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first year. We are convinced that nothing but a more extended KEEP BEES.

knowledge of i method of keeping bees profitably, and with

dittle trouble, is needed to make an apiary a universal appendage We once read a story of a certain Bishop in France, who, in

to a garden. the course of a progress he made for the purpose of visiting the The attention bestowed by natural philosophers, especially the clergy of his diocese, met with complaints from the incumbents, celebrated Huber, to the habits and economy of bees, led to of the inadequacy of their emoluments, complaints too well many plans for their better management. One of the great borne out by the poverty and wretchedness displayed in the ap- objects to be attained was a mode of taking the honey without pearance of themselves and their residences. The good bishop destroying the bees; and a variety of hives, some piled on one pursued his journey in melancholy mood, meditating schemes by another, some placed side by side, have from time to time been which he hoped to make the condition of the parochial clergy invented; but perfect success was never attained by any of the more comfortable and independent. At length he arrived at a ingenious experimenters, until Mr. Nutt produced his ventivery poor and retired village, and with a heavy heart he repaired lating hives, specimens of which are exhibited at the Adelaide to the Cure's house, fully prepared to hear the usual string of Gallery, in the Strand. grievances, and to behold the usual wretchedness.

He was

To Mr. Nutt we are indebted for the discovery of the method astonished at beholding the house well thatched and neatly by which bees may be prevented from swarming ; a discovery white-washed, the rails perfect and fresh painted, and everything which at once removed the great obstacle in the way of extended about the place indicating plenty and prosperity. Entering the bee-keeping, especially in the neighbourhood of cities. It house, instead of the half-starved looks and querulous complaints appears that heat alone is the cause of that occurrence, and be had been accustomed to, he encountered the master of the hence Mr. Nutt justly conceived that it was only necessary humble mansion, who, with a gratified and respectful air, entreated to provide means for reducing the temperature of the hive, his lordship to partake of a neat and rural repast, already pre- and his object would be obtained. With this view he constructed pared for him. Much wondering at all that he beheld, the a hive consisting of three boxes, the centre one fixed and never Bishop complied, and, dismissing all his train save one or two disturbed, the others, one placed on each side, moveable, and more confidential attendants, seated himself at the hospitable intended for the storing of honey. The side boxes have comboard of the Curé. After an agreeable meal, enlivened with the munications with the centre, which by means of slides can be pleasant and sensible remarks of the host, and crowned with a opened or closed at pleasure, thus giving the bees a new apartbottle or two of vin de pays, the Bishop began to inquire into ment, and reducing the heat of the centre box ; further means of the revenues of the benefice, and was astonished on learning ventilation are afforded by drawers beneath the hives, which can that they scarcely equalled those of the very poorest he had yet be wholly removed, or partly opened, as may be necessary. visited. He could not conceal his surprise, and begged his host With these hives Mr. Nutt perfectly succeeded in preventing to inform him how it was that plenty and comfort were displayed swarming, and in procuring large quantities of honey in a very in a station in which he had hitherto met only poverty and pure state, free from bee-bread, pupæ,and all otherimpurities. The wretchedness. The Curé smiled : “If your lordship will ac- combs deposited in the side boxes, and in a bell-glass placed on company me to the garden,” said he, “I will explain the the top of the centre box, are all filled with pure honey; whilst mystery.” They all arose, and following the steps of their host, those taken from common hives, are partly occupied by young reached a small piece of ground behind the house, similar in bees, and the food prepared for them, and it is extremely diffi. size to that attached to most of the Curés' houses they had cult to prevent some extraneous matter from mingling with the visited, but which they expected to find, as usual, filled with cab- honey. bage-stumps. They found a garden perfumed with flowers, and But our readers may probably say, this sounds exceedingly sweet-breathing herbs, and at the further end a well-stocked and fine ; but how is it that the bees do not increase so much in thriving apiary. “Behold,” said the good Curé, “behold my numbers as to fill all the boxes ? What becomes of the new riches ! The emoluments of my office are small, and the poverty queens who would have led out the swarms ? Oh, wonderful of my flock induces me to forego many of my dues, small though are the arrangements of nature! It is a fact that their numbers they be; the produce of my hives, however, supplies all my will not be increased if their dwelling be properly ventilated, wants, and in the contemplation of the labours of my bees, each and if any supernumerary queens or bees are hatched, they will helping each with unwearying industry, and in the consideration of be destroyed. The time of the bees will not be taken up with their foresight in laying up a store in the days of sunshine, for providing food for the young brood, as in hives from which a those of storm which all must expect, I draw lessons of wisdom swarm has been thrown off; but as the bees are never idle, all which I trust have not been wholly useless to those whose souls their labours will be given to the production of wax and honey, are placed in my charge.”—The bishop continued his journey, and these in the course of a fine summer will be carried to such but when next he was assailed by complaints of want and poverty ; an extent, as to provide an astonishing quantity for the beehis reply was laconic—“Keep bees, keep bees."

