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1 Seaman's Schoolmaster £2 8 0 per month. THE BRITISH NAVY.

1 Master at Arms

2 8 I Ship's Cook

2 13 6 THIRD ARTICLE.-CLASSIFICATION, WAGES, MESSING OF THE

2 Ship’s Corporals

2 3 0 OFFICERS AND CREW OF A SEVENTY-FOUR GUN SHIP.

] Captain's Coxswain

2. 3 0 “ Hearts of oak are our ships,

9 Quarter Masters

2 3 0 Jolly tars are our men."

3 Gunner's Mates

2 3 0 6 Boatswain's Mates

2 3 0 The total number of persons comprising the crew, or comple

3 Captains of the Forecastle

3 0 ment, (as it is called,) of a seventy-four gun ship, amount, in time 1 Captain of the Hold

2 3 0 1 Coxswain of the Launch

2 3 of war, to 650 : in peace, the company is one hundred less ; the

| Sail-maker

2 8 reduction being made in the number of seamen: the officers and

1 Rope-maker

2 8 0 petty officers in each class are the same in peace and war.

2 Carpenter's Mates *

2 8 0 The following is the classification, with the rate of pay to each. 1 Caulker

2 0 We shall specify their particular duties hereafter.

1 Armourer

2 8 0
1 Captain
£46 0 8 per month.

The above are called “First-class Petty Officers before the Mast." 6 Lieutenants*

9 4 0

They mess indiscriminately amongst the crew, with the exception 1 Master

11 10 0

of the first three, who have a screened birth on the lower deck. 1 Chaplain

12 5 4
Surgeon +
14 0 0

3 Captains of the Foretop £l 190 per month.
1 Purser
7 0 0
3 Captains of the Maintop

I 190
1 Naval Instructor I
4 14 0
3 Captains of the Mast

1 19 0

3 Captains of the After-guard 1 19 0 The captain maintains an establishment of his own: all the 1 Yeoman of the Signals

1 190 others included in the above enumeration, together with the officers 1 Coxswain of the Pinnace

1 19 0 of royal marines, are called “Wardroom Officers," and they mess

1 Sailmaker's Mate

1 19 0 1 Caulker's Mate

2 3 0 in the centre of a room so styled, on each side of which are their

2 Armourer's Mates

2 3 0 respective cabins for sleeping.

I Cooper

2 3 0 1 Gunner

£6 4 8 per month. The above are called “Second-class Petty Officers.”
1 Boatswain

6 4 8
20 Gunner's Crew

£1 16 0 per month. I Carpenter §

6 4 8
14 Carpenter's Crew

1 16 0 These are called the "Warrant Officers :" each has a separate

2 Sailmaker's Crew

1 16 0 2 Cooper's Crew

1 16 0 cabin in the fore-part of the ship, in the neighbourhood of his store

3 Yeomen of Store-rooms

1 14 0 room, and each has a boy to attend upon him.

2 Cook's Mates

1 6 0 Sixteen mates and midshipmen, in whatever proportion the

1 Barber

1 6 0 1 Purser's Steward

1 14 captain may desire, but generally as follows:

I Captain's Steward

1 14 0 12 Mates £3 18 8 per month. 1 Captain's Cook

1 14 0
4 Midshipmen

2 8 0
1 Ward-room Steward

1 14 0
1 Second Master

5 94
1 Ward-room Cook

1 14 0
2 Master's Assistants

3 11 0
1 Steward's Mate

1 3 0
5 Volunteers of the first class 1 2 0

10 Boys of the first Class

0 14 3 2 Assistant Surgeons

9 4 (0)

14 Boys of the second Class 0 12 9 1 Clerk

4 6 4

To these (including 125 marines) are added as many sailors as These are called the “ Gentlemen ;” and they either mess toge- will make up the number of the crew to 650. The sailors are rated ther in the gun-room, || or in two divisions, in berths (rooms) on

able, ordinary, or landmen, according to their ability. The able each side of the orlop-deck, 1 in that part called the “cockpit.”

