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chandeliers, all in a single piece, and weighing nearly 3000
TRAVELS OF SIR JOHN MANDEVILE, 1322_1356. pounds. Close by is an odd-looking church, constantly thronged with devotees; a humble structure, said to be the oldest THE “ Travels of Sir John Mandevile,” is a singularly curious Christian church in Moscow. It was built in the desert, before book. Independently of its author being the first of English Moscow was thought of, and its walls are strong enough to last travellers, and, as is supposed, bis publication the earliest prose till the gorgeous city shall become a desert again. The tower of Ivan Veliki, or John the Great, the first of the well worthy a perusal. Sir John Mandevile, according to Bale,
work in the English tongue—the book is highly interesting, and Czars, is 270 feet high, and contains thirty-three bells, the smallest weighing 7000, and the largest more than 124,000
" was borne in the towne of St. Albans, was so well given to the pounds English. From its top there is, perhaps, the finest study of learning from his childhood, that he seemed to plant a panoramic view in the world.
good part of his felicitie in the same: for he supposed that the Another well-known object is the great bell, the largest, and honour of his birth would nothing avail him, except he could the wonder of the world. Its perpendicular height is twenty- render the same more honourable by his knowledge in good one feet four inches, and the extreme thickness of the metal, letters. Having therefore well grounded himself in religion, by twenty-three inches. The length of the clapper is fourteen reading the Scriptures, he applied his studies to the art of phyfeet, the greatest circumference sixty feet four inches, its weight sicke, a profession worthy a noble wit: but amongst other things, 400,000 pounds English, and its cost has been estimated at more than £365,000 sterling.
he was ravished with a desire to see the greater parts of the Besides the great bell, there is another noisy musical instru
world, Asia and Africa. Having therefore provided all things ment, Camely, the great gun, like the bell, the largest in the for his journey, he departed from his countrye in the yeare of world, being a 4,320 pounder. It is sixteen feet long, and the Christe 1322, and as another Ulysses, returned home after the diameter of its calibre nearly three feet.
lapse of thirty-four yeares, and was then known to a very fewe. The treasury contains the heirlooms of the Russians. On the in the time of his travaile he was in Scythia, the greater and less first floor are the ancient imperial carriages. The bel étage is Armenia, Egypt, both Lybias, Arabia, Syria, Media, Mesopoa gallery of five parts, in the first of which are the portraits of tamia, Persia, Chaldea, Greece, Illyrium, Tartary, and divers all the emperors and czars, and their wives, in the exact costume of the times in which they lived ; in another, is a model of a other kingdoms of the world; and having gotten by this means palace projected by the empress Catherine to unite the whole the knowledge of the languages, lest so many and great varieties, Kremlin under one roof, having a circumference of two miles, whereof himself had been an eye-witness, should perish in obli. and make of it one magnificent palace ; if it had been completed vion, he committed his whole travel of thirty-four years to according to the plan, this palace would probably have surpassed writing in three diverse tongues, English, French, and Latin. the temple of Solomon, or any of the seven wonders of the world. Being arrived again in England, and having seen the wickedness
In the armoury are specimens of ancient armour, the work of that age, he gave out this speech :-In our time,' said he, manship of every age and nation; coats of mail, sabres adorned with jewels, swords, batons, crosses in armour, imperial robes,
it may be spoken more truly than of olde, that virtue is gone, ermines in abundance, and finally the clothes in which Peter the Churche is under foote, the clergy is in errour, the devill the Great worked at Saardam, including his old boots, from raigneth, and Simonie beareth the sway.' He died 17th No. which it appears he had a considerable foot.—Stephens Inci. vember, 1371, at Liege, and was buried in the abbey of the order dents of Travel.
of the Gulielmites.” Abr. Ortelius in Itinerarium Belga has
printed his epitaph (in Latin), which he found in the abbey at PHOTOGENIC DRAWINGS AND THE DAGUERO.
