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INFORMATION ON SPECTACLES *.

pulverized diamond, into slabs or pieces, of the diameter required.

Those pieces in which bubbles, waves, or blemishes appear, are Spectacles and side-saddles, we are quaintly informed, thrown aside by the optician who is tenacious of his fair fame, became common in England in the reign of Richard the Second.

as their imperfections become more apparent in every afterThe ancients, however, knew the power of burning-glasses, and stage of their progress; and when polished, centred, and shaped one cunning rogue, we are told, discovered a new way to pay old for the spectacle-frame, they are really improper to be used at debts by means of a round stone or glass, used in lighting of all; nevertheless, the needy, or dishonest, rather than lose a fires, with which he melted the bond, written, as usual in those fraction of their gains, often persist in working up such imperdays, on wax. Their burning-glasses were spheres, either solid fect material, and, harping upon their being pebble-real pebble

-palm them upon the uninitiated as genuine articles. Pebor full of water, their foci were consequently very short and bles have the following important advantages : they are of equal confined. A long interval occurred before spectacles were con- density, and exceedingly hard, firm, and clear ; their surfaces structed, and three hundred years elapsed between the invention are not liable to become misty or scratched (which circumstance of spectacles and telescopes.

alone often compels a change of glasses) : they are of a pure, Our eyes should have our nicest and most tender care, since cool nature, and show this contrast to glass (which is, on the it is by them we are faniliarized with objects of the most ex

contrary, produced by the action of artificial heat) in the touch

of the finger or tongue to their surfaces. They are, in consequisite interest and beauty, abounding on the earth we inhabit,

quence of these properties, calculated to suit the sight for a and in the starry firmament above us :

longer period than glass ; but they need not be thrown aside “ My soul, while Nature's beauties feast mine eyes,

when, from the indications already referred to, we find an To Naturo's God contemplative shall rise."-DODSLEY.

increase of magnifying power is required, as they can be reThe faculty of sight should be estimated and regarded by us worked readily enough to meet the acquirement of the eyes, and with more than ordinary care, when we reflect that it is the

at an expense of scarcely more than that of a new pair of glasses, medium through which the most exalted and gratifying impres- ascertaining the focus of concave or convex pebbles, are the

or about one-third of their original cost. The directions for sions are received ; and our watchful regard to its healthy pre

same as described for concave or convex glasses. servation and agreeable exercise is the more required from the The use of wire, gauze, crape, and muslin, as substitutes for consideration, that while to its admirable organization and glass, should be avoided, because it is a fallacy to assert that delicate sense of perception we stand so much indebted, those they are cooler and more agreeable to the eye. There is ahun. very qualities render it extremely sensitive to injudicious treat

dant space for the circulation of air in the region of the eye if ment.

the spectacle-frame adapts itself pleasantly to the wearer's face ; The eyes, when in a sound and healthy state, instinctively look on things around us, a transparent medium is preferable

while the eye and common sense may answer together that, to adjust themselves at a distance of twelve inches from a book or

to a hazy and indistinct one. We do not choose bars and paper, when they are observing the same. This distance is gratings, or coarse curtains, in preference to glass, for the win. found to be most natural and agreeable ; for when we extend it dows of apartments; but if the light is sometimes too intense, to sixteen, twenty, or thirty inches, the crystalline lens is we place a shade to soften its dazzling effects. Such precisely stimulated to keep a distant and clear perception, until, as the is the reason why tinted glass spectacles, for defending the eyes distance increases, the object become less and less perceptible. from rain, dust, and wind, are recommended. When we are compelled to extend this natural distance, expe- ties, within a given time, than those worked by hand. They

Lenses worked by machinery are produced in greater quantirience difficulty in reading small characters, or find it necessary

are passed through the different stages of grinding and polishto get more light on what we are observing, we may safely con- ing without having the keen eye of the workman carefully watchclude that artificial assistance is needed, and that, judiciously ing their progress, and adjusting the inequalities in their surfaces applied, the tendency to decay will be mildly arrested.

or edges, which will always appear more or less in the working. The design of spectacles is to supply the loss of power which

The price at which competition demands those lenses shall be is experienced by the eyes at different periods of life, and ducer cannot afford to throw aside such as are faulty, and the

rendered, operates against the wearer of spectacles; for the proarising from various causes. These productions of art are con

wholesale agent and retail dispenser cannot expect to have, at structed with a close observance to, and act upon, the same

the low price charged, lenses which will bear a critical examiprinciples as those by which the process of vision is regulated. nation; and thus all which can possibly be used are thrust into