seamen, denominated A.B.'s, have 34s. per month, and are quali

fied to perform every part of a seaman's duty. The ordinaries are The first or senior lieutenant, if he has held that rank seven years half seamen, who do not profess to steer, heave the lead, &c.; has 11l. 108. per month When a commander is on board, his puy is their pay is 26s. per month : and the landmen are persons who 234. 08. 4d. per month. When the surgeon has served six years in that rank, he obtains an

have only been a trip or two to sea, and not reared as mariners ; increase of pay of ls. per day up to ten years; from ten to twenty years, their pay being 23s. per month. It is usual, however, for ships of he has 14s. per day; and after twenty years' service, 188. per day. The naval instructor bas, besides, a bounty of 301., and 5l. per annum

this rate to carry considerably more boys than the number speci. from each of his pupils, which is deducted from their pay.

fied in the scale, particularly boys of the first class, from seventeen The carpenter is allowed 78. per month additional for tools. The gun-room is situated under the ward-room, and the ward-room

to twenty years of age; as they grow up, they are rated landmen, under the captain's cabin, which is under the poop. These are tiers (or floors) of rooms lighted from the stern windows and side-ports.

H. M. S. Victory, (called the larboard berth,) the heroic Nelson breathed & The orlop deck is immediately bencath the lower tier of guns, and his last at Trafalgar. The spot (as well as that on which he fell) denoted appropriated to the stowage of the cables, and also to various store-rooms. by a brass mark on the quarter-deck, is eagerly inquired after by the To that portion known as the cockpit the men wounded in battle are car. visitors to that ship at Portsmouth. ried to the surgeon. In the midshipman's berth on the left-hand side of * The carpenter's mates have 78. per month additional for tools.

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VOL. I.

L

Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars,

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and afterwards ordinaries; but few attain to the rating of A.B. Sufficient space is left upon this certificate (which is of doubled who have not been brought up to the sea from childhood.

parehment, and inclosed in a tin case) to enter the names of any There is no limitation as to the number of sailors in each class, other ships in which the man has served; and an inspection of the so, of course, every commander endeavours to obtain as great a above will show that the items respecting Revenge have been proportion of A.B.'s as possible ; and upon his success in this re- taken from his oral testimony. In fact, at the period of his serspect depends the question of whether the ship is well or ill manned. vice in that ship, these forms (which were introduced not long

It is by no means necessary, however, that the whole of a ship's since, by the late Vice-Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm,) did not crew shall be able seamen, because many of the duties can be per- exist. formed very well by ordinaries, and even landmen. Boys are The reverse of the certificate contains a very minute description objectionable in ships of war, because the navy is not a good school of the man's person; such as age, stature, complexion, colour of to train them to seamanship; while they increase the number, and hair and eyes, marks, wounds or scars ; also his place of birth are equally expensive to maintain, (the only saving being in the and usual residence; and if he has been discharged or invalided on difference of wages,) they add but little to the physical strength account of any complaint or physical defect, such cause is noted of the crew.

thereon. The party of marines consist of

When the officer has satisfied himself as to the man's character 1 Captain *

£14 14

0 per month. and ability, he is handed over to the surgeon, by whom he is re1 First Lieutenant +

9 20

quired to strip, in order that he might undergo a minute inspec1 Second Lieutenant

7 7 0 3 Serjeants I

tion as to his physical condition. If any defects, however trifling,

1 3 Corporals $

17 5

appear, or if he is more than forty-five years of age, he is at once 2 Fifers

3 4

rejected; but if passed by the doctor, he is entered on the books, 114 Privates ||

