« AnteriorContinuar »
household was broken up, and Peter went to lodge with a fellow- But Peter's self-will was strong: he had lost the favour of his workman, the father of a family. This man interested Peter patron, he had grieved his mother, and he had also (though exceedingly, for he was quiet, grave, intelligent, and temperate, unaware of it) offended himself. His joy and happiness had all was partial to pursuits of a mechanical nature, had a small set evaporated; he was discontented and miserable; he hated the of chemical apparatus, and dabbled with experiments. Peter sight of friends, and he longed to break away from constraint. talked with him, and walked with him, and looked upon him as So he started for London, indulging, by the way, in vague illualtogether a superior man. One day, while he was puzzling sions; the motion of travelling scattering unpleasant thoughts
. himself about a passage in the Bible, he referred to his landlord He arrived in the “great city" with fourpence-halfpenny in his for an opinion. “Oh,” replied the man, with a quiet kind of pocket; and his first solicitude was to find out a person to whom expression, between a smile and a sneer,—“I never bother bis recent landlord had recommended him, and who would doubt. my head about these things.” “Why?" “ Because I am what less have proved a friend, had he been found out; but he had long religious folks call an infidel-a deist.” Peter Jones knew what before left the spot where Peter thought he would have found the word deist meant; he knew that it implied a rejection of the him, and where else he did not know to turn. Wearied and Bible as a Divine Revelation-but then he had always heard the forlorn, still the novelty of the streets of London diverted the character of a deist associated with something wicked or immoral, anxious thoughts, and night fell ere the adventurer was aware. while here was a man for whose general character he had a great The fourpence-halfpenny soon disappeared for the warmth of a esteem, and who nevertheless professed himself a deist ! Peter fire, a loaf, and a draught of beer. As the night grew, he felt was staggered-he had felt a recoil from the man the moment ashamed to see his empty jug stand so long before him ; for it he had announced himself to be a deist, and now he was angry looked as if he occupied the room of one who would more prowith himself about it. His landlord had not pressed his opinions; fitably repay the shelter of the landlord's roof. So out he went, he had not even suggested them: but seeing Peter disposed to and the night was spent in pacing the streets, chiefly about the inquire, he lent him a few tracts and pamphlets. Peter had Strand. Till past midnight the scene was amusing enough : the been educated not only with a reverential but a superstitious brilliantly lighted shops, the busy thoroughfares, and the crowds respect for the Bible ; not only did he reverence the words, but that swept along on the closing of the theatres, were enough to he reverenced the paper on which the words were printed. He engage attention. After midnight the scene was not so busy, felt therefore horrified at the manner in which the Bible was but far from being quiet. The coach, at intervals, rattled along, treated in the tracts he was reading, for he had not conceived it bearing home from evening parties its owners or its birers ; possible that such a thing could be. His horror subsided into groups were returning from their taverns or their clubs; and anger ; his anger cooled ; and as he cooled, the poison was unhappy prowlers walked the streets. But in all that long and deposited. At first he was afraid to say of himself, that he was dreary night (or rather it was the morning that was dreary,) no a deist : but as soon as he mustered courage to pronounce the riots or interruptions to the public peace were remarked. word, he repeated it again and again.
Two other nights were passed in a similar manner; for the Shortly afterwards he met his mother, and she asked if he youth's efforts to find out his friend were ineffectual, and applihad been at church on the preceding Sunday. “Oh!” said he, cations for employment were ineffectual, perhaps partly on with a conceited air, “ I have given up all that nonsense now!” account of Peter's dejected and squalid looks, but principally The poor woman did not comprehend him; she looked at him because he could not tell what he could do. Subsistence was for an explanation; and Peter, drawing his little figure up to its procured by the sale of a handkerchief which he wore about his fullest length, added, “Because I am now a deist!” The mother neck, and for which he got a shilling. But the nights grew, each understood that this meant a denial of that faith on which her of them, more intolerable than before, and the desire to lie down hope rested ; and she turned away with a sore and troubled in a bed became an absorbing feeling. After traversing the spa. heart. But Peter acted in a bravado spirit ; he told every body cious extent of Oxford-street, he had turned up one of the narrow he knew that he was now a deist; and the very loudness streets or rather lanes of St. Giles's, because its darkness and and firmness of the tone in which he announced it seemed dirt seemed a relief and a shelter. Here, by a faint glimmering necessary to convince himself that the fact was even so.