Spectacles ought not to do more than maintain or preserve frames of one kind or other, from the common iron or horn to us the capability of seeing at the natural distance. This is, sold by the poor hawkers at sixpence, eightpence, and one shilin fact, all they are intended to effect. When the crystalline ling per pair, to the more expensive frames ; while many faulty lens of the eye, losing its convexity, fails to converge the rays glasses, after being dubbed with some ear-tickling appellation, of light, and bring them to their natural focus on the retina, an

and imbibing extraordinary “light-modifying and refractive virartificial lens, of suitable convexity, supplies to it this capability, tues,” by passing into the hands of the hawker of a higher class,

are palmed upon the unfortunate spectacle purchasers who are and compensates for its gradual diminution of capacity. Thus simple enough to give credence to the wondrous tale. lenses for assisting the sight are fashioned upon the optical prin

The eyes in which no malformation or disease exists, but ciples so apparent in the mechanism of the eye itself, which, which simply partake of constitutional decay, or, from too conit will be observed, is neither round nor flat, but of that nicely | tinued application to sedentary and studious pursuits, are be. moulded convexity which is indispensable for the performance ginning to feel a want of assistance, should have spectacles of of its functions. If lenses were either spheres or planes, they sixty-inch focus, which is an exceedingly slight magnifying likewise would be ineffective for the purpose proposed.

power; and if these are found to be insufficient to afford ab There is not any material in existence, beside pebble and image of the letters of a book, &c., held in the hand at the

agreeable and natural perception (not an enlarged or magnified glass, which is calculated for spectacle purposes. The pretended distance of twelve or fourteen inches from the eye), then apply "improvements, .” “pellucid lenses,” “refractive transparencies," those of the next power, viz. forty-eight inches' focus. If these

patent amber," "crystal preservers,”' &c., are new-fangled again are unequal to supply the loss of power or incapacity of terms, coined to entrap the uninitiated. Glass for optical uses the eye to converge the light to a point at the instant it reaches s heavy, homogeneous, and free from streaks and veins. More the retina, then lenses of thirty-six inches focus are to be had expensive chemical substances are employed in its manufacture recourse to; and when these fail to afford agreeable vision, than are used in making common glass.

thirty, twenty-eight, twenty-four, twenty, must be progressively Brazil pebbles, or crystallized quartz, are imported to this adopted, thus gradually descending the scale, until the eyes recountry in rough blocks; these are cut or slit, by the aid of power, as spectacles carefully suited to the sight are capable so

ceive such compensation for their progressive decay and loss of * From a lively tract, called " Spectacle Secrets,” by George Cox, effectually to supply. London, 1838.

The period at which the sight begins to fail does not at all

depend on age, but varies in different persons according to the formation of the eyes, the treatment they have received, and

THE PROFESSOR OF SIGNS. the constitutional capability; therefore, the age of the person King James VI., on removing to London, was waited upon requiring spectacles gives but a vague general idea to the opti- by the Spanish Ambassador, a man of erudition, who had a cian as to what is required, unless other particulars are stated ; crotchet in his head that every country should have a Professor such as whether glasses have been used before ; the distance at which writing and printing are seen pleasantly without assist

of Signs, to teach him, and the like of him, to understand one ance: the focus of those last used, or sending even but a broken

another. piece of the same.

The Spanish ambassador was lamenting one day, before the The near-sighted, or those who require concave spectacles, king, this great desideratum throughout all Europe, when the should use those of the slightest power; No. 0, or No. 1, will king, who was a queerish sort of man, said to him, “ Why, I generally be sufficient at first, but this, by the aid of the trial- have a Professor of Signs in the northernmost college of my bor, can readily be determined by the wearer himself. There is dominions, viz., at Aberdeen ; but it is a great way off, perhaps such an immense benefit experienced by the short-sighted from spectacles which suit their sight, that to argue for their adop- six hundred miles.”—"Were it ten thousand leagues off, I shall tion of them would be quite superfluous. Without spectacles

see him," said the ambassador, “and I am determined to set out they are excluded from observing beautiful landscapes, recog- in two or three days.” The king saw he had committed himself, nising individuals, or viewing to advantage any of the crowd of and wrote, or caused to be written to the University of Aberinteresting objects around them ; but by adopting them they deen, stating the case, and desiring the professors to put him off are placed on a par with the long-sighted in such circumstances,

some way, or make the best of him. The ambassador arrived, while the sharp and microscopic character of their sight without spectacles, gives them many advantages over those possessing which of them had the honour to be the Professor of Signs ?

was received with great solemnity, but soon began to inquire ordinary vision.

