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fourths of the children were wont to be murdered as soon as they welcome to the missionaries and their converts. They sent à were born, by one or other of their unnatural parents, or by some report to the directors, in which they stateperson employed for that purpose-wretches being found who “We are in health and comfort up to the present moment, might be called infant-assassins by trade. He mentioned having and have been more delighted with the victorious and blessed met a woman, soon after the abolition of the diabolical practice, results of preaching and living the gospel of Christ, than we to whom he said, “How many children have you ?'
• This one
are able to express : at every station where we have already been, in my arms,' was her answer. •And how many did you kill ?' namely, at Matavai, at Papeete, at Bunaania in Tahiti, and at She replied, ' Eight!' Another woman, to whom the same ques. Papetoai in this island. Truly THE HALF WAS BUT TOLD US! tions were put, confessed that she had destroyed SEVENTEEN ! God has indeed done great things here in a civil, moral, and Nor were these solitary cases. Sin was so effectually doing its religious view. The people here exhibit as literal and pleasing work in these dark places of the earth, that, full as they were of a proof of being turned from darkness unto light, and from the the habitations of cruelty and wickedness, war, profligacy, and power of Satan unto God, as can be conceived !” murder, were literally exterminating a people unworthy to live. New Zealand became a station of the Church Missionary But the gospel stepped in, and the plague was stayed.”
Society in 1815, through the representations of the Rev. Mr. The Rev. J. Williams was conversing with some friends on Marsden, chaplain in New South Wales ; but Shunghee, a chief, this subject, in his own house in the island of Raiatea, in 1829 : who had' visited England in 1820, made war upon his rivals, on three native females were sitting in the room at the time, the his return in 1821, slew a thousand of his enemies, a great oldest not more than forty years of age. Having inquired number of whom the victors ate on the field of battle, besides whether any of them had been guilty of the crime, it was found many prisoners slaughtered and eaten in cold blood, as a feast for that not one was guiltless ; and it was reluctantly confessed, their children! Mr. Marsden, however, wrote in 1822, “I that these three females had destroyed not fewer than twenty-one greatly lament the evils which have taken place, but they do not infants ! one had destroyed five, another seven, and the other make me despair. I have no doubt that the New Zealanders nine! These were not considered extraordinary cases; as the will, in due time, become a civilised nation. God will deliver dreadful practice was common : but we refrain from detailing them from the dominion of the prince of this world, and they the inhuman, fiendish modes of this species of murder.
shall see His salvation !" Zealous and efficient missionaries from New Zealand, the Sandwich Islands, the Feejees, and others, the Wesleyan Society had, the year preceding, entered into the Fere equally defiled with the abominable customs of their corrupt field of labour at New Zealand.' Tongataboo, also, the principal inhabitants ; human sacrifices, infanticide, and even canni- of the Friendly Islands, became a prosperous station of the balism, prevailing to an extent far surpassing all description : Wesleyans in 1820. but these enormities, gross, inveterate, and universal, as they We cannot follow minutely the progress of Christianity and were, have been encountered, corrected, and, in a most en- civilisation among the South Sea islanders, in this brief paper; couraging degree, exterminated by the arduous and successful but it may be remarked, that the islands of Huahine and Boralabours of our missionaries.
bora received the gospel from Tahiti, in 1816, when the in. The missionaries who were sent out by the London Mis- habitants of the latter, though exceedingly ferocious, renounced sionary Society, in the year 1796, were received with apparent idolatry with the rest of their neighbours in the same group of cordiality at Tahiti, and were assured of security by the native islands. The mission in Raiatea commenced in 1818 ; and the chiefs, when they commenced their labours, giving instruction converts sent the same benefit to Rurutu, early in 1821, by two to the people, both old and young, as they could be induced native teachers, with the Tahitian Gospel of Matthew. The to receive it. Eighteen years, however, they laboured under Sandwich Islands received Christianity from American missionmost discouraging circumstances, while the wretched islanders aries in 1829, and great success has attended their labours. were almost incessantly at war among themselves, and their King Riho-riho, who appeared their warm friend, and Tamoree, murderous practices were still more diminishing their num king of Atooi, a still more decided professor of Christianity, bers. Discouraged and dejected, the missionaries still continued gave the most devoted attention the missionaries, whose labours at their post, preaching, praying, and teaching the younger produced a dictionary of the language, and a translation of the part of the people to read ; and when almost ready to relinquish Holy Scriptures, with other benefits. their enterprise in despair as to success in this worthy course, in Education, civilisation, and Christianity, have continued to 1815 a most wonderful change took place, the whole population make progress among these islanders, in a manner that has of Tahiti resorting to the missionaries with solicitude for in- astonished the most intelligent classes in Europe and America. struction.