master, after leaving his little labourers an ample supply for And thus we would say to all our readers who possess themselves during the winter. Mr. Nutt, in a volume he pubeven a small garden, where that is not too far distant from lished, now some years ago, descriptive of bis hive, relates a other gardens and the open fields, and such situations are very curious experiment he made to satisfy himself upon the frequent even in the suburbs of this great city, —“Keep bees, subject of swarming. It appears to be a fact, that as the pupæ keep bees.” Honey is sold by retail at 2s. 6d. and 3s. 6d. per of young queens advance towards maturity, the heat of the bive pound, and often at much higher prices. Wax is proportion rapidly increases, from some cause which has never yet been ately dear. By far the greatest part of what is consumed in clearly ascertained. Finding this to be the case in one of his England is not of native production. Why should this be? Bees hives, the thermometer in the side box, which had been at 110° cost nothing, when properly managed, beyond the first cost of a for six days, rising rapidly on the eighth day to 120", Mr. Nutt stock and a hive; an expense which is sure to be repaid in the determined to permit the bees to swarm, which they did the

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next day, and were followed and hived in the usual manner. be made available to the wants of the bees, without overpowering That night, at ten o'clock, he shook the swarm out of their their energies by too much room. At Shepherd's Bush, where hive upon a white cloth, placed close to the old hive, and having I reside, the season for collecting honey is very short. The secured the queen, removed her. The bees, missing their queen, village is principally surrounded by cow-pastures, which are cut began to be uneasy, and to rouse from the torpor of sleep, but very for hay, that the cows may get the earliest advantage being within reach of the odour of the old bive, gradually of the grass ; it therefore became necessary for me to adopt some returned to it. The hive, which sunk to 90° when the swarm plan by which I might give my little labourers a small portion left, had since been ventilated and reduced to 65". In the of room for the supply of their immediate wants, and have the morning Mr. Nutt placed the queen on the front board, for the means of increasing according to circumstances. Such were the purpose of ascertaining whether there was another queen in the inducements to thought; and I trust my fair countrywomen hive, as in that case the old one would have been destroyed, will do me the justice to say, if they do not approve of the hive, the bees never suffering two to exist together; she was received and put the plan into operation themselves, that, at least, I with joy by her subjects, a manifest proof that the swarm had have done what I could to smooth some of the hindrances to been led out by an old queen, and not, as some suppose to be this study, under the best feeling of a married life-a persevering invariably the case, by a young one. A great part of the stock endeavour to please my wife.” had followed her, leaving the rest to remain without a queen,

We will now attempt a description of the hive itself, which is until the pupa

the royal cell should attain maturity. Mr. not very easily done without the aid of the figures given by Mr. Nutt thus concludes his tale : “ During nine days after the Bagster, especially as he does not give the measurement of each swarm had been returned to the parent stock, the thermometer division. It is constructed of wood, and consists of a central continued to rise until it reached the temperature of 90° within chamber, about twelve inches in width and height, and fifteen the collateral box; and on the tenth day, at five o'clock in the inches from front to back ; on each side of this central box four morning, I viewed with pleasure the extraordinary fact I had smaller ones are placed, two at bottom and two forming an upper been endeavouring to ascertain ;-two royal nymphs were left story: the whole is covered with a sloping roof projecting two dead on the alighting board of the principal entrance to the hive. inches, and affording an effectual shelter from the rain; this This circumstance alone convinced me that no more swarming roof, rising to a peak, leaves a sort of attic chamber over the

central one. Two windows of a somewhat oval shape are fixed would take place. On the third day afterwards the bees com

in the front, and two in the back of the central apartment, and menced the destruction of the drones, which is another corro.