Liege, and on the stone is engraven a man in armour, with a TYPE.
forked beard, treading upon a lion ; and at the head of him, a In our last Number we drew the attention of our readers to the hand of one blessing him, and words to the effect, ‘Ye that very curious discovery of M. Daguerre, which he has entitled the pass over me, for the love of God pray for me.' The churchmen Daguerotype or Dagueroscope ; but since that paper was written, then showed also his knives, the furniture of his horse, and the a communication has been made to the Royal Society, by spurs which he used in his travels. There was a belief in St. H. Fox Talbot, Esq., F.R.S., by which it appears that a very Albans, that his body was removed and deposited in the abbey, similar discovery, if not precisely the same, had already been and the following epitaph hung upon one of the pillars :made by hin, when M. Daguerre first made his invention public.
“All ye that passe, on this pillar cast eye, The secret, which consists in a process by which the substance
This epitaph read, if you can : which is most easily affected by light can afterwards be made
'Twill tell you a tombe once stood in this room, almost insensible to its effects, has not of course been hitherto
Of a brave, spirited man, disclosed by either of the inventors; but Mr. Talbot has exhibited
“ John Mandeville by name, a knight of great fame, incontestable proofs of his success in several drawings, which
Born in this bovoured towne; have been executed four years, and have been repeatedly exposed
Before him was none, that ever was knowne
For travaile of so high renown to the sunshine, without any apparent damage. These drawings were exhibited at the Royal Institution, on the 25th January,
" As the knightes in the temple, cross-legged in marble by Mr. Faraday, and we trust that this distinguished chemist will
In armour with sword and with shield;
So was this knight grac't, which time hath defact shortly lecture on this extremely curious and useful invention.
That nothing but ruins doth yeelde.
“His travels being donne, le shines like the sunne preferable to the metal plates of M. Daguerre.
In heavenly Canaan ;
To which blessed place, the Lord of his grace, liarity in Mr. Talbot's drawings is, that whilst the image obtained
Bring us all man after man.” is white, the ground is coloured, and blue, yellow, rose-colour, or black, may be obtained at pleasure.
Sir John Mandevile's book is disfigured by a fault common to That the same discovery should have been made simul all the ancient travellers ; every wondrous tale that was related taneously in France and England, is one of those strange coin- to, or read by the writer, was chronicled with all the care due cidences which frequently occur, and sometimes deprive the only to ascertained facts. On its first publication it was eagerly original inventor of the advantage he ought to derive from his devoured by the credulous readers of the time, and his " Travelingenuity. In the present instance there appears no reason for
ler's Tales doubt as to the fair claim of both M. Daguerre and Mr. Talbot
were devoutly believed; but this very credulity was to originality. M. Daguerre never yet disclosed his secret, and
not without its good effects. The wonders related by Mandevile has only made his discovery known a few weeks since. Mr. and Marco Polo, who had gone over much of the same country Talbot commenced his experiments in 1834, and the drawings a century before, excited curiosity and inquiry; other travellers he has exhibited are all from three to four years old.
increased the store of geographical knowledge, and pioneered the We hope that an early opportunity will be afforded to the way for our merchants, and hence the belief in public generally for the inspection of Photogenic Drawings,
" Anthropophagi, and men whese heads and the mode of their production.
Do grow beneath their shouldiers,"
may be considered as a link in the eternal chain of events "work- they go to plough, for he hath long nails upon his feet as great ing together for good."