0 19 5

and the clerk takes charge of his certificate, which is returned to The officers, warrant officers, young gentlemen, some of the him, filled up with the date of his servitude and the character he petty officers, and the marines, are got together within a few days has acquired—such as good," "very good," "excellent," &c., after the pendant is hoisted; he seamen are entered as they attested by his captain, and when discharged. present themselves on board, and also at the rendezvous on Seamen, owing to their habitual carelessness, very often lose Tower-hill, in London, which is always open for the reception their certificates ; in which case, on giving them new ones, it is of seamen who volunteer for a particular ship or for general ser- usual to take down their statement as to the ships they have already vices. Sometimes houses are also opened in the large seaports ; served in. As a register is made from the ship’s books of every but this is rarely necessary, except when an increase is made to man's service, and preserved in the archives of the proper departthe number of men employed; for the generality of seamen, when ment at Somerset House, his claim for pension does not suffer by discharged from one ship, find their way to another, preferring the loss of his certificate. the treatment and comforts of the naval service to the usage they

As soon as a candidate is accepted, he is placed in the starboard encounter in merchant vessels.

or larboard watch, and some station in the ship assigned him. He When a volunteer presents himself

, he is questioned by the is at liberty to choose his own messmates, and the messes are commanding officer as to his qualifications in seamanship. If he formed of parties of twelve in each. Having made his choice, he can has served his apprenticeship in the regular manner, he is at once

only change his mess once a month. This regulation is necessary to presumed to be quite capable of an able seaman's duty, and ob- prevent trouble and confusion in the distribution of provisions. It tains the rating of A.B. Good men generally stipulate, however, is desirable that one or more of the petty officers should belong to for petty officers' ratings ; but these are reserved as long as possi- each mess, but the selection of messmates is seldom interfered ble, for the rigging of the ship affords sufficient test by which to

with by the officers. The mess tables are placed between the guos determine who are the best entitled to them.

on the lower deck; the marines occupying those next the gunIf a man has served in the navy before, he produces his certi

The seamen's tables are from thence forward. ficate, of which the following is the form ; and by this his charac,

In most vessels of the class we are describing, the whole of ter and capability are ascertained.

those enumerated as the “Gentlemen” mess together in the gun

room. They usually elect the clerk, or one of the oldest of the Date of Entry in the Service. His first Ship No. in her,

mates, "caterer;" and, the ship's allowance of provisions being Benj. Backstay.

Revenge.

ample, a small contribution in aid thereof enables them to support

a very good table, little inferior indeed to that of the ward-room. Ship's No. Rating. Entry. Dis

Conduct Captain's

The usual subscription is about 25s. per month,* and this is apcharge.

Signature.

plied to procure the necessary cooking utensils, crockery, glass, Revenge Don't Ordin.

| Capt. Ilillier &c. &c., as well as vegetables, poultry, white sugar, condiments, know.

Mackey

and various other articles not included in the ship's allowance. The Portland 193

A. B.
30 May, 30 May, 3

midshipmen are not permitted to carry live stock to sea, and there-
76
17 June, 17 July, 1 1 Very

fore must put up with salt meat, exceptin harbour; but in every other good

respect a provident caterer will manage, with the above subscription, * If a brevet major, 171. 108. per month.

to maintain a comfortable mess. The oldsters, such as the mates, After seven years, 101, 108. per month.

second master, assistant surgeons, and some of the midshipmen, # 'Colour serjeants, 21. 148. 1d. per month. § After fourteen years' service, 11. 12s. Id. per month ; and (if enlisted

take their allowance of grog and wine, and also appropriate the prior to 14th January, 1823,) from seven to fourteen years, 11. Os. 9d. per youngsters' share, assuring them it is not good for their health.

| After fourteen years' service, 1l. 48. 1d.; and (if enlisted prior to January 24, 1823,) fruin seven to fourteen years, 11. 1$. 90.

* In some ships the mess-subscription is more, and there is always an Men who enter for general service are available for any ship or station

entrance (generally five pounds,) which is returned to a member leaving to whereon required.

join another ship.

room.

NAME,

1830.

Don't knou.

1 Year.
| Month.
| Day.

Name.

1830

Jan.