one in each of the side apartments, each furnished with a shutter borating proof. That colony has never swarmed since first I discovered the use of ventilation. And on minutely attending opening for the passage of the bees, and an alighting-board, and

“ pushed in like a pot-lid.” In front of the centre box is an to the movements of this colony, it was common to see royal each of the other compartments is furnished with the same at brood of different ages lying dead upon the alighting-board.”

the side. There is a communication between the central chamber We must now turn from Mr. Nutt to what we chiefly had in and each of the side compartments, which can be opened or shut view when we began this article," the ladies' safety hive ;' but

at pleasure by means of a slide. The attic affords space for the we must not part with him without recommending his book introduction of bell-glasses, which are placed over holes in the (which, although somewhat tedious, is full of curious facts,) to

top of the centre box, at other times closed with corks. When the attentive study of all bee-masters.

a live is to be stocked, the front of the centre box is unscrewed Mr. Bagster, a gentleman, residing at Shepherd's Bush, has and the comb and bees introduced; the front is then screwed on, invented an entirely new description of hive, by means of which and this box is never again meddled with, but left entirely to the management of bees is rendered so easy, and free from all the bees. When this apartment becomes too full and hot, danger, as to make it a task peculiarly fitted for females, who, symptoms will soon be manifested by the bees, who may be in all the former modes, have frequently been deterred from observed in lines agitating the air and ventilating the hive themattempting to take any share in an employment so very full of selves by a rapid and constant motion of their wings; they will interest to all who delight in the observation of the workings of nature. We shall take the liberty of transcribing a few passages bec-master then gives them immediate relief by opening the

probably show some inclination to cluster together outside ; the fron the little book Mr. Bagster has published, descriptive not

communication between one of the side apartments and the only of his own hive, but of all the others in use, and contain. ing very full instructions for the proper management of bees; central hox, the outer door being closed, or by putting on a

glass, and the bees will soon fill the vacant space with pure wax in short, a complete bee-master's manual. “ Having the happiness," says he, of dividing the joys and and honey, the breeding-cells being entirely confined to the

central division. sorrows of life with one in whom, in the words of Solomon, 'the

The honey is taken in the following manner.

“ The depriheart of her husband doth safely trust,' for 'she looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the bread of vation may be performed at any time when the boxes are full. idleness,' I felt it was my pleasure to save her as much annoy

If it be determined to take honey on any particular day, an ance as possible, while pursuing her daily avocations. Bees arduous duty in most hives, little or no care is required in this. claimed a great share of my individual attention ; but the con

The day before you intend to have a share of the honey, with a stant fear of being stung, or not managing the bees correctly, so

stiff' wire close the slide of your honey-box; this manoeuvre will strongly influenced my partner, that she confessed her fear, and make many bees captives, and cut off their retreat to the queen, begged to decline the duty, unless something could be done to and of course they cannot get out through the closed door. find bees without stings, or hives that could be so worked as to What is to be done in such a case? Use the wonderful instinct take away fear in management.

of the bees to effect your purpose ; open the little outward door “ Another circumstance suggested to me the idea of making of the room, about one hour before dusk, and all your prisoners a hive which, in bad seasons, or in second-rate situations, might will rush round to the front of the hive to the queen, with an


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alacrity that is amazing. After dusk close the outward door again, and you may take your friends to your hive the following The following rules in arithmetic, from an old book, though day to see you deprive it of its honey without any fear of moles- more curious than useful, may amuse those who like such tation."

exercises. We have pointed out some of the advantages attending the 1. To multiply numbers between 5 and 10.-Call one of the keeping of bees, and now that their management is rendered so factors tens, and from the result subtract the product of that safe and easy, we hope to see the practice much extended. factor by the difference of the other factor from ten. Example : Every pound of wax and honey produced is a positive increase to multiply 8 into 9, subtract from 90 the product of 9 by 2, of the riches of the country. Something is obtained where there there remains 72; or add the factors together, and call the was nothing before. It is not within our scope to enter minutely excess above 10, tens; multiply together the two differences of into the subject, but we must content ourselves with recom- the factors from 10, and add the product to the former number. mending every one who determines on keeping bees to procure Example: to multiply 8 by 7, add to 50 the product of 2 and study both Mr. Nutt's and Mr. Bagster's books, before he into 3. begins; and having done this, there can be no fear of his or her 2. To multiply units into numbers between units and 20.perfect success; and if what we have said shall lead but to one Add the two factors together, call the difference of the sum from such resolution, our object will be obtained, and something will 0, tens ; from this result subtract the product of the difference be done for the general good of the community.