as horns of oxen, and of those they make cups there to drink The excessive popularity of the author was not, however, of with, and of his ribs they do make bows to shoot with.” long duration. Reason asserted her empire: theology became too Then in other places we hear of islands where men hare pure to tolerate the admixture of Christian and Pagan wonders. but one eye in their front, and eat flesh and fish all raw. Classical authority began to be consulted, and compared with Others, where they have no heads, having their eyes in their modern researches. Men sought in the works of travellers for shoulders, and their mouths in their breasts. In another, where geographic and scientific information, not for the rehearsal of they have neither head nor eyes, and have their mouths in their fables ; and when so great a portion of a work like this appeared shoulders. Where they have flat faces without noses and without to be founded on a credulous echo of what was acknowledged eyes; but they have two small round holes instead of eyes, and falsehood, a general cry of wilful fraud was raised against our they have flat mouths without lips: and in this isle there are author and his contemporaries of the same stamp. The accusa- some also that have their faces flat, without eyes, mouth, or nose, tion was unjust, and founded on a total misconception of the but eyes and mouth behind on their shoulders. In another, men principles and motives of the writer. It is certainly much to be have lips about their mouths so great, that when they sleep in regretted by the modern reader, that our elder travellers were the sun they cover their faces with their lips. In another, are 80 credulous, since, although their marvels may excite a smile, men as little as dwarfs, who have no mouth but a little round they diminish the interest of the narrative ; but when we examine hole, and through that hole they eat their meat with a pipe ; the relations of Mandevile, we find that he bas, with an honour and they have no tongue, neither do they speak, but blow and do able scrupulosity, to which it would be well if all travellers ad- whistle, and do make signs one to another. Where there are hered, carefully distinguished all that he knew of his own know- men with feet like a horse, and pursue wild beasts, and eat ledge from what he has obtained from reading or the reports of them. Where they go on their hands and feet, and run about others. When he tells the most improbable stories, he prefaces like cats or apes. them with—“Thei seyn," or "men seyn, but I have not sene Mandevile's book, " with all its faults,” is, in several points it."
of view, a peculiarly interesting work; every spot was to him The author, according to the humour of the times of ignorance truly "holy ground." Around him on every hand were the in which he lived, has put into his history abundance of miracles living footsteps of the Divine Presence. The very rocks seemed and strange things. He was ambitious of saying all he could of to lament over the spirits whose martyrdom they had witnessed. the places be treats of, and has therefore taken monsters out of Here were the infant scenes of the human race, the dwelling. Pliny, miracles out of legends, and strange stories out of what place of primæval innocence, the abodes of the patriarchs, the would now be called romance, and he says :—"The which hys- prophets, and the kings of Israel! The whole face of the countory I have bygonne, after the veray and true cronycles, and try; the wild desert, with its green spots thinly scattered, like many other bokes that I have sought and overrede, for to accom- islands, for the repose of the weary traveller ; the Dead Sea ; the plyshe hit." And certainly he appears to have been very suc- sacred plains of Egypt; the Nile; the rivers of Paradise ; the cessful in his search, for the wonders be relates have no parallel wild romantic mode of life of the tribes that scoured over the in any single volume, save the renowned history of the immortal face of the country; all combined to awaken associations of the Baron Munchausen. But with all this ultra-extravagance, if it deepest and most reverential order. The voice which echoes to so pleases the reader to designate it, there is yet a poetic interest us from such scenes as these, viewed with feelings which agitated in these Travels. This and other works had a great influence the bosom of a traveller like Mandevile, is calculated even yet in fixing, if not forming, much of the genius of the romantic to awaken some of the most powerful emotions of the heart, and poetry of the age, by reviving and giving the weight of living make us cease to wonder that we sometimes find the imagination testimony to the materials for many of these fables. A few getting the better of the understanding. extracts, showing our author's genius in that line, are sub- The views he takes of society and religion are marked by a joined:
liberal and enlightened tone, which we are surprised to find in “Cross a river of fresh water, four miles wide, to the land one living in so bigoted and superstitious an age. But Mandeof Pigmie, where there are men but three spans long. The men vile was a gentleman and a scholar, and travel had extended his and women are fair, and are married when they are half-a-year views of humanity. The following tale, though in itself rather old. They live but eight years. These small men are the best apocryphal, leads him to make reflections which do honour to workmen of silk and cotton, and all manner of things, that are
the christian traveller. in the world. They scorn great men as we do giants, and have “ There is another isle called Synople, wherein are good people them to travel for them, and to till their land.
of good faith, and they go all naked. Into that island came king “There is another island, called Pitan; the men of this land Alexander, and when he saw their truth and good belief he said till no ground, for they eat nothing; and they are small, but not
• he would do them no harm, and bid them ask of him riches, or so small as the Pigmies. These men live with the smell of wild any thing else, and they should have it.' And they answered, apples, and when they go far out of the country, they bear apples that they had riches enough when they had meat and drink to with them; for as soon as they lose the savour of apples, they sustain their bodies ;' and they said also,' that the riches of this die. They are not reasonable, but as wild as beasts. And there world are naught worth ; but if it were so, that he might grant is another isle where the people are feathered, all but their faces them that they should never die, that would they pray him.' and the palms of their hands: these men go about the sea as on And Alexander said, 'that he might not do, for he was mortal, the land, and they eat flesh and fish all raw.”