Multitudes embraced Christianity; and amongst But a few testimonies from unquestionable authorities will most them many of the priests of Tahiti and Eimeo soon numbered correctly represent the present condition and character of these 4000 Christian converts, who delivered up their idols, many of but lately heathen, and in some cases, cannibal tribes. In the which were used as fuel, and others were sent as evidences of the report of the London Missionary Society for 1835, the directors triumphs of the gospel, to gratify their benefactors in England. give this retrospect of the South Sea Missions :King Pomare sent all his “family gods as a present to the
Forty years ago, when this Society was founded, the islands Missionary Society, to testify his gratitude, and to evince his sin- of the South Seas had been discovered, visited, explored, and cerity. Parts of the Word of God, catechisms, and school abandoned, as presenting no objects worthy of further regard. books, were soon printed in the native language, schools were Their inhabitants were sunk still lower in wretchedness, by inestablished, public worship was attended by crowds, and the tercourse with foreigners, and left a prey to the merciless idolatry Sabbath was observed with striętness unexampled, even in Great that was fast sweeping them from the face of the earth. To Britain.
them the attention of our venerable fathers in this cause was Christianity having thus obtained entrance into the minds of first directed, and a mission was auspiciously commenced. But the Tahitians, zeal inflamed the minds of these new converts ; a a series of disasters followed ; some of the missionaries lost their Tahitian Missionary Society was formed, and native teachers lives in the field ; in 1809, all, with two exceptions, were exarose as missionaries to the surrounding islands. Places of pelled, and success seemed hopeless.
In 1811 the missionaries Worship, were soon erected, and public meetings were held at returned; the Lord smiled upon their efforts, and idolatry was Tahiti, in the immense“ Royal Mission Chapel,” consisting of subverted, infant-murder and human sacrifices ceased, education thousands of persons, and considerable subscriptions were made was promoted, converts flocked around the missionaries, churches and remitted to the parent institution. War ceased throughout were gathered, missionary societies formed, and teachers sent these islands: infanticide was abolished, together with various forth. Now the people, fast rising in the scale of nations, have, other practices, scarcely less atrocious and abominable : propriety as fruits of the Divine blessing on missionary perseverance, a in behaviour and manners resulted, and all the decencies written language, a free press, a representative government, and courtesies of life, in dress, habitations, and intercourse, courts of justice, written laws, useful arts, and improved re
An infant navy is rising on their shores, commercial Circumstances seemed to require that a deputation from enterprise is promoting industry and wealth, and a measure of England should proceed to inspect the numerous stations of the domestic comfort, unknown to their ancestors, now pervades Missionary Society in different parts of the world, and two their dwellings. Besides these and other blessings of the pregentlemen, George Bennett, Esq., and the Rev. D. Tyerman, were sent life, multitudes have entered the regions of eternal felicity ; designated to that important service. They left England, May 18, and others are walking in the fellowship and holiness
of the and reached Tahiti, September 26, 1821. Their visit was most gospel, as heirs of immortality. A nation has been born at once,
surrounding nations are blessed through their mercy, and, according to the latest intelligence, the prospects of usefulness,
LONDON. especially among the Navigators' Islands, were never so encouraging as at the present time. Since the year 1817, the
INTRODUCTORY ARTICLE. : printing-press has been in operation, and, among a people here- WHEN we look abroad over the mighly city of London, we tofore destitute of a written language, 105,400 copies of portions are involuntarily struck with the thought, how shall any one of the Scripture and Christian books have been put into cir- mind comprehend all the springs of action that animate this culation."
multitude of moving beings? how estimate the effects of all the Civilisation is the natural fruit of Christianity. Henry, a jarring interests of the busy mass ? We can look upon its surface clergyman of the Church Missionary Society in New Zealand, and there trace something of the circulation of its life-blood, as in answer to the question by the Aborigines' committee, “ From some of the veins and arteries of our frame are dimly apparent the experience you have had in missionary exertions, would you through their coverings, but we cannot trace and depict all the begin by attempting to civilise, or by attempting to christianise ?? ramifications; we can feel the pulse, but we cannot lay bare the says, “Certainly by attempting to christianise ; fifteen years heart. we attempted to civilise without effect, and the very moment that Christianity established itself in only one instance in the island, day behold it, but to the stranger most wondrous.
It is indeed an impressive sight, striking to those who each from that moment civilisation commenced, and has been going on, hand in hand with Christianity, but never preceded it. We Review, “ an affection for a great city.
“We have,” says an eloquent writer in the North American
We feel safe in the found them decidedly a savage people,
addicted to cannibalism, neighbourhood of man, and enjoy the sweet security of streets.' to murder, and to every thing which was evil, and accustomed The excitement of the crowd is pleasant to us. We find sermons to evils from Europeans.”