of the simple number from 10, and of the compound number

from 10. Example: to multiply 6 by 14, subtract from 120 the A VOYAGE ON THE NILE.

product of 2 into 4.

3. To multiply together numbers between 10 and 20.-Add I have heard all manners of opinions expressed in regard to the units of one factor to the other factor, and call the sum a voyage on the Nile ; and may be allowed, perhaps, to give my tens ; add to this the product of the units into the units.

I bave no hesitation in saying that, with a friend, a good Example : to multiply 12 into 13, add 6 to 150. boat, well fitted up, books, guns, plenty of time, and a cook like

4. To multiply numbers between 10 and 20 into compound Michel, a voyage on the Nile would exceed any travelling within numbers between 20 and 100.- Multiply the units of the smaller my experience. The perfect freedom from all restraint, and by the tens of the greater, add the product to the greater num. from the conventional trammels of civilized society, forms anber, and call the sum tens ; add to it the product of the units in episode in a man's life that is vastly agreeable and exciting. both numbers. Example: to multiply 12 into 26, add 4 to 26, Think of not shaving for two months, of washing your shirts in and call 30 tens, then add to it twice 6, and it is 312. the Nile, and wearing them without being ironed ! True, these

5. To multiply numbers between 20 and 200, where the digits things are not absolutely necessary; but who would go to Egypt in the place of tens are the same. Add the units of one factor to travel as he does in Europe ? “ Away with all fantasies and

to the other, and multiply the sum by the tens; call the product fetters," is the motto of the tourist. We throw aside pretty tens, and add to it the product of the units multiplied by the much everything except our pantaloons ; and a generous rivalry units. Example: to multiply 23 by 25, multiply 26 by 2 ; call in long beards and soiled linen is kept up with exceeding spirit. the product 56 tens, finish the operation, and 575 is obtained. You may go ashore whenever you like, and stroll through the 6. To multiply numbers between 10 and 100, where the digits little villages and be stared at by the Arabs, or walk along the in the place of tens are different.---Multiply the tens of the banks of the river till darkness covers the earth; shooting smaller number into the larger number ; add to the result the pigeons and sometimes pheasants and hares, besides the odd product of the units of the smaller number into the tens of the shots from the deck of your boat at geese, crocodiles, and greater ; call the sum tens ; add to this the product of the units pelicans. And then it is so ridiculously cheap an amusement ! into the units. Example: to multiply 23 into 34, add 9 to 68, You get your boat with ten men for thirty or forty dollars a and 12 to 770. mouth, fowls for three piastres (about a shilling) a pair, a sheep 7. To multiply two unequal numbers, half the sum of which for a half or three quarters of a dollar, and eggs almost for the is simple.—Take the sum of the two, and multiply half of it asking. You sail under your own country's banner ; and, when into itself; from this product subtract the square of half the you walk along the river, if the Arabs look particularly black difference of the two numbers. Example: to multiply 24 by and truculent, you proudly feel there is safety in its folds. From 36, from 900 subtract the square of halt the difference of the time to time you hear that a French or English flag has passed numbers, that is 36, there remains 864. so many days before you, and you meet your fellow-voyagers with a freedom and cordiality which exist nowhere but on the