and should die as they should.' Then, said they, Why art “From this land, men shall go to the land of Bactrie, where thou so proud, and win all the world and keep it in subjection, are many wicked and cruel men. In this land are trees that bear as it were a God, and hast no term of thy life ; and thou wilt wool as it were sheep, of which they make cloth. In this land are have all the riches of the world which shall forsake thee, and Ypotains, that dwell sometimes on land, and sometimes on water, thou shalt bear nothing with thee, but it shall remain to others; and are half man, half horses, and feed on men when they can but as thou wert born naked, so shalt thou be done in earth?' get them. In this land are many griffins, more than in other And Alexander was greatly astonished at this speech. And they places, and some say they have the body before as an eagle, and have not the articles of our faith ; nevertheless, I believe that behind as a lion ; and it is true, for they are made so: but the God liketh their service as he did of Job, that was a Painim, the griffin hath a body bigger than eight lions, and stronger than which he held for his true servant, and many others. I believe, one hundred eagles, for certainly he will bear to his nest flying, verily, that God loveth all those that love him, and serve him a horse and man upon his back, or two oxen yoked together as meekly and truly, and that despise the vain-glory of the world;
and these men do, and Job did; and therefore, said the Lord, • I shall put laws to them in many manners.' And the Gospel
CHARACTERISTICS OF HOOPING-COUGH. saith, “I have other sheep that are not of this fold.' And there It is probable that some of our readers may ask themselves or agreeth the vision St. Peter saw at Joppa, how the angel came
others the question, what is the utility of these articles on the from heaven, and brought with him all manner of beasts, as
diseases of childhood ? The usual symptoins attending them are serpents, and divers fowls, saying to St. Peter, * Take and eat.' stated; but why is not he proper treatment also given ? To And St. Peter answered, 'I never eat of any unclean beast.' such we reply, that it never was our intention to enter into the And the angel said unto him, “Call thou not those things unclean details of the medical treatment respecting any complaint which which God hath cleansed.' This was done in token that men we may place before them, and for this simple reason—the should not have any man in disdain for their divers laws; for conviction that any attempt of the kind would be rather apt to Te know not whom God loveth or whom he hateth."
lead them astray than to enlighten. There are four printed copies, in English, of Mandevile's Nature has not formed on the largest tree of the forest two Travels, in the library of the British Museum, of as many various leaves precisely alike-neither has she presented two cases of the editions ; the two most ancient are in black letter, the first of same disease bearing exact resemblance. Age, constitution, or which is a typographical curiosity. It is embellished with a some peculiarity belonging to the individual varies them so much, profusion of woodcuts representing the various marvels de- as to constitute an important feature in the study and successful scribed : the very rudeness of their execution has something practice of medicine. Hence the impossibility of an universal interesting about it. The book contains about 200 pages, small remedy or of prescribing correctly or scientifically from the 4to. The title runs thus :—"The Voiage and Travayle of Syr mere name of a disease. The patient must be seen, and all the John Mandevile, Knight, which treateth of the Way to Hieru- circumstances attending his or her case be taken carefully into salem, and of Marvayles of Inde, with other Islands and Coun the consideration of the medical practitioner, before he can tryes. Imprinted at London, in Bread-streat, at the nether prescribe proper remedies. ende, by Thomas East, An. 1568. the 6 day of October.” After These few observations may lead the reader to perceive the the Table of Contents is the following:
fallacy that must ever attend the announcement of a specific, or " Here beginneth a lyttle treatise or boke, named John Maun-remedy, for the cure of any one complaint in all constitutions, devile, Knight, born in England, in the towne of Sainte Albone, and will, we trust, put them on their guard against the preand speaketh of the wayes to Hierusalem, to Inde, and to the tensions of those who profess to cure all the ills to which the great Cane ; and also to Prestor John's Land, and to many other human frame is subject, by one remedy. The utility of these Countreys; also of many marvailes that are in the Holy Lande.” articles we have reason to believe is very generally understood; The orthography of this copy is very ancient, and is somewhat but lest there should be even one who does not comprehend difficult to be read. The other black letter edition, of 1681, has
our intention, we shall briefly say, that our object is to give a the orthography somewhat modernised. There is also a small plain statement of the usual symptoms attending those diseases 18mo copy, in roman print, without date, “Printed for T. of childhood, with such directions to the young mother as will Hedges, opposite to St. Magnus Church, and Sold by J. Harriss, keep her from committing any error from inexperience, and at the Looking-glass and Bible, on London Bridge, price One encourage her to resist the too frequent interference of friends Shilling." This is also still further modernized and abridged.