The short, or near-sighted eyes, have the cornea, and often And being told that the Professor was absent in the Highlands the crystalline lens, more convex or arched out than in long- and his return uncertain, said the Ambassador, “ I will wait sighted eyes. This formation causes the rays to converge to a his return, though it were twelve months.” Seeing that this focus before they reach the retina, but by the application of a would not do, and that they had to entertain him at a great concave lens the difficulty is corrected, and the rays are carried expense all the while, they contrived a stratagem. There was on to the proper point for giving a perfect image on the retina. This character of sight is very frequent, and is more particu

one Geordie, a butcher, blind of an eye, a droll fellow, with larly remarkable among those whose mode of life restricts them much wit and roguery about him. He is got, told the story, to crowded cities, sedentary employments, and confined situa- and instructed to be the Professor of Signs, but not to speak on tions. Those whose infantine and youthful years have been pain of death. Geordie undertakes it. The ambassador is passed in the country, or where the eyes have had a free range now told the Professor of Signs would be at home next day, at of view, not circumscribed by the walls of the nursery, or li- which he rejoiced greatly. Geordie is gowned, wigged, and mited to the observation of objects near at hand, rarely require placed in a chair of state in a room of the college, all the concave spectacles. The spectacle-frames next demand our attention, as our

professors and the ambassador being in an adjoining room. The utmost care in judiciously selecting lenses of the proper focus ambassador is now shown into Geordie's room, and left to conor our sight will be neutralised if the frame or mounting in verse with him as well as he could. The ambassador holds up which they are placed does not apply comfortably to the one finger to Geordie, Geordie holds up two, the ambassador head, leaving the lenses they carry fair and parallel before the holds up three fingers, Geordie clenches his fist and looks stern. eres. If the front of a pair of spectacles is too short for the The ambassador then takes an orange from his pocket and holds wearer's face, he will look upon the edge of the lens, and a por: it up ; Geordie takes a piece of barley-cake from his pocket and tion of the exterior rim of the frame; if they are too long his ere will meet the opposite edge and inner curve of the rim. holds it up ; after which the ambassador bows profoundly to Spectacle-frames are fashioned to suit the variety of formation him and retires to the other professors, who anxiously inquired in different individuals, and therefore such should be applied as his opinion of their brother ? He is a perfect miracle," said adapt themselves pleasantly to the temples, across the forehead the ambassador, “ I would not give him for the wealth of the and before the eyes.

Indies! I first held up one finger, denoting that there is one The material of which they are composed should be gold, God ;. he held up two, signifying that these are the Father and silver, or enamelled blue steel. Tortoiseshell, also, when well made, is very light and pleasant to wear, particularly for Son; I held up three, meaning the Father, Son, and Holy

I ladies. There is no advantage in large size, or round-eye Ghost; he clenched his fist, to say that the three are one. spectacles, to compensate for their clumsy appearance and great then took out an orange, signifying the goodness of God, who weight; we get a sufficient expanse of observation with the gives his creatures not only the necessaries, but the luxuries of oval-shaped glasses without harassing the eye with an excess of life; upon which the wonderful man presented a piece of bread, light, which the large glasses admit.

Solid blue steel mountings are a decided improvement, and showing that it was the staff of life, and preferable to every are invaluable for persons who constantly require spectacles.

luxury.” They are wrought from a plate of steel, and shaped as light and

The Professors were glad that matters had turned out so well; nniform as any other town-made elastic blue steel spectacles, so, having got quit of the ambassador, they next went to Geordie, with the advantage of being more durable, and eventually less to hear his version of the signs. “Well, Geordie, how have expensive ; for as they have no soldering in their composition, you come on, and what do you think of your man?”—" The it is scarcely possible to break them, and therefore they rarely rascal !” said Geordie, “what did he do first, think ye? He want repairing. Blue steel spectacles, in consequence of their held up one finger, as much as to say, you have only one eye ! bers are sold by the pretended cheap shops, at apparently low I held up two, meaning, that my one eye was as good as both prices which the wearer will find to be immensely beyond their his. Then the fellow held up three fingers to say there were real value. There are thirteen different qualities of the specta- three eyes between us, and then I was so mad, I steeked my cles termed blue steel. The chief part are country made, and neive, and would have come a whack on the side of his head, roughly put together, some being all iron, others having iron but for your sakes.