of light, he saw in a window, one pane of which was supplied by Away from the consequences, it might have made one smile a hat and another by a bundle of rags, that beds were to be had to hear this little particle of the mysterious, calling himself a within. He had twopence-halfpenny in his pocket; so he en. deist. For he lived in a most marvellous world, and was him-tered, and inquired from an Irishwoman who was superintend. self one of the constituents of the marvellous ; and how he ing a pot that hung over a fire, if he could have a bed? “Ay, breathed, and how he thought, and how the stars were in the sure,” was the reply; "but at what price, my darling? I have heavens, and how the Bible contains the most ancient records beds of all sorts and sizes." Peter hesitated, and his hesitation of the race, and how it has employed the most varied talent, was misinterpreted. “Ye can have a bed up stairs, as nice a the most extraordinary intellect, in its elucidation, and what is bed as ye would wish to lie down on, for a sixpence; and I can the destiny of man, and wherefore he is immortal—of all this give ye a bed in the room below [a damp cellar) for threepence, Peter Jones knew nothing at all, or scarcely anything at all—yet only ye will have more company.” The confession was made of still he went about, proclaiming, “ I'm a deist !”
poverty, and the twopence-halfpenny was tendered. The landHis patron heard of this extraordinary change in one of whom lady, became for the moment less gracious ; she talked of how be had entertained such a good opinion; and he sent for the often she had been done” when she gave credit, and that a youth, that he might learn from himself the cause. Peter went, halfpenny was a halfpenny to her; but suddenly, as if trusting to full of confidence and conceit, and prepared, as he thought, to her skill in physiognomy, she exclaimed, “ Sure, then, ye ara't out-argue the best, almost the only friend he had in the world. one of the common sort: have ye anybody in London that ye The good man soon saw how it was with Peter; and, instead of know?" and with other inquiries, until she learnt a portion of arguing, mildly expostulated. Peter was touched, but pride Peter's history. “ And will ye pay me again, if I trust you?" she came to the rescue; and he told his patron he was free to choose asked, looking steadily in his face. “I will.” The tone of this his own opinions. "Yes,” he replied, “you are not only free, answer gave confidence, and in a few minutes the young man was but it is your right and your duty to do so on all important mat- seated by the fire, a mess from the pot was placed before ters. But what has produced this change?”. “ Knowledge is him, and he was enjoined to keep himself quiet. Is there power,” said Peter, "and Truth is the daughter of knowledge not goodness of heart amongst the rudest and roughest of and power, and we should follow Truth wherever she may
mankind? lead." Peter was not aware that the only power which know- In a few minutes the room (which might have been in former ledge had yet given him was the power of presumption. He told days used as the parlour, but which was now kitchen and hall) his patron that he was tired of his native place; that he saw no began to fill. The residents in this hotel were returning from chance of getting on in the world, and he had resolved to go to their day's avocations. There were Irish labourers newly arrived London; “ for that was the field where talent was sure to be en- in town, women and children, pickpockets, and begging imposcouraged.” “ Fool,” said his patron, more angrily than was his Two long forms with narrow coarse deal tables were ranged wont, “ you go to London with a scanty stock of ideas, with out-here each sat down to treat themselves to supper, accordyour principles unsettled, without a trade by which to earn iug to their means, or the success of their day's adventures. your bread, without money in your pocket, without a friend. The most remarkable of all, at least from his noise and vociferaOh! young man, I tremble for the consequences to yourself. tions, was a young athletic Englishman, dressed in an old blue How is it that a cloud has overcast so fair a morning !". coat, a pair of white trousers (it was the spring of the year), and
an apron rolled round him. With him was connected a young woman who passed as his wife—these two were full of boisterous EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN THE EAST. glee from the success of their speculations at different parts of the town. The man had passed himself off that day as a Spitalfields On looking at the map, we perceive that Europe forms a comweaver out of work, and having a young wife and a starving paratively small portion of a vast continent, of which Asia is the family at home. With what a laugh he recounted the fact (gin main body. The Russian empire extends across this continent, and beer were operating on his head) of overhearing one female say to another, * Poor man! he seems to be a decent tradesman occupying its northern quarter, from the Baltic sea to Kamtsout of work !'' And a kind, benevolent gentleman, to whom he chatka, and from the Arctic ocean to the Black sea, and the had mentioned the names of several ministers and others who had frontiers of Persia and Turkey on the west, and to the frontiers assisted him, had interested himself for him, and had raised a
of China on the east. In the interior of the continent are the subscription of four or five shillings for him. The young woman, though not so successful as her partner had been, had also earned steppes of Tartaria and Mongolia—extensive regions, inhabited by a "pretty good day's work." As far as could be judged from those wandering shepherd horsemen, whose forefathers have retheir conversation, their gains might have amounted to about peatedly rushed forth in hordes, desolating the fairest portions of twelve or fourteen shillings.