The Rev. John Williams stated before the same committee, in the stones of side-walks. In the continuous sound of voices, "In the island of Rarotonga, which I discovered, I found them and wheels, and footsteps, we hear the sad music of humanity. all heathens ; I placed native missionaries among them, and by beings around us are not the insects of a day, but the pilgrims
We feel that life is not a dream, but an earnest reality ; that the the native missionaries alone they were all converted to the pro. fession of Christianity, so that on my second visit to that very
of an eternity; they are our fellow-creatures, each with his place I found not an idolater remaining. This has been the history of thousand-fold occurrences, insignificant it may be case in eight different islands to which I have taken native mis- whose fibres are woven into the great web of human sympathies ;
to us, but all-important to himself ; each with a human heart, sionaries. The inhabitants of eight islands were entirely converted to Christianity by the agency of native missionaries. The and none so small that, when he dies, some of the mysterious original station was only one island, that of Tahiti ; and the meshes are not broken. knowledge of Christianity was conveyed to the islands where
“The green earth, and air, and the sea, all living and all lifeless the American missionaries are, first, by means of native converts things, preach unto us the gospel of a great and good Providence; from the island of Tahiti, and so with respect to the islands but most of all does man, in his crowded cities, and in his where the Wesleyan missionaries are. Christianity was first manifold powers, and wants, and passions, and deeds, preach conveyed to them by native missionaries from other islands.
this same gospel. He is the great evangelist. And though I think, without including the Friendly Islands or the American oftentimes, unconscious of his mission, or reluctant to fulfil it, missionary stations, we must have forty or fifty islands under
he leads others astray, even then to the thoughtful mind he our own instruction at the present time, by native agency, super- human nature. The face of man is a benediction to us. The
preaches. We are in love with nature, and most of all with intended by ourselves, except in our own immediate stations. The Tahitian and Society islands are christianised; the Austral greatest works of his handicraft delight us hardly less than the Islands group, about 350
miles from Tahiti; the Harvey Islands, greatest works of nature. They are the masterpieces of her about 700 miles west of Tahiti; the Vavou Islands, and the
own masterpiece.' Architecture, and painting, and sculpture, Hapai and the Sandwich Islands, where the American mis and music, and epic poems, and all the forms of art, wherein sionaries are labouring, and are 3000 miles north of Tahiti, the hand of genius is visible, please us evermore, for they conduct and the inhabitants also of the eastern Archipelago, about 500
us into the fellowship of great minds. And thus our sympathies or 600 east of Tahiti, have received the gospel."
are with men, and streets, and city-gates, and towers from which Thus, then, amidst these clusters of islands, containing a
the great bells sound solemnly and slow, and cathedral doors, population known to exceed a million, and perhaps of several where venerable statues, holding books in their hands, look down millions, a change (as we have seen) of unequalled importance, like sentinels upon the church-going multitude, and the birds of because affecting so large a mass of mankind, has been begun in the air come and build their nests in the arms of saints and our own time, and has been almost imperceptibly going forward. apostles., And more than all this, in great cities we learn to look They have become factors to furnish our vessels with provisions, the world in the face. We shake hands with stern realities
. We and merchants to deal with us in the agricultural growth of their
see ourselves in others. We become acquainted with the motley, own country. Their language has been reduced to writing, and many-sided life of man; and finally learn, if we are wise, to they have gained the knowledge of letters. They have, many of look upon a metropolis as a collection of villages ; a village as them, emerged from the tyranny of the will of their chiefs into
some blind alley in a metropolis ; fame as the talk of neighbours the protection of a written law, abounding with liberal and en
at the street-door; a library as a learned conversation; joy as a lightened principles, and 200,000 of them are reported to have second ; sorrow
as a minute ; life as a day ; and three things as embraced Christianity.
all in all, God, Creation, Virtue.'
“ Now of all cities is London the monarch. To us likewise is
it the great metropolis. We are not cockneys. We were born Mr. George Hibbert was one of the most distinguished of those princely on this side of the sea. Our family name is not recorded in the merchants whose knowledge of literature, patronage of the arts, and ex- Domesday Book. It is doubtful whether our ancestral tree was tensive intercourse with the world have contributed so much, in a planted so far back as the Conquest
. Nor are we what Sir great commercial country like our own, to elevate the rank and character Philip Sidney calls • wry-transformed travellars. We do not of the class to which they belong, and to give to the pursuits of wealth an enlarged and liberalizing spirit. Mr. Hibbert possessed, during the most
a foreign air, nor resemble the merry friar in the Canteractive period of his life, an uncommon influence amongst the great com
bury Tales, of whom the prologue says, – mercial bodies of the metropolis, and more particularly amongst those connected with the West India trade, from his integrity and high charac
• Somewhat he lisped for his wantonnesse, ter, his great knowledge of business, his excellent sense and judgment,
To make his English sweet upon his tongue.' and his clearness and readiness in public speaking. He was an excellent Nevertheless to us likewise is London the monarch of cities
. botanist, and the collection of plants which he had formed at his residence at Clapham was remarkable, not merely for its great extent, but likewise feel at home there, and gives us, as it were, the freedom of the
The fact, that the English language is spoken in it, makes us was well known also as a very extensive and judicious collector of books, we remember it as far back as the happy days, when
we loved for the great number of extremely rare plants which it contained. He city. Even the associations of childhood connect us with prints, drawings, and paintings, and was endeared to a large circle of private friends, amongst the most cultivated classes of society in this nursery songs, and “rode a-horseback on best father's knee. country, by his refined yet simple manners, his happy temper, and his Whittington and his cat lived there. All our picture books
and many social and domestic virtues.