Then the rascal takes out an orange, as fronts and steel sides; others again bearing a tolerably close much as to say, your poor beggarly cold country cannot produce resemblance to the best town-made articles, which, unless the that! I showed him a whang of bear bannock, meaning I did na two are compared together, is likely to deceive a casual observer. It will be perceived that it is the workmanship and nice finish

of care a farthing for him or his trash either, so long's I hae this ! the best town-made spectacle-frames which necessarily increases but, by a' that's guid, (concluded Geordie) I’m angry yet that the price. Thus, a single pound of pig iron, which costs one penny, I did na thrash the hide of the scoundrel !” can be manufactured into watch-springs of the value of 2401. So much for signs, or two ways of telling a story.

acre,

THE APPROACH OF AGE.

INDUSTRY As oft as I hear the robin-redbreast chaunt it as cheerfully in Septem- Heat gotten by degrees, with motion and exercise, is more natural, and ber, the beginning of winter, as in March, the approach of the summer, stays longer by one, than what is gotten all at once by coming to the fire. why should not we (thinks I) give as cheerful entertainment to the hoary. Goods acquired by Industry prove commonly more lasting than lands by frosty hairs of our age's winter, as to the primroses of our youth's spring ? descent.- Fuller's Holy and Profane States. Why not to the declining sun in adversity, as (like Persians) to the rising Æleas, a king of Scythia, used to say that he thought himself no better sun of prosperity? I am sent to the ant, to learn industry ; to the dove, to than his horse-keeper when he was idle.--Plut. Moral. p. 394. learn innocency; to the serpent, to learn wisdom; and why not to this

SPRATS. bird, to learn equanimity and patience, and to keep the same tenor of my

Sprats (“* Clupea sprattus") abound on the Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, mind's quictness, as well at the approach of the calamities of winter as

Kentish, and other coasts, and afford during the whole of the winter, a of the spring of happiness ? and since the Roman's constancy is so com

cheap supply of food both to rich and poor. The largest quantities aro mended, who changed not his countenance with his changed fortunes,

taken when the nights are dark and foggy. From 400 to 500 stow.boats why should not I, with a Christian resolution, hold a steady course in all

are employed during the winter. Many thousand tons in some seasons wcathers, and though I be forced with cross winds to shift my sails and

are taken, and sold at 6d. and 8d. the bushel, depending on the supply and catch at side winds, yet skillfully to steer and keep on my course by the

demand, to farmers, who distribute about forty bushels of sprats over an Cape of Good Hope, till I arrive at the haven of eternal happiness ?

acre of land, and sometimes manure twenty acres at the cost of 203 an Waruick's Spare Minutes.

In the winter of 1829-30, sprats were particularly abundant; large WIT AND JUDGMENT.

loads, containing from 1,000 to 1,500 bushels, bought at 6d. a bushel, were Wit is brushwood, judgment tinder: the one gives the greatest flame,

sent up the Medway as far as Maidstone, to manure the hop grounds. the other yields the durablest heat; and both meeting make the best fire.

Notwithstanding the immense quantity consumed by the 1,500,000 inhab. -Sir T. Overbury.

itants of London and its neighbourhood, there is yet occasionally a surplus

to be disposed of at so low a price as to induce the farmers even so near COSTUME IN EDWARD Iu.'s REIGN.

the metropolis as Dartford, to use them for manure.-Yarrell's British Dress in the reign of Edward III, 1327, is thus described by Knyghton, Fishes. an historian of these times:-" As regards gentlemen, what could exhibit a more fantastical appearance than an English beau of the 14th century ?

ANTIQUITY OF EPitarus.