Asia, and making Europe tremble. Continuing south, we have The other individuals made a singular medley. Their modes Persia on the extreme west, and China on the extreme east; the of living appeared various. Several were adroit in imposi- great space between Persia, China, and the steppes, being occution day after day, under different disguises and pretences. Honest wretchedness and poverty were also here, spending the pied by tribes or nations, half nomadic, half agricultural, until, passing night, after having arrived in London, and knowing not descending from the table-land of Tibet, and the stupendous where to turn. But the clever vagabonds ascended the creaking mountain ranges of the Himalaya, which guard Hindustan along stairs to the better sort of beds—the less fortunate, honest and the north-east, we pass through the “ Happy Valley” of Cashdishonest, went down to a cellar having an earthen floor, where about a dozen of truckle beds were spread out. Among the mere, and enter upon the great triangular-shaped peninsula of inmates was at least one individual under hiding from the Hindustan, which contains our Indian empire. police.
By referring once more to the map, the position and boundPeter took advantage of the opening of the door to rush out aries of our Eastern dominions may be easily ascertained. The from this squalid abode of wretchedness, poverty, immorality, and crime. He was once more in London streets, and he peninsula of Hindustan is triangular-shaped; and it is round the thought that a form resembling his father was following him, and head of this peninsula that the nations lie, from whose restlesslooking in his face, as if mournfully to upbraid him. 1 Ah !” he ness or enmity danger is apprehended. From the mouth of the thought, poor as was our house, it never would have entered Persian gulf, extending northwards to the steppes of Tartary, and my mind that I should have fallen so low as this! Forsaken of God and man! or rather I have abandoned my friends, and for forming a western and north-western boundary between Persia saken truth, and here I am, left utterly to myself
. Is knowledge and Hindustan, are the extensive countries of Beloochistan, power?. It has given me no power, but the power of ruining Afghanistan, and Bokhara—all inhabited by mixed races, partly myself!” A voice seemed to whisper in his ear." As a bird that commercial, partly agricultural, but a far greater portion nomadic wandereth from her nest, so is a man that wandereth from his place!" The truth of this struck into his heart-he sat down or wandering pastoral tribes, akin to the Tartars and Mongols. on the steps of a shop-door, and wept.
“The territory of the Afghans,” says Heeren, “or eastern Persia, called also the kingdom of Cabul, from the name of the principal
city, is inhabited by a nation, which, making allowances for the A SUNDAY AT Moscow.
influence of Mohammedism, appears to be in pretty nearly the To one who a long time had been a stranger to the sound of same stage of civilisation as at the time of the conquest of Alex" the church-going bell,” few things could be more interesting ander the Great. Some of them occupy fixed abodes in cities and than a Sunday at Moscow. Any one who has rambled along the maritime Alps, and has heard from some lofty eminence the villages, others lead a pastoral life under the shade of tents ; but convent bell ringing for matins, vespers, and midnight prayers, even in the case of the former, their wealth principally consists will long remember the pot unpleasing sounds. To me there is in their cattle ; their constitution nearly resembling that of the always something touching in the sound of the church-bell; in ancient clans of Scotland. The whole race is divided into difitself pleasing by its effect upon the sense, but far more so in its associations. And these feelings were exceedingly fresh ferent clans or tribes, and though professing a general allegiance when I awoke on Sunday, in the holy, city of Moscow. In to a common prince, they pay a much more implicit obedience Greece and Turkey, there are no bells ; in Russia they are al. to their several chieftains, though the influence of the latter is most innumerable; but this was the first time I had happened always greater or less, in proportion to the weight of their perto pass the Sabbath in the city. I lay and listened, almost fearing to move, lest I should lose the sounds; thoughts of sonal character. Elphinstone found them a people of simple home came over me ; of the day of rest, of the gathering for manners, whose pastoral habits presented a pleasing picture ; church, and the greeting of friends at the church-door. But while at the same time they were courageous and independent: he who has never heard the ringing of bells at Moscow does not know its music. Imagine a city containing more than six hun- such also they were found to be by Alexander; and we cannot dred churches, and innumerable convents, all with bells, and peruse without indignation the recital of their severe treatment these all sounding together, from the sharp, quick, hammer- at his hands, for having attempted to defend their cities and note, to the loudest, deepest peals that ever lingered on the ear, possessions." struck at long intervals, and swelling on the air as if unwilling to die away. I arose and threw open my window, dressed my
It is in this direction, the north-west, or in the extensive self, and after breakfast, joining the throng called to the respec- border land which lies between Hindustan and Persia, that the tive churches by their well-known bells, I went to what is chief danger is to be apprehended : for though the Birman emcalled the English chapel, where, for the first time in many pire, on the south-east, is supposed to be likely to be troublesome, months, I joined in a regular church-service, and listened to an orthodox sermon. I was surprised to see so large a congrega
there is not perhaps much apprehension as to the result of any tion, though I remarked among them many English governesses movement in that quarter. Now, it will hardly be doubted, that with children, the English language being at that moment the the weakening of the English power in the East would be detrirage among the Russians, and multitudes of cast-off chambermaids being employed to teach the rising Russian nobility the mental—a great calamity-to Hindustan, and to the general beauties of the English tongue. - Stephens's Incidents of interests of humanity. European civilisation owes a large debt Travel.