1833

Good

D. Price.

1834

1837

Snaké

A. B.

Alexander

Milne.

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In barbour, it is also usual for these oldsters to drink their wine, duty, which from thenceforth was paid, as is usual with the public, which they are enabled to procure free of duty. They have a in the purchase of their wine. This allowance is a liberal one; it steady man appointed to act as steward; and he has a cook, and considerably exceeds the duty of all wine consumed, and the excess perhaps a marine, to assist him. The meals in the gun-room makes a handsome item in addition to the mess-fund. Moreover, are served at the same time as the ship's company generally; the as many regiments are serving abroad, where no duties exist upon hour of breakfast being eight o'clock, dinner at noon.

wine, the whole of the allowance is so appropriated. It is The "Officers" mess in the ward-room, and maintain a greater strange that this indulgence has not been extended to naval profusion and variety on their mess-table, at sea particularly, officers, more particularly as they labour under other disadvanowing to their being permitted to carry live stock-sheep, pigs, tages which do not apply to their military brethren ; the captain and poultry. The subscription is generally about 45s. per month,* particularly, who, by the customs of the service, maintains at his but this is independent of wine, which is supplied duty free. individual expense a table for the reception of several of his officers Members of the ward-room mess have the option of taking their every day; whilst the colonel of a regiment has no such obligation, wine or not; the allowance to those who do is half a bottle, and his mess expenses being little more than the youngest ensign's. if they require an extra quantity, it is charged to such as remain In our next we shall describe the routine of the captain's estaat table at a regulated price.

blishment. One, sometimes two, gentlemen from the gun-room are invited daily to dinner in the ward-room, and the guest is always placed at the left hand of the president, and treated with marked attention.

ROBERT BURNS. In harbour, to avoid the inconvenience of having strangers conti

What bird in beauty, flight, or song nually on board, one day in the week (generally Thursday) is set

Can with the bard compare, apart for the purpose ; and on this day strangers from the shore or

Who sang as sweet, and soar'd as strong from other ships are invited, and better fare than ordinary pro

As ever child of air? vided. The purser or one of the marine officers is generally appointed caterer of the ward-room mess; and the usual dinner-hour

His plume, his note, his form, could Burns at sea is two or half-past two o'clock, when the members are as

For whim or pleasure change :

He was not one but all by turns, sembled by the drum and fife to the tune of “The Roast Beef of

With transmigration strange. Old England." Naval messes cannot make a display equal to the messes of regiments; because not only are the officers subject to

The blackbird, oracle of spring, constant changes, but the ships are kept in commission and the

When flow'd his moral lay; members held together for comparatively short periods. For these The swallow, wheeling on the wing, reasons no great expense can be incurred for linen, glass, china,

Capriciously at play. table ornaments, or plate; the profusion of which, accumulated for years in military messes, gives to the establishments an appear

The humming-bird, from bloom to bloom, ance not inferior to what the wealthiest of our nobility can dis

Inhaling heavenly balm ;
The raven,

in the tempest's gloom, play. In ships of war, every officer is expected to provide a couple

The halcyon, in the calm. of silver spoons and forks, and these form the whole of the mess plate ; each member also furnishes a clean table-cloth in his turn,

In "Auld Kirk Alloway," the owl, and this is the amount of the mess-table linen. It would be desi.

At witching time of night; rable that some other articles of plate, &c. should be furnished by By “Bonnie Doon,” the earliest fowl the government, such being the case in foreign navies, the officers

That caroll'd to the light. paying a trifle for the use of them; for a handsome display has a very great effect on foreigners, and in this respect our ships suffer

He was the wren amidst the grove, in comparison with those of rival nations.

When in his homely vein ;

At Bannockburn the bird of Jove, We have alluded to a subscription for wine, which is necessary,

With thunder in his train notwithstanding that each person on board is allowed a portion of wice, spirits, or beer, described in the scheme; but the ship’s The woodlark, in his mournful hours; allowance is never produced at the ward-room table: that, with

The goldfinch, in his mirth ; other articles of provisions not drawn from the purser, being paid

The thrush, a spendtbrift of his powers, for at a regulated price, and the assets thrown into the mess-fund.

