dizzy out of the water.
ten campaigns under Prince Eugene, would not become for all swords of our dead Frenchmen were scattered too plentifully that a better tactician.” Man reflects upon his reflection ; thinks about him. Carry him off, or I shall steal him; and teach him on his thoughts ; makes the mind itself the subject of its inquiry. loyalty, I pray you; for five years hence he will match us all. The animal can do no such thing. If it could, it would speak'; for And now for business."
though its organs of speech may not be so favourably formed for
the expression of a great variety of tones and accents as the high- females, wait for favourable winds, observe a fixed order in travel. arched palate, the peculiar construction of the wind-pipe, the pecu- ling, relieve each other in the performance of laborious tasks, change liarly morable lips, and the many other organs of man which con- their nests according to a change of circumstances, observe in some tribute to the variety, pliability and beauty of language; yet there cases a certain degree of division of labour, (as is the case with the are many animals which possess a scale of tones, even now unculti- beavers,) the fox resorts to a series of actions having distinct vated as they are, sufficient to become the basis of articulate com- reference to one aother, in order finally to arrive at his object, munication. It is not because the animals have no perfect organs of and whatever else animals may do as indicating foresight or a faculty speech that they have no language, as Anaxagoras said, that to combine received impressions. But there exists, as far as I animals would be men had they but hands ; but they have no lan- know, no solitary instance of exchange among animals, or of any. guage because they have not the ideas to be expressed. I doubt thing that could be fairly considered as approaching it. The not but that some of the most intelligent animals feel at times a animal elevates itself in no case to any exchange of labour or prodegree of that unspeakable pain which man suffers when language duce, of which a certain degree exists among all men, the very forsakes him, and his soul is anxious to express more than words lowest Hottentot or the most barbarous South-Sea Islander can convey. I believe that I have observed this painful effect of not excepted. There is no human tribe known, which has not a struggle between the mind and means of utterance, in a dog risen to this incipient stage of all civilisation, however impeded which was anxious to communicate a serious accident, and yet did its farther progress may be by constant disturbances, such as pot succeed in doing so for a long time, But this proves nothing incessant warfare, the permanence of savage habits, famine or against the position just taken. We observe the same pain in disease. Even the most brutish Pelew Islander will willingly part children. Did this pain always press upon the mind of the dog, with the fish which he has caught, for a piece of iron. So comthe means of utterance would finally be raised to the wants of the mon an act of man is the exchange of articles and of labour, engross. mind, of whatever compound of sounds and signs this utterance ing so much of his attention, and so large a number of all human would consist. It is the want of thought which makes the brute actions in common life consist in exchanging, that in German the "mute creation."
the word acting means carrying on trade, and action a commercial I am aware that there existed formerly a ready way of accounting house. Yet the etymology of the German word indicates nothing for many intellectual phenomena in the brute world, by ascribing of the kind; for handeln (etymologically the same with the them simply to instinct. This is not accounting for the pheno- English to handle) is derived from Hand, and means, still, menon. First, the superiority of man was said to exist in his acting, because our visible actions are chiefly performed with the acting by reason, while the animal acts by instinct ; and when hands. phenomena were cited, which showed undeniable traces of com- It is not necessary for the present purpose to ascertain when binatory powers, and which would have contradicted this dictum, the animal acts, simply impelled by instinct or not. If it be it was said, these phenomena must be explained by instinct, be shown that in many cases the brute thinks, it suffices for our cause animals have nothing else to guide them, With this argu. purpose, which, in this particular case, is to prove, on the one ment in a circle many seem to be satisfied. It can, however, hand, that it is an erroneous notion, and, I believe, one unworthy undeniably be proved, that, in some cases, animals act not because of the Creator, to imagine that the whole brute creation moves impelled by instinct, but in consequence of mental action within and acts no ways different from the dissolved chemical elements them, though it may be, and most probably is, unconscious to of some body, when they crystallise; on the other hand, that it is them. Ask any hunter whether some pointers think or not. equally erroneous to deny any essential difference in the thinking
Yet though this mental action in the brute animal is allowed of the animal and that of man. If a bird builds its nest for the and some instances shall be given directly—there is still a line first time, we cannot suppose that it has retained during the whole which very distinctly marks, even in a popular point of view, the time it was living singly, a recollection of its parental nest, or that difference between man and brute.