to the East, which we are only beginning to pay back. We are only beginning to understand the country and people, and they tribes that skirt Hindustan, and whose country has bitherto are only beginning to feel the influence of our rule. The stores been all but shut up from modern activity and research. But if of Hindu literature are just opening to European scholars, and the English power was broken, another European power could beginning to shed light on the early history of our race; and Hindu not occupy its place. Anarchy would ensue : a tremendous mind, manners, and morals, have received an infusion of life-blood contest for dominion would arise amongst native adventurers ; by the exertions of missionaries and the translations of the the barriers which we have erected round Hindustan would be Scriptures. China, toothat strange country, which knew the overthrown ; mountain tribes from the Himalaya ranges, Afcomposition of the fire-drug while we were handling the bow and ghans from their hills and valleys, nay, even Tartars and arrow, and used the mariner's compass, and practised printing, Mongols from their distant steppes, might come like sweeping while we were comparative savages-is beginning to stagger under torrents, and renew over the fertile soil of British India some the repeated assaults on its exclusive system; and the roots of a of the fearful scenes enacted by Ghengis Khan or Timur. Erents great English empire have been laid down in Australia. Many such as these are as likely, and more likely, to occur than a indications point to the probable fact, that the East, the cradle of Russian conquest of Hindustan. civilisation, from whence issued those arts, sciences, and manufac- Before the discovery of the passage by the Cape of Good tures, which have lifted Europeans so high in the scale, is about Hope, the products of India were carried over-land into Europe to become again the seat of a higher and a more enhanced civili -Alexandria in Egypt being the great emporium. “ It was a sation, which will gradually break up the uniformity of three necessary consequence of the fact, that the commerce of Asia thousand years. “It was on Asia,” says Heeren, “ that the first was principally carried on by land, that it should be materially dawn of history broke; and during succeeding ages, when Africa influenced by the political changes and revolutions which took was involved in almost total obscurity, from which Europe herself place there. When new tribes of conquerors emerged from their was slowly disengaged, there rested upon Asia a degree of light deserts, and overthrew by their countless hordes an established which, if it did not illuminate equally all the great events of which empire, a revolution so complete could not but affect its comthat continent was the theatre, served at least to illustrate their merce also. Nevertheless, it is a remark which the whole tenor general course, and to furnish important data towards the history of Asiatic history confirms, that, though often interrupted and of the human species.” The same distinguished author whose modified, the commerce of the country was never entirely dewords we have quoted, thus speaks of that particular portion of stroyed. On the contrary, it appears always to have resumed Asia which we have now under consideration :"Of all the its original position with greater facility than could have been divisions of Asia, the southern, containing the territory of Hin- expected ; nor are the causes difficult to discover. The vic. dustan, is distinguished by the richness and diversity of its pro- torious nation soon perceived the advantages to be derived from ductions. Here we not only find (with very few exceptions) all a continuance of the former state of things; the wants of the the products of other parts of civilised Asia, but so great a variety conquered soon became theirs also; the customs or presents peculiar to its climate, that it would appear as if a new and more extorted from the caravans which traversed their country enriched beautiful creation had sprung up under the hand of nature. them or their chiefs; and it may be added, that a sort of taste Nearly all the spices, which become necessary to mankind in for commerce and trade prevails even among the ruder tribes of exact proportion to the progress of luxury and refinement, have Asia. Less injury was inflicted on commerce by these changes at all times been peculiar to this region, while two of the most of dynasty and wars of victorious nations, than by the anarchy important articles used in clothing, viz. cotton and silk, were first into which despotic governments are apt to be dissolved. On produced here, and continue to be so in an especial degree, though such occasions, indumerable hordes of banditti are presently their cultivation has been gradually extended to other countries. formed, which destroy all internal security—the restraint of a These natural advantages have rendered this quarter the prin- superior power having been removed. The anarchy and con. cipal seat of Asiatic commerce; its productions have flowed from fusion which so long prevailed in the state of Persia, caused an the east to the west in a continual stream; and notwithstanding almost total interruption of her commerce. some occasional deviations in its branches, the main current has
“ In this manner, with some partial modifications and occanever been dried up. The influence wbich an intercourse with sional interruptions, the internal commerce of Asia continued on India may have had on the civilisation of mankind is a question the whole the same, through all the mighty political revolutions worthy the close attention of the philosophical student of his which affected the interior, from the days of Cyrus and Nebutory."