JEREMY BENTHAM, with a real love of science, bequeathed These are the little every day items in the voyage, without his body to his friend Dr. Southwood Smith, a kindred spirit referring to the objects wbich are the traveller's principal induce and a highly gifted and philosophical writer; and the worthy ments and rewards, the ruined cities on its banks, the mighty Doctor took the best possible way of honouring the glorious old temples and tombs, and all the wonderful monuments of Egypt's philosopher. He had the head, with all the integuments, predeparted greatness : of them I will barely say, that their great served after the manner of the South Sea Islanders; and he antiquity, the mystery that overhangs them, and their extra. | employed a skilful artist to model the face and head, (in a comordinary preservation amid the surrounding desolation, make position), so as to obtain an exact likeness, and to make it Egypt perhaps the most interesting country in the world. In resemble the living man. This the artist has succeeded in ; the the words of Sir T. Browne, " Time sadly overcometh all things, features are placid and reflective, and beam with the purest beneand is now dominant, and sitteth upon a splıinx, and looketh into volence and philanthropy, such as once animated the original; Memphis and old Thebes, while his sister Oblivion reclineth and what adds to the illusion is, that Bentham's own hair is fixed semi-somnious on a pyramid gloriously triumphing and turning on that modelled likeness. It is white and long, and of a parold glories into dreams. History sinketh beneath her cloud. ticular fine texture, and hangs most gracefully over the shoulders The traveller, as he passeth amazedly through those deserts, of the divine old man. This work of art is affixed to the real asketh of her who buildeth them, and she mumbleth something, skeleton, which is dressed in the last suit of clothes worn by but what it is he heareth not."

this illustrious philosopher, and they are stuffed out so as to fill It is now more than three thousand years since the curse went them, and he is placed in a sitting posture, resting the right forth against the land of Egypt. The Assyrian, the Persian, the hand on a stick, and the left hand in a natural and easy posture on Greek, the Roman, the Arabian, the Georgian, the Circassian, his left knee. And to give a finish to the whole, his broad brim and the Ottoman Turk, have successively trodden it down and hat is placed on his head, just as he was wont to sit on a bench in trampled upon it ; for thirty centuries the foot of a stranger has the Temple Gardens, contemplating some of those truths which been upon the necks of her inhabitants; and in bidding farewell only now begin to be appreciated. A plain, solid, richly. to this once-favoured land, now lying in the most abject degra- coloured Spanish mahogany cabinet incloses the rich relic of one dation and misery, groaning under the iron rod of a tyrant and of Nature's genuine nobility, and we gaze on the face of this a stranger, I cannot help recurring to the inspired words, the political prophet through the large plate glass, which is so placed doom of prophecy : “ It shall be the basest of the kingdoms, that the light falls on his features, and an observer is almost neither shall it exalt itself any more among the nations, and tempted to speak to him ; a pair of folding doors secure the there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt.”- glass from any injury, and exclude the light when there is not a Stephens' Incidents of Travel.

visitor.-Letter in Sheffield Iris.


MISERIES OF INDOLENCE. The Paris Gazette des Tribunaux relates that an ex-jeweller and ama- None so little enjoy life, and are such burdens to themselves, as those teur of magnetism, enjoying his otium cum dignitate in a suburban villa, who have nothing to do. The active only have the true relish of life. He at Passy, was lately visited by a young somnambulist calling himself a who knows not what it is to labour, knows not what it is to enjoy. Recreapainter by profession, and who assured him that he had the happiest tion is only valuable as it unbends us. The idle know nothing of it. It natural dispositions for the science of the famous Mesmer; that when under is exertion that renders rest delightful, and sleep sweet and undisturbed. the influence of a magnetic fit he could see like a cat in the dark, and that That the happiness of life depends on the regular prosecution of some in that state it frequently occurred to him to commence and finish a paint laudable purpose or calling which engages, helps and enlivens all our ing in a single sitting. The delighted magnetizer opened his eyes to their full powers, let those bear witness, who, after spending years in active useextent, and appointed the next day for the young stranger to come to his fulness, retire to enjoy themselves. They are a burden to themselves. house at Passy and “ give a taste of his quality" in the united capacities

WISDOM AND COURAGE. of somnambulist and painter. Punctual to the hour, the young man

As knowledge, without justice, ought to be called cunning rather than arrived with his canvas, pallet, and brushes, and was ushered into the amateur's private cabinet, from which every ray of light was carefully

wisdom, so, a mind prepared to meet danger, if excited by its own eagerexcluded to facilitate the scientific purpose for which it was destined.