any idea of the fact that at the proper season it will have young 1. Man gatbers experience and transmits it from generation to ones in its turn, and that it ought, consequently, to provide for generation, conscious of its being experience, and thus capable of them beforehand, has been imparted to it by any other individual receiving new additions. The animal improves likewise by expe- of its species. This would necessarily indicate operations of the rience;
we find around us daily proofs of this fact. Al drilling, mind, which we entirely miss where we should certainly expect which does not produce a new habit, is founded upon it. Animals them soonest. But if, on the other hand, a rising freshet threat, entirely change their habits in different countries, and acquire ens to reach the nest of a granivorous bird, built in a hedge, and gradually a facility in protecting themselves against the inclemency the bird hastily builds a temporary nest in a safer place, and of weather or in procuring food. Young animals learn from the carries, against its natural disposition, and contrary to the comold ones, and what thus appears to many, at first glance, to be mon use for which the beak is formed, carefully its young from instinct, i. e. a primitive and direct impulse of nature, will be the endangered spot to the new nest, we cannot possibly explain found, on closer examination, to be the effect of experience. The it by instinct, if this word is meant to express any definite idea. most timid animals, in parts of the world which had never been When the land-crabs of the West Indies sally forth, at the proper visited by intruders, showed no fear at their first approach. The season, in long procession from the interior mountains, and probirds or seals, on the solitary islets in the Pacific, show no appre- ceed in as straight a line as possible to the sea-shore, to deposit bension of any danger, no shyness when first attacked; but they their eggs and shed their shell
, and then return in the same order, acquire it as soon as they know the character of their pursuers. we can hardly bring ourselves to consider these movements in so Whether the beaver builds his curious hut because it cannot resist low an animal to be the effect of experience and thinking. Take, an impulse entirely independent upon its volition, as the bee, for on the other hand, a Newfoundland dog, which, as is common with instance, forms its regular cell, or whether this species has formed dogs, took great pleasure in walking with its master. He soon its architecture by a stock of common experience gradually acquired, found out that the act of taking hat and gloves, or of merely might be tested by observation ; but this seems certain, that putting aside books and papers, at certain times of the day, were knowledge and experience is a species of knowledge—is trans- indications of the master's intention of going out, and he expressed mitted with animals by mere imitation, and remains within a very his anticipation of pleasure by manifest signs. Several times, limited circle, even with the most favoured animals ; while man however, the dog had been sent home, as his company could not improves it infinitely. The beavers of North America build to-day, always be convenient to the master. The consequence was that as they were found the day when the first white men settled on the the dog would take good care not to show that he expected to Western continent. There is likewise a greater uniformity in the leave the house, but he would slyly steal ont of the room, as soon actions of animals in different parts of the world; the natural im- as he thought that any indications of a walk had been given,* and pulses, though acted upon by experience, seem therefore to be more prominent.
The aboru instance has not been mentioned, because peculiarly remark
I can gire another 2. There is foresight in animals, and yet their foresight differs able, but simply because it fell under my own observation. from that of man, even of the lowest grade, by a marked charac
more striking instance of mental operation in this intelligent animal. He teristic. The beaver builds very cunningly his dams at a great accompanied a servant, who rode to a place at some distance from home.
The horse was tied to a tree in front of a house, while the servant executed his distance from his lodge, following entirely the necessity arising
message. When, after some delay, he came out of the house, the horse was out of the shape and current of the river. Animals collect stores
gone; he went on a hill, and from this elevated spot he observed the dog for the winter, build bridges, prepare for battles, concert upon leading be horse by the bridle, which the caninc leader held in his mouth, both plans to decoy, entrap, or otherwise to catch their prey, endeavour trotting at a inoderate pace. The dog brought
home the horse and led it to its to mislead the disturber of their young ones, or the enemy of their proper place in the stable. So he was in the habit of leading one of the boraca
wait at a certain corner, which the master had to pass daily, and before the year 1800, were computed to be 45,000 annually! which was at a considerable distance from home. Surely this The number of deaths by small-pox has been considerable indicates some operation of the mind, not to be accounted for by during the year 1838. In November, 1837, the disease began instinct.-Lieber's Political Ethics.
to spread epidemically in London ; and during the ensuing twelveTHE SMALL-POX AND VACCINATION.