chadnezzar to those of Ghengis Khan and Timur. As the more To disturb or weaken the power of the English in Hindustan recent dynasties were built on the same foundations with their would, as we have said, be fatal, at least for a time, to the gradual predecessors, so their commerce also retained the same general and tranquil progress of the great re-active process now going character. Its principal seats remained unchanged; and the on. There is no other European power that could take our place. countries in which these were situated were at all times adorned Looking at the map, one might be apt to fancy that the emperor with rich and flourishing cities; which, after the most cruel of Russia might march, as Alexander marched, a great army devastations, rose again from their ashes. The wants of men, from his frontiers to the shores of the Indian ocean, and annex whether natural or fictitious, are too mighty and pressing to be Hindustan to his dominions; and thus, with a little license of lastingly affected, far less annihilated, even by war or despotism. expression, the Russian empire might be said to extend, in a One event, however, has made a sensible epoch in the history of solid mass, from the north pole to the equator. Such a con- Asiatic commerce, and will, it is probable, always continue to tingency is a remote one; bat supposing it likely to occur within influence it—the discovery of a passage to the East Indies any reasonable period from the present time, still Russia, even if it round the Cape of Good Hope. It is true, that even at a very were able to conquer, could not retain Hindustan as the English ancient period there existed a communication by sea between retain it. Over the peninsula English law and order are begin the shores of Arabia and Hindustan ; and it is well known that ning to be diffused to enter the national character ; and we this intercourse subsisted, although with some vicissitudes, are beginning to get acquainted with those active mountain during the Macedonian and Roman periods, as well as the
Arabian and Venetian. But even at the period of its greatest in the silks, porcelain, and other commodities of Hindustan, prosperity, this traffic bore no proportion to the vast land com- became more extensive and practicable, and new paths were merce of Asia, through which by far the greater part of the opened to commercial industry and enterprise ; but, what was productions of the East consumed in Europe, was conveyed to more valuable still, foreign manners, unknown nations, extrathat quarter of the world by the ports of the Black and Mediter- ordinary productions, presented themselves in abundance to the
mind of Europeans, which, since the fall of the Roman empire, Guizot quotes, from M. Abel Rémusat, a curious illustration had been contined within too narrow a circle. Men began to of the intercourse which subsisted between Asia and Europe, attach some importance to the most beautiful, the most populous, just previous to the discovery of the passage to India by the and the most anciently civilised, of the four quarters of the Cape of Good Hope. “Many men of religious orders, Italian, world. They began to study the arts and the languages of the French, and Flemings, were charged with diplomatic missions to nations by whom it was inhabited; and there was even an intenthe court of the Great Khan. Mongols of distinction came to tion of establishing a professorship of the Tartar language in the Rome, Barcelona, Valentia, Lyons, Paris, London, and Nor- university of Paris. The accounts of travellers, strange and thampton ; and a Franciscan of the kingdom of Naples was exaggerated indeed, but soon discussed and cleared up, diffused archbishop of Pekin. His successor was a professor of theology more correct and varied notions of those distant regions. The in the university of Paris. But how many other people followed world seemed to open, as it were, towards the east; geography in the train of those personages, either as slaves, or attracted by made an immense stride ; and ardour for discovery became the the desire of profit, or led by curiosity into regions hitherto new form assumed by the European spirit of adventure. The idea unknown ! Chance has preserved the names of some of these. of another hemisphere, when our own came to be better known, The first envoy who visited the king of Hungary on the part of no longer seemed an improbable paradox; and it was when in the Tartars, was an Englishman, who had been banished from search of the Zipangu of Marco Polo, that Christopher Columbus his country for certain crimes, and who, after having wandered discovered the New World." orer Asia, at last entered into the service of the Moguls. A Bartholomew Diaz sailed past the Cape of Good Hope, which Flemish cordelier, in the heart of Tartary, fell in with a woman he called Cabo