Enrapturing heaven and earth. In fact, any person on board is at liberty to leave whatever portion

The in majesty and grace, of bis allowance he thinks proper undrawn, and receive payment

Contemplative and still;
But roused, -

-no falcon, in the chase, There is another matter in which naval messes suffer in compari

Could, like his satire, kill. son with the military. By long-established regulation, the officers of the navy and army are allowed their wine duty-free. When the

The linnet, in simplicity, article is purchased from a wine-merchant, he becomes entitled

In tenderness the dove; to the drawback, upon the production of an officer's certificate :

But more than all besides was he but this practice was found to be attended with inconvenience on

The nightingale in love ! shore

, and some years back, his late Majesty, George the Fourth, assigned a certain sum per annum to each regimental mess, and to

Oh! had he never stoop'd to shame,

Nor lent a charm to vice, the engineers, artillery, and marines, in compensation for the How had devotion lored to name

That bird of paradise ! * Entrance ten guineas, returned as in the gun-room mess.

JAMES MONTGOMERY. 12

swan,

in lieu.

THE SHIPWRECKED COASTER.

seemed able to abide the fiercest "pelting of the pitiless storm."

He had so often encountered the violence of the elements, and Who can stand before His cold ?

had so often conquered them by the simple energy of a vigorous Psalm cxlvii, 17.

constitution, that he took little care to guard himself against THERE are few classes of men more exposed to hardships and them. Reckless of what was to come, if he were sufficiently clad disaster, than those employed in the coasting trade of New and armed for the present state of winds and seas, he thought not England, particularly in the winter season. So great are their of what might be their condition, or his necessities for meeting risks of property and life, at that time of the year, that it is the them to-morrow. When, therefore, he felt a southerly wind and custom of many to dismantle their vessels and relinquish their a favouring tide, he launched out for his voyage, with no crew but employment till the spring ; although they can poorly afford this himself, his son Josiah, and John Smith, a seaman; little period of cessation from labour, and consequent loss of income. regardful that winter was still at its depth, and that an hour Among those engaged in conveying fuel from the forests of might produce the most perilous changes. Plymouth and Sandwich to the Boston market, there are some Thus prepared and manned, the Almira held on her way with who continue their business through the winter. But they incur a slow progress for several hours. The wind was changeful, but great hazards, and sometimes meet with most disastrous issues. continued to blow from the southerly quarter, till they had passed One of these events it is my present purpose to relate. The par- Monimet Point, a jutting headland about twelve miles from ticulars I have ascertained from eye-witnesses of a part of the Sandwich harbour, which makes out from the south-easterly side scene; and from one who was a personal partaker of the whole. of Plymouth, some miles into the sea. It is a high rocky pro. In the winter of 1826-7, the weather was uncom

commonly severe montory, dangerous to approach ; which interferes so much with for some weeks, during which the land was covered with snow, the passage of vessels from Sandwich to Boston, that, while comand the shores were encased in ice. It was a boisterous, cold pelled to avoid it, they yet go as near to it as safety will admit. and gloomy season. From my dwelling-house there was a plain Beyond this, on its north-westerly side, is a bay, at the bottom of view of the little harbour of Sandwich, in which the few vessels which is Plymouth harbour; a safe place when you are once employed in the business before named, shelter themselves, and within it; but so guarded with narrow isthmuses on the north receive their lading of wood to be conveyed to Boston. Some of and south as to render the entrance difficult, and, in tempestuous these were already dismantled for the winter; others were laden, weather, dangerous. They passed Monimet Point about teo and had been waiting a relaxation of the weather, in order to o'clock, and, having Plymouth light for a landmark, were work. effect a passage.