Many instances of epitaphs in prose and in verse, may be collected from He wore long-pointed shoes, fastened to his knees by gold or silver chains,

the old Greek poets and historians, who were yet but children compared a stocking of one colour on one leg and one of another colour on the other,

to the Chaldeans and Egyptians. But the most ancient precedent of short breeches which did not reach to the middle of his thighs; a coat one

epitaphs must be that recorded in the most ancient history, namely the half black the other half white or blue, a long beard, a silk hood, buttoned

Old Testament, 1 Sam. vi. 18; where it is recorded, that the great stone under his chin, embroidered with grotesque figures of animals, and orna

erected as a memorial unto Abel, by his father Adam, remained unto mented with gold, silver, or precious stones.” The dress of ladies is thus

that day in being, and its name was called “the stone of Abel ;” and its described :-" The tournaments are attended by many ladies of the first

elegy was, “ Here was shed the blood of the righteous Abel:" as it is also rank and greatest beauty dressed in party-coloured tunics. Their tippets

called 4,000 years after, Matt. xxiii. 35. And this is the origin of monuare very short, their caps remarkably small and wrapt about their heads

mental memorials and elegies.-- Athen, Oracle. with cords. Their girdles are ornamented with gold and silver, and they wear short swords, like daggers, before them, which hang across their

CHAIN OF BEINGS. stomachs. They are mounted on the finest horses with the richest furni- Bitumen and sulphur form the link between earth and metal, vitriols ture; and thus equipped they ride from place to place in quest of tour. unite metals with salts, crystallisations connect salt with stones, the naments, by which they dissipate their fortunes, and often ruin their repu- amianthes and lytophites form a kind of tie between stones and plants, tations."

the polypus unites plants to insects, the tube-worm secms to lead to shells EFFECTS OF WINE ACCOUNTED FOR.

and reptiles, the water-serpent and the eel form a passage from reptiles When Noah planted the first vine, and retired, Satan approached and

to fish, the anas nigra are a medium between fishes and birds, the bat and said—“I will nourish you, charming plant!” He quickly fetched three

the flying squirrel link birds to quadrupeds, and the monkey equally gives animals--a sheep, a lion, and hog--and killed them, one after another,

the hand to quadrupeds and to man. near the vine. The virtues of the blood of these three animals penetrated

CHINESE APHORISMS. it, and are still manifest in its growth. When a man drinks one goblet of He who toils with pain will eat with pleasure. No duns outside, nor wine, he is then agreeable, gentle, friendly-that is the nature of the lamb. no doctors within. Forbearance is a domestic jewel. Something is When he drinks two, he is like a lion, and says, “ who is like me?"-he learned every time a book is opened. To stop the hand is the way to stop then talks of stupendous things. When he drinks more, his senses forsake the mouth. Who aims at excellence will be above mediocrity; whu aims bim; and, at length, he wallows in the mire. Need it be said, that he at mediocrity will fall below it. then resembles the hog?--Richardson.

CASH AND COURAGE.
SIR WILLIAM JONES AND THOMAS DAY.

None fight with true spirit who are overloaded with cash. A man One day, upon removing some books at the chambers of the former, a who had been fortunate at cards, was applied to, to act as a second large spider dropped upon the floor, upon which Sir William, with some in a duel, at a period when the scconds engaged as heartily as tho warmth, said, “ Kill that spider, Day! kill that spider.” “No,” said principals. “I am not,” said he, “the man for your purpose, just at Mr. Day, with coolness, “ I will not kill that spider, Jones: I do not know present, but go and apply to him from whom I won a thousand guineas that I have a right to kill that spider. Suppose, when you are going in last night, and, I warrant you, he will fight like any devil ! "-Andres' your chaise to Westminster hall, a superior being, who perhaps may have Anec. p. 138. as much power over you as you have over this insect, should say to his

MAN'S INSIGNIFICANCE. companion, · Kill that lawyer! kill that lawyer !’how should you like Whoever shall represent to his fancy, as in a picture, that great imago that, Jones ? and I am sure that to most people, a lawyer is a more noxious of our mother Nature, portrayed in her full majesty and lustre, whoever animal than a spider."

in her face shall read so general and so constant a variety, whoever shall A JUST FLOGGING.

observe himself in that figure, and not himself, but a whole kingdom, no I had one just flogging. When I was about thirteen I went to a shoc- bigger than the least touch or prick of a pencil, in comparison of the maker, and begged him to take me as his apprentice. He being an honest whole, that man alone is able to value things according to their true estiman, immediately took me to Bowyer, (the master of the Blue-Coat School, mate and grandeur.-Montaigne's Essays. in which Coleridge was educated,) who got into a great rage, knocked