Tormentosa, from the storms with which he was of Metz, who had been carried off into Hungary; a Parisian assailed; and Vasco de Gama, sailing in his track, landed on the goldsmith, and a young man from the neighbourhood of Rouen, western coast of the peninsula of Hindustan. The nations of who had been at the taking of Belgrade. In the same country, Europe rushed to share with the Portuguese the advantages of also, he fell in with Russians, Hungarians, and Flemings. A the newly discovered channel of commerce. “ A total change singer called Robert, after having travelled through Eastern Asia, ensued when the Europeans had discovered a way to the East returned to end his days in the cathedral of Chartres. A Tartar Indies round Africa. Europe no longer received the commowas a furnisher of helmets in the armies of Philip the Fair. dities required through the accustomed channel of central Asia, Jean de Plancarpin fell in, near Gayouk, with a Russian gentle- but obtained them direct from the southern coasts of that conman, and who acted as an interpreter ; and many merchants of tinent, (particularly those of Hindustan,) which from that time Breslau, Poland, and Austria, accompanied him in his journey necessarily became the principal seats of commerce. In coninto Tartary. Others returned with him through Russia ; they sequence, a large proportion of the internal commerce of the were Genoese, Pisans, and Venetians. Two Venetian merchants, country became attracted to the situations frequented by the whom chance had brought to Bokhara, followed a Mongol European fleets, which were thus rendered the marts for the ambassador sent by Houlogou to Kublai Khan. They remained productions required in the west. Nevertheless, the commerce many years in China and Tartary, returned with letters from of the interior continued to maintain itself, as long as the throne the great Khan to the Pope, and afterwards went back to the of the Persians and Mongols was occupied by princes who, with Khan, taking with them the son of one of their number, the the love of conquest, possessed some relish for the arts of celebrated Marco Polo, and once more left the court of Kublai peace, and sufficient power to assure the safety of individuals Khan to return to Venice. Travels of this nature were not less within their empire. The iron despotism of the Turks, the frequent in the following century. It may well be supposed anarchy of Persia, and the lawless inroads of the Afghans and that those travels of which the memory is preserved, form but Mahrattas, on the north of Hindustan, first caused the almost a small part of those which were undertaken ; and there were utter ruin of the commer of central Asia, and converted into in those days many more people, who were able to perform deserts the flourishing countries on the banks of the Euphrates those long journeys than to write accounts of them. Many of and Indus; where the ruins of what were once royal cities are those adventurers must have remained and died in the countries the only records of their former magnificence." they went to visit. Others returned home as obscure as before, This introductory view will enable the reader better to follow but having their imaginations full of the things they had seen, a sketch of the rise and progress of the English power in India, relating them in their families, with much exaggeration, no with other collateral subjects, which we propose introducing doubt ; but leaving behind them, among many ridiculous fables, from time to time. useful recollections and traditions capable of bearing fruit. Thus, in Germany, Italy, and Florence, in the monasteries, among the nobility, and even down to the lowest classes of
Several men of science have died in a scientific manner. Haller, the society, there were deposited many precious seeds, destined to poet, philosopher, and physician, beheld his end approach with the utmost bad at a somewhat later period. All these unknown travellers, composure. He kept feeling his pulse to the last moment, and when he
found that life was almost gone, he turned to his brother physician, observ. carrying the arts of their own country into distant regions, ing, “ My friend, the artery ceases to beat," and almost instantly expired. brought back other pieces of knowledge not less precious, and, The same remarkable circumstance had occurred to the great Harvey; without being aware of it, made exchanges more advantageous ing to its close, *as if,” says Dr. Wilson, in the oration spoken a few days
he kept making observations on the state of his pulse when life was drawthan those of commerce. By these means, not only the traffic after the cvent, that he who had taught us the beginning of life, might
himself, at his departing from it, become acquainted with those of * Heeren's Researches.
death."-D'Israeli, Curiosities of Literature.