In that region a period of severe cold is com- ing slowly across the outer part of the bay; but under the dismonly succeeded by rain. The north-west wind which brings couragements of a dark night, a murky atmosphere, “a sky foul “ the cold out of the north,” gives place to a wind from a with clouds,” and a wind so varying, that no dependence could southerly point, which comes loaded with a copious vapour, and be placed on it for a moment. For some hours, they seemed to pours it down like a deluge. It so took place on the occasion to make no progress; and were rather waiting in hope for some which I refer. Rain from the south-east had continued for two change, than fearing one. The master himself was at the helm, or three days, accompanied with tempestuous wind and occasional Smith was walking to and fro upon the deck, occasionally adjustthunders and lightnings. It had dissolved much of the snow; ing a rope, or altering the position of a sail, and the younger but had filled the roads and low and level places with water. Ellis had lain down on a bench in the cabin. Suddenly the mas. The ground, being hard frozen, retained the water on its surface; ter's voice was beard, calling all hands in haste. His little crew and this, with the remaining snow half dissolved, rendered the hurried towards him, and looking towards the north-west they aspect of nature cheerless, and the moving from place to place saw a clear, bright, and cold sky, about half up from the horizon; uncomfortable. About noon, on the sixteenth of January, the the clouds were hastening away towards the south-east, as if to rain ceased, and the weather being comparatively warmer than it avoid some fearful enemy, and new stars were appearing at each had been, gave some prospect of a few days in which business successive moment in the northern and western region of the might be done.

heavens. In the afternoon of that day, perceiving that there were some Beautiful as this sight was, in the present circumstances it was dry places on which the foot might be safely set, I embraced the only appalling. It indicated a rapid change to severe cold, the opportunity to walk forth ; glad to inhale the fresh air and meet

consequences of which must be terrible. All was immediately the faces of men, after having been so long confined by the wea- bustle and agitation with the scanty crew. The first impulse was ther. The wind was comparatively soft, but gusty; the air was run into Plymouth for shelter. But unfortunately that loaded with vapours, and, in the higher regions, clouds of all harbour lay directly in the eye of the wind, and there was little shapes and varying densities, were seen rolling over each other in encouragement that they could make their way into it. They different directions, as if obeying no guidance of the wind, but tacked once or twice, in hopes to attain the entrance, but having pursuing each an inward impulse of its own.

little sea-room, and the wind becoming every moment more vio. While doubting, for a moment, which way to walk, I beheld, lent, and the cold more severe, they were constantly foiled; till on an eminence, pot far distant, a solitary individual, with bis in one of the sudden motions of the vessel, coming with disadface towards the harbour, seeming to be deeply intent on some

vantage to the wind, the main boom was wrenched from the mast. thing there taking place. An impulse of curi moved The halyards were immediately let go, and the mainsail came approach him, when I discovered him to be an old experienced down, crashing and crackling as it fell, for it had already been master in the coasting trade.

converted to a sheet of ice. To furl it, or even to gather it up, I accosted him in the customary style of salutation, but he

was impossible. It lay a cumbrous ruin on the deck, and partly answered me not a word,

in the sea; a burden and a hindrance on all their subsequent His eye was intently following the motions of a small schooner, loaded with wood, which was slowly

operations. moving toward the mouth of the harbour. My own eye pursued

Their next resource was to lay the vessel to the wind. This the motion of his, till the Almira (the schooner's name) had they effected by bracing their frozen fore-sail fore and aft, and rounded the point, forming the west side of the harbour, and loosing the jib. It was not in their power to haul it down. Its hoisting her sails, stood towards the north. As soon as he saw

motion in the wind soon cracked its covering of ice, and in so this, he lifted his hands, and exclaimed, “He has gone out of this doing, rent the substance of the sail itself. It was subsequently harbour, and he will never come into it again!" I remarked that

torn in pieces. The vessel now obeyed her helm, came up to the the wind was southerly, and of course fair. But he paid no

wind, and so remained. attention to the remark. He again lifted his hands, repeated his While engaged in these operations, the anxious seamen had exclamation, and, with a sorrowful countenance, departed. little opportunity to observe the heavens. But when they now