DEBT. ine down, and even pushed Crispin rudely out of the room. Bowyer asked me why I had made myself such a fool? To which I answered that I had

There can be no independence or calmness without freedom from debt,

which subjects one to indignities that harrow up the soul. Where tho a great desire to be a shoemaker, and that I hated the thought of being a

mind and temper are irritated in this way, what enjoyment can there bo clergyman. “Why so ?” said he. “Because, to tell you the truth, sir,' said I, “ I am an infidel!" For this, without more ado, Bowyer flogged

in anything? And what ripe and perfect fruits can the imagination of

the understanding produce ? Even the charms of nature are thus clouded, me, wisely as I think; soundly, as I know. Any whining or sermonising and the airs of heaven cannot soothe us.-Autobiography of Sir E. would have gratified my vanity, and confirmed me in my absurdity; as it was, I was laughed at and got heartily ashamed of my folly.-Coleridge.

Brydges, Bart.

SLEEPING IN CHURCH. TO TAKE OFF IMPRESSIONS IN PLASTER OF PARIS OR

'Tis a shame when the church itself is a cæmeterium, where the living SULPHUR.

sleep above ground as the dead do beneath.-Fuller's Holy and Profane The plaster must be pulverized and sifted through a piece of very fine

States. gauze. First rub over the medal or engraved stone very softly with oil,

CURIOSITY. and having wiped it with cotton surround the edge of it with a slip of thin The curiosity of an honourable mind willingly rests there where the love lead; mix up the sifted plaster with water and stir it gently to prevent it of truth does not urge it further onward, and the love of its neighbour bids it throwing up air bubbles, then pour it over the medal, or whatever it may stop ; in other words, it willingly stops at the point where the interests of be, the impression of which is wanted, and suffer it to harden and dry; it is truth do not beckon it onward, and charity cries, Halt !--Omniana. easily detached, and forms a mould strongly marked. The process by sulphur is the same. Before these are used as moulds for impressions they London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER must be oiled.

& Co., Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Erans, Whitefriars.

[blocks in formation]

SECOND ARTICLE.-MANNING AND FITTING OUT.

of the lieutenants (these being distinguished as commissioned THE BRITISH NAVY.

officers) joins, all hands are called, and his commission,

similar to the one we have described, is read aloud in presence · High o'er the poop the flattering winds unfurled

of the whole ship's company. The imperial flag that rules the watery world."-FALCONER.

The first lieutenant, (or commander, if the captain has made The formal ceremony performed of “Putting the ship in his election for one,) master, boatswain, gunner, and carpenter, commission," the officer next proceeds, in company with the are the persons on whom devolve the principal duties in fitting master attendant, to select and receive charge of a hulk. This out. Whilst the first two superintend the whole process, the is an old vessel fitted up for the habitation of the crew during master, and one of his mates, pay particular attention to the the time the ship is equipping. The principal object is to select stowage of ballast, water tanks, provisions, &c. in the holds ; for one sufficiently capacious to accommodate the officers and men, a judicious distribution of the weight has a great effect upon the and moored (situated) as near the dock-yard as possible, for the ship's motion at sea, and also upon her sailing qualities. The greater facility of boats passing to and fro.

boatswain superintends the rigging; the gunner, besides the The choice of the hulk approved, a pendant is hoisted, and rigging of the mainmast and main yard, is employed fitting the never struck (taken down) night or day. The ensign or colours tackling and breechers (ropes which secure and work the (a large oblong flag with a union-jack in the upper corner) cannon); and the carpenter takes care that the masts and yards is also hoisted every morning at eight o'clock, and displayed are free from defects, besides busying himself in preparing the until surset.

boats, and various other matters. The next step is to procure a clerk, if he is not already pro. If men are slow in entering, not much can be done in the way vided ; and should the captain have no one in view for this of rigging for some time, unless expedition is required, in which office, application is generally made to the admiral's secretary, who case, working parties are sent from the flag-ship, or other ships recommends one of several always on his list for employment. in port, to assist ; but in all cases it is desirable that the vessel