our sisters' dolls came from there ; and we thought, poor Farewell Address of the Duke of Sussex. children ! that everybody in London sold dolls and picture-books,
MR. GEORGE HIBBERT.
as the country boy imagined that everybody in Boston sold
", Earth has not anything to show more fair : gingerbread, because his father always brought some home from
Dull would he be of soul who could pass by town on market days. Since those times we have grown wiser.
A sight so touching in its majesty : We have been in St. Paul's church-yard, and know by heart all
This City now doth, like a garment, wear the green parks and quiet squares of London.
The beauty of the morning ; silent, bare,
Ships, towers, domes, theatres and temples, lle " Forty-five miles westward from the North Sea, in the lap of
Open unto the fields, and to the sky; a broad and pleasant valley watered by the Thames, stands the
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air. great metropolis, as all the world knows. It comprises the City
Never did sun more beautifully steep of London and its Liberties, with the City and Liberties of
In his first splendour, valley, rock, or hill; Westminster, the Borough of Southwark, and upwards of thirty
Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep! of the contiguous villages of Middlesex and Surrey. East and
The river glideth at his own sweet will: west, its greatest length is about eight miles ; north and south,
Dear God! the very houses seem asleep ; its greatest breadth about five : its circumference from twenty
And all that mighty heart is lying still ! to thirty. Its population is estimated at two millions. The
It is difficult, almost impossible, fully to understand the work. vast living tide goes thundering through its ten thousand streets ing of that great society, or rather congregation of societies, of in one unbroken roar. The noise of the great thoroughfares is which the population of London consists, for from the lowest deafening. But you step aside into a by-lane, and anon you den, to the stately palace, all the inhabitants form little separate emerge into little green squares half filled with sunshine, half societies, pressed together, as it were, by the vast weight around with shade, where no sound of living
thing is heard, save the voice them, as material bodies are held together by the pressure of of a bird or a child, and amid solitude and silence you gaze in the atmosphere ; each of these societies has its own interests, its Fonder at the great trees growing in the heart of a brick-and- own characteristics, its own gossip, and is so completely wrapped mortar wilderness.' Then there are the three parks, Hyde, up in itself that the Londoner is frequently more ignorant of the Regent's, and St. James's, where you may lose yourself in green intellectual resources of the metropolis than he who has never alleys, and dream you are in the country; Westminster Abbey, visited it; (the places of amusement he learns from the newswith its tombs and solemn cloisters, where with the quaint papers.) 'The youth who ardently pants after knowledge often George Herbert you may think, that when the bells do chime, labours in vain, for want of assistance within his reach, but yet it is angels' music ;' and high above all, half hidden in smoke hidden from him. and vapour, rises the dome of St. Paul's. * These are a few of the more striking features of London, acquirement of real, not superficial knowledge ; its possession
The minds of men at the present day are bent upon the More striking still is the Thames. Above the town, by Richmond is necessary to maintain a man’s rank in society, and the rising Hill and Twickenham, it winds through groves and meadows generation will raise the scale of necessary knowledge yet higher, green, a rural silver stream. The traveller who sees it here for This effect of an increasing improvement in the intellectual the first time, can hardly believe, that this is the mighty
river requisites of good society is felt and acknowledged all over the which bathes the feet of London. He asks perhaps the coach kingdom. Strong efforts have been made and are making in the man, what stream that is ! and the coachman answers with a provinces to meet it
. The metropolis has led and will continue stare of wonder and pity, “ The Tems, sir.” Pleasure-boats are gliding back and forth, and stately swans float, like water prevents many of the objects of the projectors of various institu
to lead the way. But the peculiar constitution of its society lilies, on its bosom. On its banks are villages, and churchtowers, beneath which, among the patriarchs of the hamlet, lie those who reside in or near London, frequenting it daily, are
tions from being fulfilled. The man of business, and most of many gifted sons of song,
men of business, know little that is passing beyond their diurnal 'In sepulchres unhearsed and green.'