DEATHS OF SCIENTIFIC MEN.
VALUE OF LITERARY LABOUR. Centries or wooden frames are put under the arches of a bridge to remain Sterne, when he had finished his first and second volume of Tristram no longer than till the latter are consolidated. Even so, pleasures are the Shandy, offered them to a bookseller at York for fifty pounds, but was devil's scaffolding to build a habit upon ;-that formed and steady, the refused; he came to town with his MSS., and he and Robert Dodsley agreed pleasures are sent for fire-wood, and the hell begins in this life.- Omniana,
in a manner of which neither repented. The Rosciad, with all its merits, 342.
lay for a considerable time in a dormant state, till Churchill and his A HINT TO PUNSTERS.
publisher became impatient, and almost hopeless of success. Bum's Let not thy laughter handsell thy own jest, lest whilst thou laugh at it Justice was disposed of by its author, who was weary of soliciting bookothers laugh at thee, neither tell it often to the same hearers, lest thou be sellers to purchase the MS., for a trifle, and which now yields an annual thought forgetful or barren. There is no sweetness in a cabbage twice income. Collins burnt his odes before the door of his publisher. sod, or a tale twice told.-Quarles' Enchyridion.
A BRACE OF AMBASSADORS. IGNORANCE THE GREATEST OF ALL INFIRMITIES.
Each having an individual will to consult, character to establish, and So long as thou art ignorant be not ashamed to learn; he that is so
interest to promote, you may as well look for unanimity and concord fondly modest not to acknowledge his own defects of knowledge shall in between two lovers with one mistress, two dogs with one bone, or two time be so fondly impudent as to justify his own ignorance. Ignorance naked rogues with one pair of breeches.-Knickerbocker. is the greatest of all infirmities, and, justified, the greatest of all follies. -Quarles.
DELAYS ARE DANGEROUS.
He was a wise man that said “Delay hath undone many for the other Magazine day is a sort of monthly era in the history of a London book- world: Haste hath undone more for this. Time well managed saves all seller. The orders for the forthcoming Numbers of the various periodicals in both." Tempus mea possessio, tempus ager est-time is my wealth, which he is in the habit of receiving for some days previously, keep it con- time is the field I cultivate, was the admirable motto of an ancient sage.stantly in his mind's eye ; and when it does arrive, the great contest Lloyd's State Works. among the trade is, who shall be able to supply their customers earliest.
LIFE. Magazine day can only be said fairly to commence about half past nine Life is divided into three terms: that which was, which is, and which o'clock, and before twelve you will see the various periodicals in the will be. Let us learn from the past to profit by the present, and from the windows of every retail bookseller throughout the length and breadth of the present to live better for the future. metropolis. Perhaps in no other instance, that of newspapers alone excepted, is an article so rapidly circulated over town as periodical litera
NAPOLEON'S AMBITION. ture on that day.-Travels in Town, by the Author of " Random Recollec- There is something as great in Napoleon's struggles after a defeat, as in tions."
his exultation after victory. The same wearing ambition, the same conFEMALE ATTACHMENT.
sciousness that he was never made for the restraints of ordinary laws, Women are formed for attachment. Their gratitude is unimpeachable.
strike one as the absorbing feelings of his soul. He could not, and he Their love is an unceasing fountain of delight to the man who has once
would not, descend to the level of common men. Amid the snows of the attained it and knows how to deserve it. But that very keenness of sensi- north, which had become the winding-sheet of half his army, he could not bility, which, if well cultivated, would prove the source of your highest help meditating schemes of conquest and of government. Nothing short enjoyment, may grow to bitterness and wormwood if you fail to attend to of the sceptre of Europe would satisfy him. This all-grasping thirst for it, or abuse it.
empire, which prompted him to many a triumph, proved now the very
cause of his downfall. On his return from Russia he might with ease WISDOM. Wisdom to a fox, who, after long hunting, will at last cost you the
have settled down, the Emperor of France, and sat securely, by amusing
the full-grown children of that mercurial nation by fêtes, and reviews, pains to dig out. 'Tis a cheese, which, by how much the richer, has the thicker, the homelier, and the coarser coat; and whereof, to a judicious
and swelling epithets. But this was no fame. He must make another
dash at Europe. He did so, and, like a too-daring eagle, he was smitten palate, the maggots are the best. 'Tis a sack posset, wherein the deeper by the thunderbolt, and pinned to a desert rock.- Fraser's Magazine. you go, you will find it the sweeter. But then, lastly, 'tis a nut, which, unless you choose with judgment, may cost you a tooth, and pay you
UP AND DOWN. with nothing but a worm.-Swift.