months, (till November 1838,) the admission into the London During the past year the metropolis and country generally Small-Pox Hospital amounted to 740; and about 100 were
refused admission, from want of room. The wards were have suffered considerably from the prevalence of small-pox, which, in its virulence, has far exceeded any of its visitations for crowded, that fever of a very malignant sort gained a footing in several years. Unhappily, many individuals who have been the hospital, and swelled the already severe mortality. A COD
siderable number of the patients admitted of late years had been vaccinated, and whose security might consequently have been
vaccinated in early life. The proportion of these was two vacci. anticipated, did not escape an attack of this loathsome and direful disease ; which circumstance has given rise to opinions respecting have hastily concluded, that the vaccine matter has lost its pro
nated persons to three unvaccinated. Hence, unthinking persons the non-efficacy of vaccination that are altogether fallacious, tecting power. In refutation of this idea, it is stated in the annual although such notions might reasonably be entertained by persons totally unacquainted with the generally permanent influence of report from the National Vaccine Institution to the Secretary of
State, dated in the spring of 1838, that “the virus of small-pox vaccine on the constitution, when once received into the system. itself has lost nothing of its force in the course of two hundred The two prevailing opinions on this subject amongst the uninformed, are these :—That the protecting property of the cow-pox confidence, that of more than 70,000 vaccinated in descent, with
years; and we are enabled to state a strong fact, with perfect has become deteriorated by being transmitted through the constitutions of so many hundreds of thousands of individuals,
and successive portions of the matter originally collected by Dr. Jenner, that the only way to ensure its success is, again to take the influence in all ; though, of this number, some hundreds have
thirty-eight years ago, vaccination has manifested its peculiar vaccine lymph from the cow, which they would not find very
been subjected to the severest trials by exposure to small-pox in practicable, as the disease is of very rare occurrence amongst cattle, its most fatal form." and seldom, if ever, shews itself, except when they are collected
We repeat, and can safely say, that if the cow-pox is not in all in herds. Others, again, imagine, that re-vaccination is absolutely
cases a perfect protection against the attack of the small-pox, it necessary every seventh year, considering its influential effects to renders it, in forty-nine cases out of fifty, a mild and manageable have then ceased. Neither of these opinions can be sanctioned
disease. by medical men ; they, on the contrary, unanimously assert, that
Nothing can be urged against the practice of re-vaccination. the character of the vaccine vesicle of the present day is exactly on the contrary, it is likely to be attended with benefit, even if what Dr. Jenner described and delineated. It runs through the it only confers additional confidence to the person, making surety same course, occupies the same number of days, and is in every doubly sure. The period of puberty, when important changes take respect identical with what it was in 1790. We know of no other place in the constitution, appears to be the most advisable period matter, whether animal or vegetable, which, by inoculation on
to have it performed. There are, however, many who labour under man, would produce a like series of symptoms as the vaccine the delusion that if they have their children once vaccinated, they virus does. From an early period after its discovery, it was
must necessarily have the protecting influence of the cox-pox; known that even those who had the cow-pos by direct inoculation whereas, it not unfrequently happens that the operation is obliged from the cow, were as liable as others to the chance of subsequent to be performed three or four times before it is done successfully. small-pox. Persons vaccinated by Dr. Jenner himself, and in the The following case will illustrate this fact :-A medical gentleman very infancy of the cow-pox, were attacked by small-pox. The last summer visited a part of the country where the small-pox was children of a distinguished naval officer residing at Chatham were prevailing. He had occasion to speak to a poor woman who had a vaccinated by Dr. Jenner; one of them, five or six years after- daughter, an interesting-looking child, and he inquired if it had had wards, had an attack of small-pox, and unfortunately died, whilst the cow-pox. The poor woman assured him, with joy on her counthe others resisted the infection through the protecting property tenance, that as soon as she heard of the small-pox being in her of the cow-pox. We are, therefore, of opinion, that there is no neighbourhood, she had her child vaccinated by the Union doctor, reason to believe that the cow-pox virus has been injured in the and hoped that she was safe. Curiosity, combined with an interslightest degree by successive inoculations, or by the time which est felt for the interesting subject of their conversation, ipduced has intervened since it was taken from the cow.
the gentleman to examine the child's arm, when he discovered that Although public attention is attracted to the number of cases of it did not bear a mark of vaccination, and that the child was consmall-pox following vaccination, even when the latter has been sequently unprotected. We believe that there are many such performed with the greatest care, and has proceeded through all cases, where the children are vaccinated, but, from some cause or its stages with the utmost regularity ; we are warranted in stating another, they are never taken again to the medical man who perthat permanent security is afforded to the many, whilst only the formed the operation, to see whether the disease has gone through few are attacked; and out of the few, we are bold to say, that its proper stages, or not. In the course of time, some of those twenty-nine out of thirty have the small-pox so changed, so who have been vaccinated, but who are, like the above case, unpromodified, and so slight, that they are able to walk about on the tected, take the small-pox, have it severely, or die ; and these are fourth day; whilst there is not one out of a hundred who dies, the cases that are frequently reported to have happened after vacor who is permanently marked by it.— Is this not a boon to.becination. An odium is consequently, and most unjustly, cast on thankful for? Is it not a prize of great value, which we should one of the kindest blessings of Providence. The following is : treasure up and preserve with all care ? Especially when we general statement of what takes place after vaccination; and any recollect what happened before the introduction of the cow-pox. deviation should be carefully attended to by parents, who, in such It appears from the bills of mortality, that in the latter part of the cases, should have their children re-vaccinated. last century the deaths from small-pox in the metropolis averaged On the third day the incision or incisions are elevated, and retwo thousand annually, or about one-tenth of the total mortality. semble a flea-bite. On the fifth, a distinct vesicle (like a small In the year 1796, it prevailed with such severity, that in the blister) is formed, elevated at the edges, and depressed in the cen. metropolis alone, 3549 lives are recorded to have been sacrificed tre. It gradually enlarges till the eighth day, when it is distended to its virulence. The deaths by small-pox throughout England, with a clear fluid, or lymph, and on this day it is perfect. On the to be watered. This aniinal was sent from the coast of Labrador, and was not
morning of the ninth day an inflamed 'ring forms round the of the common long-haired breed of Newfoundland dogs.
vesicle, which is now of a light yellow colour.