occupation, the politics of the day, and affairs that happen in
or projects that are taken up by the society, the circle, the " In and below London the whole scene is changed. Let us domestic world, they move in ; and thus an admirable library or view it by night. Lamps are gleaming along the shore, and on institution may be found at the elbow of many a man who is the bridges, and a full moon rising over the Borough of South- scarcely aware of its existence, but which once known would be Fark. The moonbeams silver the rippling, yellow tide, wherein prized and used. also flare the shore lamps, with a lambent, flickering gleam. Barges and wherries move to and fro, and heavy-laden luggers public, proprietary, and
subscriptionary, yet comparatively how
How numerous are the societies, institutions, and libraries, are sweeping up stream with the rising tide, swinging sideways, little known, even to those who reside close to them! The with loose, flapping sails. Both sides of the river are crowded with sea and river craft, whose black hulks lie in shadow, and advantages afforded by them are little understood, and for want whose tapering masts rise up into the moonlight like a leafless willingly seek them, are excluded from their benefits. We purpose
of more extended information very many who would otherwise forest. A distant sound of music floats on the air ; a harp, and from time to time to supply this want, and to give a brief bạt a flute, and a horn. It has an unearthly sound; and lo! like a
correct and sufficient notice of all such as, by the nature of their shooting star, a light comes gliding on. It is the signal lamp constitution, are of general interest. at the mast head of a steam-vessel that fits by, like a cloud, above which glides a star. And from all this scene goes up a sound of human voices,-curses, laughter and singing,-mingled with the monotonous roar of the city, the clashing and careering streams of life, hurrying to lose themselves in the impervious
A most extraordinary species of manufacture has been contrived by an gloom of eternity.' And now the midnight is past, and amid
officer of engineers residing at Munich. It consists of lace and veils, with the general silence the clock strikes—one, two. Far distant from some belfry in the suburbs comes the first sound, so
open patterns in them, made entirely by caterpillars. The following is indistinct as hardly to be distinguished from the crowing of a
the mode of proceeding ;-Having made a paste of the leaves of the plant cock. Then close at hand the great bell of St. Paul's with a
on which the species of caterpillar he employs feeds, he spreads it thinly heavy, solemn sound-one, two. It is answered from Southwark,
over a stone or other flat substance of the required size. He then, with a then at a distance, like an echo ; and then all around you, with
cainel-hair pencil dipped in olive oil, draws the pattern he wishes the various and intermingling clang, like a chime of bells, the clocks insects to leave open. This stone is then placed in an inclined position, from a hundred belfries strike the hour. But the moon is already and a considerable number of the caterpillars are placed at the bottom. sinking, large and fiery, through the vapours of the morning. It A peculiar species is chosen, which spins a strong web: and the animals is just in the range of the chimneys and house-tops, and seems commence at the bottom, eating and spinning their way up to the top, to follow you with speed, as you Goat down the river, between carefully avoiding every part touched by the oil, but devouring every unbroken ranks of ships. Day is dawning in the east, not with other part of the paste. The extreme lightness of these veils, combined a pale streak in the horizon, but with a silver light spread through with some strength, is truly surprising. One of them measuring 264 by the sky, almost to the zenith. It is the mingling of moonlight 17 inches, weighed only a grain and a half, a degree of lightness which and daylight. The water is tinged with a green hue, melting will appear more strongly by contrast with other fabrics. One square into purple and gold, like the brilliant scales of a fish.' The air yard of the substance of which these veils are made weighs 4 grains ; grows cool. It comes fresh from the eastern sea, towards which whilst one square yard of silk gauze weighs 137 1-3 grains; and one square We are swiftly gliding:
yard of the finest net weighs 262 grains.
LACE MADE BY CATERPILLARS.
was minutely dispersed. The intrepid divers had thus gone on THE LOSS OF THE THETIS FRIGATE.