ness, and not the public good, deserves the name of audacity rather than

of courage.- Plato. The painter had stipulated as a sine qua non that when the fit was on him he should be left completely alone in the cabinet, as on such occasions REVENGE OR FORGIVENESS, WHICH IS THE MOST NOBLE? the presence of another person invariably disturbed his attention, and In taking revenge a man is but even with his enemy; in passing it over, detracted from the merits of his performance as a limner. The necessary

he is his superior-Bucon. disposition having been made, and the fit of somnambulism having been

SEA-BATHING FOR INVALIDS. produced to the heart's content of the magnetizer, the latter according to Horne Tooke ridiculed this practice, and said if any of the seal species his convention quitted the cabinet, and, turning the key upon the slecper, were sick, it would be just as wise for a fish-physician to order them to go left him undisturbed to his operations. At the expiration of about an ashore. Porson declared that sea-bathing was only reckoned healthy, hour the amateur magnetizer returned, and was met at the door of his

because many persons have been known to survive it. But Sheridan's cabinet by the young man, who was now perfectly awake, and displayed objection to salt water was the most quaint: “ Pickles,” he said, “ don't to his enraptured view an exquisitely painted landscape, the produce of his agree with me.” ecstatic fit! After making a present of this charming production to his

AN APT RETORT. delighted host, the young somnambulist took his leave with a promise to

In one of the latest days of Fox, the conversation turned on the comparareturn the next day, and repeat the experiment which had been crowned

tive wisdom of the French and English character. "The Frenchman,' with such complete success. Some three quarters of an hour afterwards the jeweller had some business in his cabinet, into which he admitted a little

it was observed, " delights himself with the present; the Englishman

makes himself anxious about the future. Is not the Frenchman the light, and to his utter stupefaction found that the lock of his secretary had been forced open, and two thousand five hundred francs, in silver and

uiser 9" “He may be the merrier," said Fox; " but did you ever hear bank notes, with other objects of value, were extracted from the drawers

of a savage who did not buy a mirror in preference to a telescopes". by the clear-sighted somnambulist. He had brought a painting with him,

FRIENDSHIP OF THE WORLD. covered with a couche of white lead, over which, when left to himself, he

When I see leaves drop from their trees in the beginning of autumn, just had passed a wet sponge-an expedient to which a large white spot on the such, think I, is the friendship of the world. While the sap of maintenfloor bure ample testimony. The police were immediately informed of the ance lasts, my friends swarm in abundance; but in the winter of need, circumstances of the robbery, the perpetrator of which, however, has for

they leave me naked. He is a happy man that hath a true friend at his the present baffled their pursuit.

need ; but he is more truly happy that hath no need of his friend-War.

uick's Spare Minutes. A HIGHWAYMAN OUTWITTED. “Stand and deliver," were the words addressed to a tailor travelling on

HE LOVETH WHOM HE CHASTENBTH. foot, by a highwayman, whose brace of pistols looked rather dangerous

Lady Errol said she did not use force or fear in educating her children.

JOHNSON. This is wrong. I would rather have the rod to be the general terthan otherwise. “ I'll do that with pleasure," was the reply, at the same time handing over to the outstretched hands of the robber, a purse appa

ror to all to make them learn than tell a child, If you do thus or thus you rently pretty well stocked; "but," continued he, “ suppose you do me a

will be most esteemed than your brother or sisters;" a child is afraid of favour in return. My friends would laugh at me were I to go home and tell

being whipped, and gets his task and there's an end on't ; whereas by them I was robbed with as much patience as a lamb; s'pose you fire your

exciting emulation and comparisons of superiority, you lay the foundation two bulldogs right through the crown of my hat; it will look something like

for lasting mischief-you make brothers and sisters hate each other.a show of resistance.” His request was acceded to ; but hardly had the

Boswell's Johnson. smoke from the discharge of the weapons passed away, when the tailor

THE PORTRAIT PAINTER. pulled out a rusty old horse-pistol, and in his turn politely requested the

A portrait painter, entirely without business, was advised by somebody thunder-struck highwayman to shell out everything of value, his pistols

to paint a likeness of himself and wife, sitting under a tree, and hang it not excepted, about him.--Old newspaper.

up that people may judge of his skill. Ile did so. One day his father-inlaw came into the shop and spied the new picture.