or neighbours, in the management of her children, when affected The most complete edition is that of 1725, an 8vo volume of with those diseases which call forth such abundance of maternal
solicitude. nearly 400 pages, which is from a MS. in the Cottonian collection, then upwards of four hundred years old, collated with seven
In directing the attention of our readers to the ordinary sympothers, some nearly as old as the author's time. In this copy and during warm and temperate weather, it sometimes runs its
toms of Hooping.cough, we would observe, that in its mild form, the old orthography is restored. The versions and editions of Mandevile's book are very the sufferer. Cases of so mild a nature occasionally occur, that
course without exciting alarm to the parent, or greatly distressing Farious, and unequal in execution. It has been printed in all children will continue playful, and apparently in as good health countries as a popular book ; and of course many of such editions immediately before and after the paroxysm or fit of coughing, are inaccurate and mutilated.
as during their ordinary state of health. But this favourable In the following extract, the original is preserved as a specimen form with us, who inhabit a variable and cold climate, is not of of the orthography :
very frequent occurrence; on the contrary, there are few com" Egypt is a long contree; but it is streyt, that is to seye, plaints incident to childhood, which require greater care to narow: for thei may not enlargen it toward the desert, for defaute ensure the well being of those attacked by it; and when in a of watre. And the contree is sett along upon the ryvere of Nyle ; severe form, the paroxysm of coughing is so distressing, even to becomes as that ryvere may serve hal be flodes or otherwise, that the beholder, as to call forth the keenest sympathy for the sufwhaune it floweth it may spreden abrood thorghe the contree ; ferer. so is the contree large of lengthe. For theyre it reynethe not Hooping-cough commences with the symptoms of a common but litylle in the contree ; but the eyr is always pure and cleer, cold, such as watery eyes, nose discharging a thin mucus, with therefore in that contree ben the gode astronomyeres ; for the cough which may, even in the early periods, be observed to be fynde there no clouds to letten hem. Aso the cyttee of Cayre is in fits, and of longer duration than what usually attends common righte gret, and more huge than that of Babylone the lesse. And cold. These symptoms may continue from ten days to three it sytt aboven toward the desert of Syrye a lytille aboven the weeks, or longer, before the whooping commences. ryvere aboveseyd. In Egypt there ben two parties ; the heghte, It is this “ whooping” noise which has given rise to its that is toward Ethiope ; and the loweness that is towardes peculiar name; but it is also known by a variety of appellations, Arabye.”
such as chin-cough-kink.cough-and kink-hoast. For the We must now take our leave of old Sir John Mandevile; whom sake of clearness we will divide it into two stages ; the first, we have accompanied through many a strange country, beguiled exhibiting the symptoms of common cold, which may proceed by his pleasant and frequently instructive chat. We have with so little fever or suffering, that even the experienced parent only introduced him to our readers, but we heartily recom- will only consider it an obstinate cold. But at the end of a mend them to cultivate a further acquaintance with the venera- period, varying from one to two or three weeks, the second
stage commences, and is distinguished by the peculiar convulsive cough. In this cough a number of expirations are made with
such violence, and repeated in such quick succession, that the external application, which might have been used as an adjunct, patient seems to be almost in danger of suffocation.