with unwearied assiduity, buffeting the waves, and removing The Thetis frigate of forty-six guns, and a crew of 300 men, impediments from below, without success, till the 31st of March, which sailed from Rio Janeiro for England, having gold, silver, when a signal from the bell men announced the welcome sight and various other treasure, on board, to the amount of 810,000 of dollars. Three cheers followed the ascent of the men with
their caps full of them, together with some gold. In the course dollars, the property of merchants and others in this country, was
of the first day, 6000 were recovered from the deep ; and, not conwrecked off Cape Frio, an island on the coast of Brazil, on the 5th tent with their success by day-light, they followed it up, by the of Decr. 1830. The vessel, in the darkness of the night, had missed use of large torches dispersed in the various boats, till midnight. its course, and ran foul of the cliffs of that istand, and in a few in the midst of almost incredible obstacles, they proceeded, seconds the bowsprit and all three masts being carried away
when the weather permitted, in recovering, from time to time, one fell swoop,” the ship was instantly reduced from the gran to the value of 21,680 dollars. The derrick being now finished,
immense sums of specie and bullion. On one day they took up deur of full sail, to a helpless and unmanageable hulk. In spite and, with great exertion, mounted, enabled them to remove rocks of the efforts of the crew, the ill-fated vessel went down before and other encumbrances from the bottom, and so powerful was day-break. The preservation of so many lives was truly provi- this machine, that weights of upwards of twelve tons were dential, for the nook in which the Thetis was lost is the only shifted by it; by it also the great bell was suspended. spot on the whole line of coast, where they could possibly have Their operations were now quite systematic, and conversations been saved ; only twenty-eight out of upwards of 300 persons by signal with the submerged workmen carried on with great having lost their lives. With her cargo and stores she was 1600 regularity. On the 24th of May, 124,000 dollars were shipped tons burden.
for England. Captain Dickinson of the Lightning sloop of war, (which had tremendous storm, rendered a complete wreck, and their next
The derrick, which was of immense use to them, was, by a come into Rio on the day of the disaster,) inspired with the idea substitute was suspension chains, with a series of cable-guys, of professional reputation, conceived the adventurous project of which were erected from cliff to cliff
, with great toil and difficulty. recovering the whole, or a portion of this immense treasure, and to notice the perils, the hair-breadth escapes, and the occaby the consent of Admiral Baker, the commander-in-chief on sional privations, Captain Dickinson and his crew encountered the South American station, he immediately made arrangements for fourteen months in this service, with the excellent discipline for what many of his friends considered an Utopian experiment: other, would exceed the limits of this short notice. During
on the one hand, and cheerful and indefatigable exertion on the But Captain Dickinson, one of Collingwood's protégés, had
that time, no fewer than five diving-bells were constructed, the been in "actual and active service from nine years of age,” and violence of the sea having rendered some of them useless; airin these “piping times of peace," longed for meritorious dis. pumps, hose, (which was being continually damaged,) and other tinction.
requisites, were manufactured; they had blasted thousands of tons In such a quarter of the world, the difficulties of such an un
of rock, to find proper situations for fastenings, and vast obdertaking were immense. In the first place, neither in the city of structions at the bottom were removed, by all which contrivances Rio Janeiro nor its arsenal, were to be found either of those indis
and extraordinary energy and endurance, at various times they
were enabled to transmit to England the immense sum of nearly pensables—adiving-bell, or an air-pump;so that from the beginning 600,000 dollars : besides which, the “Algerine,” which superseded the affair may be cited as an instance of how much may be accom- the “ Lightning,” recovered a further amount of 161,500, being plished by a determination to succeed'in any undertaking. The together of the entire sum lost. £2000 worth of government Thetis sunk in a cove or inlet of the island of Frio, running stores were likewise saved by Capt. Dickinson. By the great inwards about 100 fathoms, and 90 fathoms broad, surrounded pressure of the rocks, some of the treasure formed a hard by cliffs from 80 to 194 feet in height, with an exposure to the
concrete with the particles of granite, iron nails, fragments of whole force of the South Atlantic Ocean. The place looked jars, glass bottles, pitch, and paint, and various other materials. terrific, and the responsibility seemed awful; yet the brave captain It is astonishing that all this was accomplished without the loss anchored on the opposite side of the island on the 31st of January, of a single life in the diving-bell, or in working the complicated landed two-thirds of his crew, which consisted wholly of 135, and gigantic tackle; but three persons were drowned from one commenced the erection of store-houses, workshops, temporary of the boats during a storm. The climate, however, and the residences, and making such other arrangements as the work weather, were exceedingly destructive of their health, and at required. This done, their first operation was to construct a
times a considerable portion of them were under the doctor's diving-bell, which was contrived out of two two-ton water-tanks, Amongst their other trials, they were subject to almost and other materials within their reach, which weighed 80 cwt.