“ Pray, son-in-law, ETERNITY.

who is this woman you have painted here?" Why, sir, 'tis your fair The following beautiful answer was given to the question, “ What is daughter." " What !” said the father with some indignation, do you eternity?" by a pupil of the Deaf and Dumb School at Paris: The life. paint my daughter sitting abroad with a stranger?"-Chinese Jests. time of the Almighty.”


WORTHLESS MATERIALS. Myles Davies says, " The smallness of a book was always its recommend- Instances of the production of raluable matter, from the most worthless ation; as, on the contrary, the largeness of a book is its own disadvantage,

materials, are constantly occurring. The skins used by the gold-beaters as well as terror of learning. In short, a big book is a scarecrow to the

are produced from the offal of animals. The hoofs of horses and cattle, head and pocket of the author, student, buyer, and seller, as well as a

and other horny refuse, are employed in the production of the prussate harbour of ignorance."

of potashı, that beautiful yellow crystallised salt, which is exhibited in the DEATH.

shops of some of our chemists. The worn-out saucepans and tin-ware of There is nothing more certain than death, nothing more uncertain than

our kitchens, when beyond the reach of the tinker's art, are not utterly the time of dying. I will therefore be prepared for that at all times,

worthless. We sometimes meet carts loaded with old tin kettles and iron which may come at any time, must come at one time or another. I shall

coal-scuttles, traversing our streets. These have not yet completed their use. not hasten my death by being still ready, but sweeten it.

It makes me

ful course ; the less corroded parts are cut into strips, punched with small not die the sooner, but the better.- Warwick's Spare Minutes,

holes, and varnished with a coarse black varnish, for the use of the trunk.

maker, who protects the edges and angles of his boxes with them; the PRIDE AND VANITY.

remainder are conveyed to the manufacturing chemists in the outskirts of Proud people deceive themselves ; vain people attempt to deceive others, the town, who employ them, in conjunction with pyroligneous acid, in even when they are not themselves deceived.-Sir Egerton Brydges. making a black dye for the use of calico printers.- Encyclopædia Britan

nica, art." Manufacture." SLEEP OF PLANTS. Alsine, or chickweed, affords a remarkable instance of the sleep of

AN EXTRAORDINARY FAVOUR.” plants; for every night the leaves approach in pairs so as to include with

The following extract is taken from The London Journal of June 3, 1721, their upper surfaces the tender rudiments of the new shoots; and the

a weekly paper, published in the city, for 1fd.

The accounts from Madrid mention that at a tribunal of the Inquisition leaf-stalks than the others, so that they can close upon the terminating uppermost pair but one at the end of the stalk are furnished with longer lately held there, they passed sentence upon eighteen persons. Four women pair, and protect the end of the branch.

were convicted of witchcraft, and the rest of Judaism. One man and one

woman were burnt alive for persisting in their opinion, but two men and WAR. Our first parent died without making a will, and his children forth with

four women had the extraordinary javour of being first strangled and

afterwards burnt." came to blows, in order to possess themselves of his property; and ever since, disputes have always been settled by violence and war, and always London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER will be, as long as there are states and kingdoms and people.

& Co.

Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.

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the structure of the earth) is now received as a truth by all men HARMONY OF SCRIPTURE AND GEOLOGY.

of all parties. This truth is, that the earth was in existence, A vessel at sea, pursuing its way across the ocean, is, to its ages, perhaps myriads of ages, before the creation of man. passengers and crew, a great and important fact. At a distance Turning to the first chapter of Genesis, we find there nothing to a speck appears on the horizon; the practised eye of the sailor contradict this. “In the beginning, God created the heavens recognises it as another fact, but the passengers are, some and the earth.” It is a simple announcement of a great fact. doubtful, and some indifferent. Gradually the speck increases It does not," says Dr. Pye Smith, “ tell us when the beginin volume; masts, sails, and hull, are visible; it is another ning was ; it assures us that at a point in duration past which Fessel, and it is bearing right down upon them. “There is we cannot ascertain, that point in infinite duration which to the danger of a collision, is there not?” eagerly asks a passenger, wisdom of the great God seemed best, he was pleased to unfold and the man at the wheel drily replies that there is. The danger the majesty of his attributes, and to give existence to a dependent becomes more evident and imminent, and the most indifferent world.” “In that remote period," says Professor Silliman, (an become interested. But, at a distance near enough to be per- American, whose name as a Christian and a man of science is fectly safe, the two vessels cross each other's paths, and the known and honoured in Britain,)—" of which he who recorded most timid passenger now perceives that the object of his alarm the fact probably knew not the date_In the beginning God is not an enemy nor a rival, but a friend, bound to the same port created the heavens and the earth, and established the physical with himself, though sailing on a different tack.