but which never could control or cure the symptoms under which “ The face and neck are swollen and livid, the eyes protruded, the patient was labouring. The result may be told in a few and full of tears ; at length, one or two inspirations are made words : a fond and doating father was left childless by the weak. with similar violence, and by them the peculiar whooping sound ness of his wife ; and the enthusiastic friend, from her igaorance is produced : a little rest probably follows, and is succeeded by and uncalled for interference, brought the weak and over-fond another fit of coughing and another whoop; until, after a suc
mother to be one of the most unhappy of her sex. cession of these actions, the paroxysm is terminated by vomiting, Hooping-cough is frequently complicated with convulsions, or a discharge of mucus or phlegm from the lungs, or perhaps especially at the period of teething; but when convulsions take by both. Sometimes, when the kink is unusually severe, blood place, they will be readily recognized by the most inexperienced. is forced from the nose, ears, and even from the eye-lids; and Sometimes the child exhibits no indication to lead the mother occasionally it ends, without producing any discharge, in com- to fear such an attack ; but after a fit of coughing of greater plete exhaustion of the patient.
severity than usuan, the child is thrown into a violent convulsion “ The number of paroxysms occurring during a day varies from which it generally recovers. However, it more frequently much in different cases, according to the severity of the disease; happens that certain symptoms precede, and indicate the apand the violence of each is diminished in proportion to the free proach of convulsions. If during the period of teething we ness of the expectoration.
observe the fits of coughing become greatly increased in violence, “After the disease has continued at its height for two or three and the child, instead of " whooping,” becomes livid, if the weeks, it begins naturally to decline ; the fits become less fre. fingers and toes appear to be spasmodically contracted, and the quent and violent, the expectoration increases, the cough soon thumbs drawn into the palms of the hands, we may expect, and loses its peculiar characteristics, and finally wears away, leaving most probably wiil have, convulsions, unless suitable means are the patient in perfect health. It is to be observed, however, employed to ward off the threatened attack. Unhappily the that occasionally, several weeks after the cough has entirely repetition of them but too frequently terminates in that formidsubsided, it may return; and for a long time, if the patient able malady, water on the brain; therefore the urgent necessity accidentally catch cold, the cough will oftert likewise assume the to do all in our power to prevent such a train of diseased action spasmodic character, and be accompanied by “ the whoop.” taking possession of the system. For if this powerful and
Such are the symptoms attending the simple and uncom- unrelenting enemy establishes a footing in the citadel, there plicated hooping-cough ; but, unhappily, it too often becomes is little chance of dislodging him before the 'fabric is reduced complicated with other 'affections, which greatly add to the to ruins. suffering and danger of the patient-such as inflammation of the Hooping-cough may also be complicated with remittent fever lungs or respiratory organs, convulsions, water on the brain, and disordered state of the bowels ; but when these are present, and remitting fever.
although less to be feared than the two former combinations, The symptoms by which inflammation of the lungs will be yet they render the disease tedious and untractable, and can recognized are,—increased frequency of breathing; the fits of only be properly treated by the intelligent medical man. coughing more frequent and distressing; the pulse beats much We shall conclude with a brief exposition of the management quicker ; the extremities have a tendency to become cold; there of children labouring under hooping-cough. The child should is a panting after a paroxysm of coughing, which is dreaded and be kept in an equal and agreeable temperature ; and we would struggled against; the nostrils contract and dilate in each urge particular attention to be paid to this subject, as there is a respiration, and the lips acquire a livid hue. Here the most very general disposition existing towards the exposure of the prompt and decisive treatment becomes necessary, as the patient's child to the cold and open air-vainly imagining that a change safety depends on the early removal of these unfavourable of atmosphere is beneficial. But during the first weeks of the symptoms.
attack, such a change is always attended with danger of increasing By relating the following melancholy case, we hope to make the violence of the cough, and bringing on some of the coma deeper impression on the minds of those mothers, disposed to binations we have before stated. The unhappy result of the case be influenced by the interference of neighbours and friends, on above given, will, we trust, strengthen our illustration on this medical treatment, than we could expect to effect by our point, and lead the mother to become convinced of the necessity advice.