all the plagues of Egypt. They also constructed an air-pump, but the desideratum of air- In their slightly constructed huts they were attacked by tight hose seemed, for a time, to baffle their ingenuity. This myriads of tormentors in the shape of ants, mosquitoes, difficulty was also overcome, by dressing up the hose of a Truscot fleas, and worst of all, "jiggers." The ants attacked every. pump and Fisher's watering apparatus from on board. The mag. thing eatable. The serenade of the mosquito is well known, nitude, and the hazardous nature of the undertaking, may be but it appears the fleas assailed them in numbers beyond conceived from the nature of the appliances by which the diving the power of any method they could adopt for their destrucbell was to be used, and the depth of the ocean explored. While tion, for they were inhabitants of the sand. The jiggers penethe diving-bell and a huge derrick or crane were being made, the trated the skin, and formed painful and troublesome ulcers, residue of the crew were employed in forming platforms, and especially on the feet, which sometimes produced lameness among cutting roads down the face of the cliffs, for the purpose of fixing half of the crew. Withal, they performed the duties of a most and working them. Thirteen feet had been taken off the top of a arduous undertaking in a manner which admitted of uncliff, and a platform formed of 80 feet by 60, besides four other qualified praise, and it is a matter of exceeding regret, that any platforms for the working of capstans ; roads, &c. had been cut, question should have arisen regarding the remuneration for such and a zig-zag path down the cliff, which put together, amounted to extraordinary exertions, and such sacrifice of health and comfort
. a mile and-a-half. This ponderous piece of machinery (the cranes This unfortunately became the subject of protracted litigation. when finished were upwards of 40 tons weight), and its launching, Parties claiming participation in the salvage, who were not erecting, and fixing with cables, and cable-guys, to regulate the within fifty miles at the time, and the underwriters availing ascent and descent of the diving apparatus, was attended with in themselves of these disputes, affirmed, that being in the king's finite labour and exertion. The idea of staying an immense crane, service, they were entitled to no remuneration whatever. In with from five to nine inch cables, to rocks ninety fathoms asun- the Admiralty Court £17,000 was awarded among the whole der, with a complication of other auxiliary cordage and tackle, litigants, amounting to 400; but on an appeal to the judicial com; had in it something grand. In the mean time, however, buoys mittee of the Privy Council by Capt. Dickinson, on behalf of had been fixed, and a smaller bell had been made, and mounted himself and the crew of the “ Lightning," an additional sum of on one of the largest ship's boats, which enabled them to make £12,000 was obtained. But for the enterprising spirit and observations on the state of the wreck. The Thetis had by this invention of Captain Dickinson, it is not likely that one dollar time gone to pieces, and, by the violent commotion of the sea, | of the immense sum lost, would ever have been recovered.
THE MORNING OVERCAST *.
on that night, knew that he had begun to live. “No!” he
said, “ I shall not always be a poor, insignificant creature; I When the first throbbings of his enthusiasm had subsided, shall acquire knowledge, and then I shall obtain power !" and Peter Jones continued gazing upon the starry firmament with a he besought God, in whom all knowledge and all power resides, sensation in which awe and pleasure were mingled.
" Are these
to aid him with health and strength, that he might devote all his all worlds ?” he muttered ; " yes—perhaps dwelling-places of energy and all his time to the acquisition of knowledge. creatures far superior to man!” He had burst the shell of his in his way. The lectures at the Mechanics’ Institution were a
Peter now began to read with greediness whatever books came low, narrow idea of the universe and of God; his mind felt as if
source of extraordinary delight-he would almost sooner have rising from earth, and longing to traverse the unfathomable space parted with a limb, than have been absent on a lecture night. laid open to its range. Everywhere he now beheld Him whom Every day brought him fresh proof that “knowledge is power," he had been seeking; his perception had acquired sight, and he for not a day passed over without some addition to his stock of marveled at his former blindness. He saw God in the light ideas. It is when the mind is pleasurably excited that knowthat streamed from the sun ; he saw Him in the milder radiance ledge sinks deepest and most powerfully—and Peter's waking of the moon "walking in brightness ;" he saw Him in the stars
moments were one continued sensation of delight. He grudged that sparkled overhead, and he beheld Him in the meanest weed portion of the time during his breakfast hour which might have
the time necessary for cleaning himself, because it absorbed a which he trod beneath his feet. “ His pencil,” he exclaimed, in been devoted to his book; he longed for the time of iner rapturous joy, " has touched the flowers, that man, in these that he might have half an hour to read ; and night was his beautiful creations, may have a perpetual calendar of delight; glory, for then came either the lecture, or a long interval proHis hand has painted the glowing canvas of the skies, that at longed into the morning, given up to an absorbing occupation. evening tide all nature may breath a prayer, and sing a hymn of Every Monday night he took up a position sturdily at the door thanksgiving." The imagination of Peter Jones, which had of the library to get his books exchanged; and even though the hitherto made himself its centre, and had built its airy castles house had been announced to be on fire, Peter would scarcely with grovelling materials, now sprang upwards, Aitting from have budged till he had effected his purpose. world to world, and searching out the boundaries of God's ever
He told his mother that he would rise in the world. "I will lasting dominions
. The mind had acquired power, equivalent study hard,” said he, “I will learn every thing, and you will to the possession of a new faculty ; and the hitherto ignorant yet see me become a great man!” His mother smiled at this youth was rising in the scale of creation.