The clerk immediately makes out a demand for stationery, shall be fitted in every respect by her own crew: meanwhile there and having procured the signature of the commanding officer, is plenty of employment in getting on board the ballast, water he repairs to the superintendant of the dock-yard, who approves tanks, &c., stepping the masts, and other heavy jobs, at which it; he then draws from the store-keeper the necessary supply, the marines prove very useful. comprising various printed forms, which must be filled up, During war, vessels are manned by draughts from the guard. signed, and countersigned, after a regulated manner, before ships, or other ships paid off, and by pressing any seamen that stores or provisions of any description can be obtained. The can be laid hold of; in seasons of peace, the crews are all volunclerk also makes entries of the name, age, and description of every teers, who enter for the ship, or for general service. The term person who joins the ship; copies the port-admiral's orders, implied is three years, but once entered they can be detained, and has in fact a very busy time of it whilst in harbour. if the service requires it, for five years.

Due notice of the intention of putting the ship in commission There is seldom, under ordinary circumstances, a necessity has in the mean time been given to the commandant of the for hurrying a ship's equipment, and as unnecessary severity of division of royal marines; and as soon as the hulk is reported discipline and frequent corporal punishment are greatly discounready for their reception, the party of marines, or sea-soldiers, tenanced by the Board of Admiralty, captains are of course called jollies by the seamen, is marched from the barracks to anxious to procure men of good character, so that they may have boats and embarked on board. From thenceforth, like every the less occasion to exercise severity. For this reason ships are one serving under that awful symbol the pendant, the marines sometimes very slowly manned in the present day, and good are amenable to naval discipline ; directed at work and ordered men being frequently rejected for frivolous causes, or a fastidi. about by Daval officers : in fact their own officers have little to ousness on the part of the captain, they are the less inclined to do with them afloat, except inspecting the condition of their submit to this mortification, and when slighted repair to the appointments, with an occasional exercise.

merchant, and often, we fear, to foreign service. Very much also The purser is generally appointed early, but should he not depends upon the reputation which the captain and his comhave made his appearance, (or joined, as it is called,) a supply mander or first lieutenant enjoys amongst the seamen ; a hasty of provisions is obtained from the flag.ship. As soon as this or contemptuous expression, a character for harassing the men official appears, however, he speedily procures all that is necessary with trifling jobs, or any prejudice taken up, runs like wild-fire in his department, for his principal emoluments are derived amongst seamen ; for they congregate together and discuss these from the savings he can effect in the allowance made him for matters-the most interesting that can be to them; and cases of providing coals, candles, and other necessaries.

this sort militate against the manning a particular ship, whilst As the officers appear, and their names are inserted on the men will enter freely for another. Indeed, experience shows that books, they enter on their various duties ; the lieutenants, mates, it is not the strictest disciplinarians who are unpopular, very and midshipmen, being attached to the parties which are sent far from it; because, under them, the seaman knows every one daily to the dock-yard and gun-wharf, to prepare the ship's must perform his duty, and the willing man is not obliged to do rigging, furniture, and armament. When the captain or either the work of the skulker. It may be very generally and certainly

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VOL. I.

I

[Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars. )

men.

assumed, that when men show a disinclination for a particular further his recovery. If wounded or maimed, casualties to ship, there is a prejudice existing against some party on board ; which his profession render him peculiarly liable, he has surgical the remedy the Dutch formerly adopted for this was to nominate assistance on the spot, for want of which, and the means of peranother captain, if the one first appointed failed to enlist his forming an operation in season, thousands of merchant seamen crew within a specified time. No doubt such a regulation perish miserably. Moreover, should disease overtake him, and induced officers to cultivate the respect and affection of their incapacitate him at any time whilst serving, he is invalided and