of keeping her child in an equal and agreeable temperature A fine boy, an only child, about four years old, had the hoop- during the early period of the disease. When the second stage ing-cough, and was proceeding favourably, when the weather has continued for some time, and the cough is the only distress. became suddenly cold and frosty, with an easterly wind; he was ing symptom, a change of air is desirable, and is generally proremoved from up-stairs to a room below, when the change of ductive of beneficial effects. atmosphere, in passing down stairs, gave rise to such symptoms The diet, if the child be weaned, should consist of milk, in as have been just described. His medical attendant ordered combination with the farinaceous preparations, such as bread, leeches to be applied, and other proper remedies. Unfortunately flour, sago, rice, arrow-root, &c.· During cold weather the the mother had a female friend, who in her own imagination, clothing should be warm. Every care should be taken to prevent possessed a cure for all complaints ; and in her way was cer- the occurrence of inflammatory action. No other disease has tainly an enthusiast. It required a stronger mind than the poor had a greater variety of remedies recommended for its cure than boy's mother had, to resist the importunity and assurance of her hooping-cough ; but as we believe it will have its course, friend. That if she was only allowed to rub a certain celebrated independent of all the remedial means which have been used to embrocation on the sufferer's back, that night and the following shorten it, we would dissuade mothers from putting much faith morning, she was as satisfied as she lived, that the dear little in, or trying any of, the popular remedies which may be recomfellow would be quite well, without the application of the nasty mended to her. We cannot conclude before offering a word or leeches, which would only weaken him so much that he would two in favour of the use of the gum-lancet, when the patient is never be able to go through the complaint.
suffering from the irritation of teething—especially when there Her enthusiasm and eloquence unhappily prevailed; “ nasty are symptoms indicating the approach of convulsions. Let not leeches,” and other means prescribed by a medical man, who had the fond mother be deterred from having the gums lanced in passed some twenty-five years of his life in the minute and close apprehension of pain being inflicted on her offspring, as the observation of discase, were disregarded; time, which could not proper application of the gum-lancet is a more efficient soother be regained, was lost in applying and trusting to stimulating than all the soothing syrups ever invented.
A WORD TO YOUNG MEN.
mental strength of our country? Not to that class encircled by
a factitious state of society and education. Not to the agriculIt is not now as it used to be in the days which Scott has tural population,-in no class is so much appalling ignorance to so ably depicted, when the “apprentices” of London were able be met with, as among the cultivators of the soil ;-those even, to awe a court, or to ruin a favourite ; 'order and obedience who, living upon their own land, and above the pressure, of have succeeded to that state of boisterous misrule ; but what the wants of life, might find leisure to cultivate their mental has been lost in power has been gained in respectability; and, faculties, even they are more profoundly ignorant in all if no longer to be feared, you are at least a class to be cared for which is not a mere matter of pounds, shillings, and pence, Two paths lie before you : the hours at your disposal must either than the mechanic ; we can hardly look to these for intellecbe so occupied as to raise and purify your nature, or they will be given up to idleness, and almost consequently to vice. It is tual progression. It is to the middle classes of respectable not that these hours are given merely for what is called relaxa- tradesmen, in easy circumstances, that we must turn, in hope tion ; they are taken from manual duty, to be occupied in and well-grounded expectation ; to men whose employments mental improvement ; and that portion of your body, who in lead them to scientific inquiry: and in this class those we are London are now enjoying the benefit of the recent regulations
now addressing may be prospectively included. Sone of you will respecting the closing of shops, should endeavour to lead some
one day probably be masters ; endeavour to bring into that patriotic individuals to set on foot plans for libraries, at so
situation increased knowledge, a wider liberality, and more cheap a rate as to render books accessible to all your class ; if philosophical views. The foundation for this must be laid in sach efforts be not made for you, they must be made by you. your present hours of leisure ; do not let those lours pass by Having once acquired the habit of passing your leisure hours unimproved. To each is given some peculiar talent ; search in reading, no temptation to any morally or mentally unhealthy your own minds and discover the bent of this talent ; foster it, place of amusement will have power over you. Read useful and it will, if directed in accordance with the injunctions of the works, make yourselves acquainted with the scientific part of Gospel, prove a blessing to yourselves, and to those dependent your trade ; every business has some portion of science con- upon you. If the acquisition of languages be easy to you, look nected with it: even the weaving of a bit of ribbon is guided by up to Sir W. Jones as your example, no matter at how great mathematical rules, and the scissors with which you cut it may
a distance; see liow he, by persevering industry, pierced the lead you to the investigation of the mechanical powers. if veil which had hitherto hidden from the western world the your occupation lie among the productions of nature, endea- treasures of oriental learning: if your mind be alive to the vour to learn their culture, and the possibility of improving exquisite beauty of the starry heavens, read of Ferguson, the or increasing them ; see and feel how the beneficent God has self-taught rustic, who, while employed in keeping sheep, adapted the produce of each climate to the wants of the inha- marked the position of the stars with a bead and thread: bitants ; read of the hardships which those adventurous men if your inclination be to poetry, dismiss your reveries, and endured, who first brought foreign luxuries to our country; employ yourself in some task requiring undivided attention of admire their perseverance, but reprobate the cruelty they too body and mind. often practised towards those innocent and happy “children of History affords equal excitement and amusement blended the soil,” whose homes they invaded : let the sufferings of the with instruction. Rome, by rapine, injustice, and tyranny, slave, and the wrongs of the Hindu, awaken in your hearts arose to be the mistress of the western world ; in her decline gratitude to Him who has caused your “lines to fall in pleasant we can see clearly, as if written with a “pencil of light,” how places;" and remember that tyranny and ill-temper to infe- her first Romulus prepared the fate of her last. The career riors are as culpable in you as in the slave-driver.