sanguine expression of enthusiasm, and bidding him open his The friend and patron of Peter Jones—he who had opened to Bible, desired him to read the following verses :him the gate of this new world—was one of those rare characters,
"This wisdom have I seen under the sun, and it seemed great whose familiarity, unlike the familiarity of other men, made
There was a little city, and few men within it; and those who knew him most to love him the more, and to feel there came a great king against it, and besieged it, and built that a more intimate acquaintanceship only deepened that affec- great bulwarks against it
. Now there was found in it a poor tionate respect which we call reverence. His goodness was
wise man, and he by his wisdom delivered the city; yet no man not a mere result of blood, or bias, or temper, but one of the remembered that same poor man. Then said I, Wisdom is fruits of a planted and watered character. Bad men provoke better than strength : nevertheless the poor man's wisdom is wrath and hatred; stern men make their dependants to fear despised, and his words are not heard.” them ; weak men excite contempt, and good-natured men live “ Well,” said he, after he had read it, “how does this apply under the toleration of a smile. And there are many men who to me? Do you not know, mother, that men were comparatively provoke neither hatred, nor fear, nor contempt, habitually, but fools in those days, and were ignorant of the great truth, that who move amongst the elements of the passions as a straw floats knowledge is power?' Why, mother, I thought that you in the air, and who may be either blown up towards heaven, or would not discourage me in trying to raise myself in the world !" dragged down to the earth. But good men are peculiarly men She felt the rebuke, and taking her son in her arms, told him, of character; their passions all tend to a balance; they have a with tears in her eyes, that nobody in the wide world would central controlling power, to adjust perturbations. They have rejoice more truly at his success in life than his poor old often time-or they take it—to look out from their own souls mother. into the souls of other men. For generally we see but the mere He became acquainted with a few youths, kindred spirits, all framework of the humanity of others; and often, while our own members of the Mechanics’ Institution, and all of them eagerly hearts are busily occupied with our own never-ending thoughts seeking after the knowledge which is power. They formed a and feelings and desires, we act, as if we were the only self- little club or society, and Peter was enrolled amongst them. At thoughtful and self-feeling creatures amongst our fellows. first it appeared to him a daringly impudent thing for him to
Peter's patron, being a good and a considerate man, saw with imagine that he could make a speech or write an essay: but delight the result of the experiment which he had made on Peter's then he recollected that “what man has done, that man can do,”. mind. He knew that the intellect of the youth was budding, and so he tried his hand. His first speech was applauded, and for he bebeld its blossoms through his eyes. A visible change his first essay pronounced excellent, by his confederate orators was working on Peter's outer man; the dull face became re- and essayists, and Peter grew exceedingly well-pleased with flective and beamed with intelligence, and he walked with a
himself. “What a difference there is,” thought he, “between firmer step. His intellectual parent watched the new-born indi- what I am now, and what I was some time ago! Surely knowcations of life, and resolved to cherish that which he had begun. ledge is power-I am becoming stronger every day.” Peter did He carried him with him to hear the opening lecture of a not know that he was beginning to spread his peacock feathers Mechanics' Institution, and was more absorbed in watching the to the sun-tares were growing up with the wheat. countenance of his protégé, than in listening to the words of It would have turned sorrow into laughter to have been present the lecturer. Peter heard the speaker announce that “ KNOW
at a meeting of this little band of orators and essayists. There LEDGE IS Power," and the words seemed to contain a self- they sat more gravely than senators, their juvenile chairman, illuminated truth—his heart responded, “ I feel it, I feel it!" with an imperturbable gravity, keeping his eye fixed on the Then it was proclaimed that “ what man has done, that man can
reader or speaker ; "hear, hear !” occasionally startled the do;” and Peter vowed in his inmost soul that he would add stillness of the room, and a well turned period or a vehement another testimony to the fact. For he heard wonderful things assertion usually received bearty applause. They tried all of the effects of knowledge-how poor men had become great subjects, not even excepting the origin of evil,"—that specumen, and renowned in the world, because they sought for it as
lation they left where they found it, though it did not leave them for bid treasure-how man had tamed the elements by know- in the same mental condition as when they began its discussion. ledge, and compelled them to serve him-how the invisible air Peter's mind was injured ; since he had begun to think, he had had been analysed, and stones compelled to reveal the secret of viewed only the bright side—the universe was to him an abode their composition, and the dumb earth to unrol its history, and of joy, and God the God of happiness; and how evil could arise the comets, as they flew past, to murmur somewhat respecting and exist in the happy universe of a God of happiness, was to their times and seasons. Wonder-working knowledge! Peter, him most distressingly inexplicable. The idea passed away, but
it left its footmarks behind it. Continued from "The Dawning of the Day,” in No. IV.
Peter's mother having been provided with a situation, the