pensioned at from eight pence to nine pence per day, instead of To many it may seem surprising that seamen will enter at all becoming dependent on parish relief. His children are eligible in the Royal Navy, when they can always earn nearly double, for Greenwich school, where they receive an education that and sometimes treble, the wages in trading ships. Experience qualifies them for advancement in life to any station good shows, however, that they do, and the fact is indisputable that conduct can obtain. In case of death, his wife receives an upwards of twenty thousand are now serving in the fleet, all annuity, and when he has served twenty-one years, he can volunteers. There must be some reasons for this, and the fact claim a pension for life, either at sea or on shore, of from is there are various advantages present, contingent, and in pro- ten pence to fourteen pence per day, and more if he served spect, connected with the Queen's service, that operate upon the in petty officer's ratings. The seaman who resolves upon minds of men who bestow a thought on the matter. But as we entering the Royal Navy with a view to serving therein believe that three-fourths of our merchant seamen never heard twenty-one years, may therefore set casualty and fate at defiance; of, or at all events do not know enough of these advantages to he need take no further thought of provision for life. He may appreciate them, we shall be performing a kindness by describing save out of his pay (to say nothing of his chance of prize money) the most prominent, reserving more detailed observations upon scores, nay, hundreds of pounds, if provident, leaving himself “ Impressment and Manning the Fleet” for a special article, in ample means for enjoyment besides, for every want is supplied which we purpose treating on the matter hereafter.

to him ; and, should he so desire, Greenwich Hospital at last The average wages of seamen in merchants' ships, may be receives him. The merchant seaman has nothing of this kind estimated roundly, at 45s. per month. In some trades they to depend on. It is true he subscribes to a fund, but unless he earn considerably more ; and an able seaman, who really de- makes some additional provision for old age, he will find but a serves the title, and has served his apprenticeship to the sea, scanty maintenance from what that affords; and should his may always calculate on obtaining 60s. per month.

constitution break down, or injury or disease incapacitate him, The best seamen in the Navy do not (until they attain to he has no resource for himself or family from which he can petty officer's ratings) receive more than 348. per month, but claim the means of support. their pay is calculated by the lunar, not (as in the merchant's Having detailed the advantages which the seaman enjoys in service) the calendar month, so that in this respect, they have an the royal navy, so far as regards his wages and entitlements, advantage of thirteen to twelve. But the man.of-war's man's pay the reader will be anxious to know how he fares ? The best is always accruing; he is subjected to no interruptions nor mulcts, information we can give him on this point is to append the his pay goes on in sickness or health, when captured or ship- following Table, which shows the provision made for his support, wrecked *, even when on leave of absence: in fact, he need never and the judicious manner in which his food is varied from day lose a day's wages, for when discharged from one ship, he can to day. immediately enter on board the flag ship, and obtain two or

The following scheme shows the proportion of provisions, with three weeks' leave for recreation on shore, depositing his chest,

salt-meat, for each man, for fourteen days. bedding, and a portion of his money, in safety, until his return. Again, he incurs no drawbacks, like the merchant seaman, for

Days of the week. damage or pillage of the cargo; neither is he obliged to hang about the docks for ten days after discharge, before he can claim a settlement of his wages, all which time the seaman is a Sunday.

Monday, prey to Jews, who advance him money on exorbitant terms :

Tuesday. in fact, notwithstanding the disparity of wages, if a balance is Wednesday.

$

Thursday. struck at the end of half-a-dozen years, it will be found that Friday.

$ the man-of-war's man had earned the most money, and main

Saturday. tained his family in the greatest comfort, owing to the regularity Sunday.

15

Monday: of his employment, and punctuality of his allotment.

Tuesday. But it is only in the matter of wages—and that we have shown Wednesday.

Thursday. is questionable—that the merchant seaman can claim an advan- Friday. tage; in every other respect, he is immeasurably deficient. The

Saturday, man-of-war's man enjoys good treatment, food, and lodging, Proportion for

34 55 14 days.

54 54 34 greater safety from the superior qualities of his ship, the skill of the officers to navigate her, and the strength of the crew : in sickness, skilful professional treatment, with a profuse use of the

Every individual of the crew receives the same allowance, not most costly medicines to alleviate his pain, and restoratives to

the slightest distinction being made, either in quality or quantity,

between the captain and the smallest boy on board the ship. * If a merchant vessel is captured or wrecked, the crew are not entitled

Formerly there existed what were called “ Banyan days," to wages. In either case, but particularly the former, when the man is being three days in the week, not strictly of abstinence, but on generally detained in prison during the war, his allotment is stopped, and

which no dinner was cooked, the men making a cool and comhis family deprived of any help from him. The man-of-war's man is not liable to this, but his wages continue to accrue when he cannot

fortless meal on whatever they saved from the previous day. receive them, and his allotment is punctually paid, even should he be Banyan days have been abolished since the war, and the above detained in a French prison twenty years or more.

arrangement adopted, by which a hot dinner every day of beef

pint,

Vinegar,

plat.

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