laws, the ordinances of heaven, by which the material world was New truths in science, when they first appear on the mental to be governed.” horizon, have thus often an ominous aspect to recognised and Admitting, then, that the first verse of Genesis simply affirms established opinions. Like the comet, that in 1835 crossed the God to be the Creator, without reference to the time of creation, orbit of the earth within a short period of the earth's arriving at how do we get at the fact of the existence of the earth long prior the same point, there seems to be great danger of a contact to the existence of man ? The following is one of Professor fatal to the one or the other, or perhaps to both. Experienced Silliinan's illustrations, in answer to this question. “When, minds smile at what they call the foolishness or absurdity of the in 1738, the workmen, in excavating a well, struck upon the apprehension of danger; strong minds, or fool-hardy ones, often theatre of Herculaneum, which had reposed, for seventeen cenneedlessly provoke the general feeling by their contemptuous or turies, beneath the lava of Vesuvius,—when, subsequently,(1750,) reckless expression of what seems at least paradoxical ; and Pompeii was disencumbered of its volcanic ashes and cinders, timid but honest minds, in their anxiety to make peace between and thus two cities were brought to light: had history been apparently opposing systems, frequently frame hypotheses which quite silent respecting their existence, as it was respecting their are torn to pieces when stretched upon facts. Meantime the destruction“, would not all observers say, (and have not all actu. truths themselves are making their own way, and at last, like ally said)—here are the works of man, his temples, his forums, two lines forming an acute angle, they meet in a point.

his amphitheatres, his tombs, his shops of traffic and of arts, The harmony of Scripture and Geology is still in a progressive his houses, furniture, pictures, and personal ornaments, his state. The Bible stands upon its own evidence, like a light- streets with their pavements, and wheel-marks worn in the solid house upon a rock, which no storms can overthrow. Geology stone, his coins, his grinding mills, his very wine and food, his has also a firm basis; its elementary truths are as incontestibly dungeons, with skeletons of the prisoners chained in their awful established as any great fact in natural science. Wherever, solitudes, and here and there a victim, who, although at liberty, therefore, there appears any discrepancy between the Bible and was overtaken by the fiery storm ? Geology, we may rest assured that the discrepancy is not with “ Because the soil had formed, and grass and trees had grown, the truths themselves, but in our interpretations of them. The and successive generations of men had unconsciously walked, case of Galileo is often quoted as an example, a memorable toiled, or built their houses, over the entombed cities; and example, of the intolerance of ignorance. There can be no because they were covered with lava or cinders,—does any one doubt that many minds most honestly dreaded the new truths in hesitate to admit, that they were once real cities, that they stood astronomy, and cordially acquiesced in the judgment of the upon what was then the upper surface, that their streets once inquisitors, who pronounced, “To affirm that the sun is in the rang with the noise of business, and their halls and theatres with centre, absolutely immovable, and without locomotion, is an the voice of pleasure ; and that in an evil hour they were overabsurd proposition, false in sound philosophy, and moreover whelmed by the eruptions of Vesuvius, and their pame and place heretical, because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scripture. blotted out from the earth and forgotten? To say that the earth is not placed in the middle of the world, “ All this is legibly read by every observer, and all agree in nor immovable, is also a proposition absurd and false in sound the conclusions to be drawn. When, moreover, the traveller of pbilosophy; and, considered theologically, is at least erroneous the present day sees the cracks in the walls of the houses of with respect to faith.” We can now afford to smile at this Pompeii, and observes that some of them have been thrown out but would we have done so in the days of Galileo ?

of the perpendicular, and have been painted and plastered, and The first great fact in geology (the word geology is derived

* In the histories of those times, it is only said, in general terms, that from two Greek words, signifying a discourse or description of cities and villages were overwhelmed.




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