The Cardinal de Richelieu, when increasing every day in power, met, CONVERSATION.
coming down the steps of the Louvre, the Duke d’Espernon, who had forThe art of conversation is a rare acquirement, for it is an acquirement merly been the principal favourite of the king. *• What news above of great care and skill, as well as of native faculty; and they who have
there, my lord duke?" asked he. “ None," answered the other, "except genius, knowledge, and eloquence, very frequently want it.-Sir E. Brydges'
you are coming up and I am going down.” Recollections.
VALUE OF TIME.
The difference of rising every morning at six and eight, in the course Of the great “Brandreth Pills," there is said to go forth weekly from his of forty years amounts to upwards of 29,000, hours, or three years, one central depot, a ton weight. Such undoubting confidence in their efficacy
hundred and twenty-six days, six hours; so that it is just the same as if was a mystery to us, till we met incidentally with the logical demonstra- ten years of life were to be added, of which we might command eight tion with which they go wrapt up, and in which they are doubtless swal
hours every day for the cultivation of our minds or the despatch of lowed. It is as follows:-" What is it that we call the constitution ? Is
business. not the constitution that which constitutes ? and that which constitutes
EATING. is the blood. There is then but one disease impurity of blood. Now Every animal eats as much as it can procure, and as much as it can does not Nature, when she wishes to become purified, put her elements hold. A cow eats but to sleep, and sleeps but to eat; and, not content into commotion? It is the principle of commotion, then, that purifies. with eating all day long, “ twice it slays the slain," and eats its dinner Ought not man then to copy Nature ? And do not the Brandreth Pills o'er again. A whale swallows ten millions of living shrimps at a draught; take away the bad humours from the blood, and leave the good ? Cer. a nursling canary bird eats its own bulk in a day; and a caterpillar eats tainly they do. (!!) Pill, price 25 Cents the box." Such is the precious five hundred times its weight before it lies down to rise a butterfly. The logic by which the uneducated reasoning mind of the multitude is mite and the maggot eat the very world in which they live-they nestle governed by state quacks as well as medical ones. The nostrums of both and build in their roast beef; and the hyena, for want of better, eats himare of the same stamp, false logic.-Now York Review.
self. Yet a maggot has not the gout, and a whale is not subject to sciatica.
Nor does Captain Lyon inform us that an Esquimaux is troubled with the A PLEASANT MEMENTO MORI.
tooth-ache, dyspepsia, or hysterics, though he eats ten pounds of seal, and Luther, after he had successfully opposed the pope, and was admired by
drinks a gallon of oil at a meal, and though his meal lasts as long as his all the world as the invincible champion of the true Christian faith, not
meat. But if eating is to produce diseases, which of all the nosology long before his death, sent a fair glass to his friend Dr. Jonas Glass, and therewith the following verses :
would be absent from the carcase of Captain Cochrane's Siberian friend,
who ate forty pounds of meat, with twenty of rice porridge, at a sitting? “ Dat vitrum Vitro Jonæ vitrum ipse Lutherus, Se similem ut fragili noscat uterque vitro."
SORROW. “ Luther a glass, to Jonas Glass, a glass doth send,
Sorrow is a kind of rust of the soul which every new idea contributes in That both may know ourselves to be but glass, my friend." its passage to scour away. It is the putrefaction of stagnant grief, and is
Luth. Colloq. remedied by exercise and motion.-Johnson. A LITTLE KNOWLEDGE IS A DANGEROUS THING.
ALLEVIATION OF SORROW. Memory indiscriminately loaded is a very foolish thing; and knowledge To deep sorrow, and the constant presence of the ghost of past injustice, wrongly applied is, perhaps, worse than ignorance. No one ought to learn more than he can digest, for instead of augmenting what he already knew, occupation.-Sir E. Brydges' Recollections.
how pleasant is the distraction of the images of crowded cities, and gentle it will only confound it. A little correct knowledge is better than a multitudinous mass of loose ideas and inaccurate facts-Sir Egerton Brydges' London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER Recollections of Foreign Travels.
Dublin : CURRY & Co.- Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.