of Napoleon was but a feeble imitation of the victories of Does your business awaken in you a love and admiration for Rome; and a similar career to his, will probably not again the works of art ? Read of ancient times—of Greece-of a astonish the world. Internal decay, not foreign conquest, is whole nation cultivating beauty in art. Read of the Parthenon, the antagonist of modern stability. Extend your researches and admire the exquisite outline of its groups, the elaborate into the general history of man, of his powers, of his affections ; finish of its decorations—then reflect upon the history of the meditate upon the purposes of his creation, and learn from the people who fostered this beauty ; they were conquerors, they Bible how to fulfil those purposes : fear not that such inquiries were tyrants, they are slaves, even though Greece has been will be useless ; they will strengthen your mind, and enable raised to the rank of a kingdom. Or go back to ages when you to keep your virtuous resolutions through difficulty and Greece was not.
Let Belzoni or Wilkinson describe to you temptation. Knowledge of any kind, however apparently remote the ponderous but beautiful sculpture of Egypt, or the manners from your every-day pursuits, can never be useless ; and customs of the old Egyptians. What are the people who now live under the shadow of the columns of Tentyra ? They
Ne'er dooms to waste the strength be deigns impart." also are slaves, fallen in mind and body. Read in Basil Hall of the care of Elephanta, gigantic as the genius of its architects. Read of Ellora, with its thousand caves; of Barotti; revive the office of Jester. It is by the squandering glances of
If it were possible to restore dead fashions to life, we would of “the ringlet on the brow of Cheetore ;” and ask, What are the fool, that the wise man's folly is anatomised with least disthe people whose ancestors thus perpetuated the soul of beauty comfort. From the professed fool he may receive the reproof which inspired them? They are slaves. And shall we too be without feeling the humiliation of it, and the medicine will not slaves ? No.
work the worse, but the better, for being administered under It is not probable that our country will be for ever protected the disguise of indulgence or recreation. It would be well, from the doom of change, of decay ; “ the fiery Frank and indeed, if every man who, whether in thought or in action, has
too much his own way, would keep a licensed jester. All furious Hun” may have become our ally in civilisation and coteries, literary, political, or fashionable, which enjoy the dancommerce, we are not therefore the more secure ; the sons of gerous privilege of leading the tastes and opinions of the little Magog may be confined within their rampart, but it is not the circle which is their world, ought certainly to keep one as part less certain that change will come ; though whence, and by of their establishment. The House of Commons, being at once what agents, this generation cannot perceive. We should the most powerful body on the earth, and the most intolerant of reflect that another empire will take up the ball of civilization criticism, stands especially in need of an officer who may speak where we drop it, and, therefore, as accountable creatures, who has a system, every theologian who heads a sect, every
out at random, without fear of Newgate. Every philosopher we should endeavour to further it to the utmost of our power. projector who gathers a company, every interest that can comAnd to what class must we look for an invigoration of the mand a party, would do wisely to retain a privileged jester.
“ Be sure that God