I stood awhile observing the progress of the schooner. It was looked up, behold, the whole sky was swept clear of clouds, as if not very rapid. The wind was vacillating, and shifting round by magic! The stars shone with unusual brilliancy. The moon about her, as if uncertain in what direction to establish itself; had risen before the change of the wind, but had been invisible and the vessel seemed as if conscious of the uncertainty of the

on account of the density of the clouds. She now appeared in wind, and therefore, undecided as to the position of her sails and nearly full-orbed lustre. But moon and stars seemed to unite in rudder.

shedding that stern brightness which silvers an ice rock, and apThe master of the Almira was Josiah Ellis, a man of between pears to increase its coldness. The brightness of the heavens fifty and sixty years of age. He was one whose gigantic frame was like the light of the countenance of a hard philosopher's un

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gracious deity,-clear, serene, and chilling cold. They turned guidance, turned nearly broadside to the wind, and floated rapidly towards the wind, and it breathed upon their faces cuttingly along, as if seeking the spot on which it might be wrecked. severe, charged not only with the coldness of the region whence They passed the three harbours of Sandwich, that of Barnstaple it came, but also with the frozen moisture of the atmosphere, and Yarmouth, either of which would have afforded them safe already converted into needles of ice.

shelter, could they have entered it. But to direct their course From the care of their vessel, they began to look to that of

was impossible. With hearts more and more chilled as they their persons. They had been wet with the moisture of the air, drifted by these places of refuge, which they could see, but could in the earlier part of the night, and drenched with the spray not reach, they floated onward to their fate. which the waves had dashed over them during their various From a portion of the town of Dennis, there makes out labours. This was now congealed upon them. Their hair and northerly into the sea a reef of rocks. On the westerly side o. garments were hung with icicles, or stiffened with frost, and they this, there is a sandy beach, on which a vessel of tolerable felt the nearer approach of that stern power which chills and strength might be cast without being destroyed; on the easterly freezes the heart. But, in looking for proper defences against side there is a cove, having a similar shore, which is a safe harbour this adversary of life, it was ascertained that the master had from a north-west wind. But the reef itself is dangerous. taken with him no garments, but such as were suited for the softer In the early part of the day, January seventeenth, an inhabitant weather in which he had sailed. The outer garments of the son of Dennis beheld from an eminence this ill-fated schooner, floating had been laid on the deck, and, in the confusion of the night, had down the bay, broadside towards the wind; her sails dismantled, gone overboard. Smith, likewise, had forgotten precaution, and covered with ice, gleaming like a spectre in the cold beams of a was wholly unprovided against a time like this. So that here winter's morning. He raised an alarm and hastened to the shore, were three men, in a small schooner, with most of their sails use.

where he was shortly joined by such of the inhabitants as the less encumbrances, spars and rigging covered with ice, themselves sudden emergency allowed to collect. Many were seamen themhalf frozen, exposed to the severest rigours of a winter's sky and selves; they knew the dangers and the hearts of seamen, and were winter's sea, and void of all clothing, save such as was suited for desirous to render such assistance as they might. moderate weather on the land.

The strange vessel was seen rapidly approaching the reef of In this emergency, they sought the cabin, and with much diffi- rocks, before named. She was so near, that those on land could culty succeeded in lighting a fire; over which they hovered till look on board, but they saw no man. They could perceive nothing vital warmth was in some measure restored. On returning to the but the frozen mass of the disordered sails; the ropes encrusted deck, they found their perils fearfully increasing. The dampness with ice, to thrice their proper size, and objects so mingled in conand the spray which had stiffened and loaded their hair and gar. | fusion, and so heaped over with ice, that even experienced eyes ments, had in like manner congealed in great quantities about could not distinguish whether these were frozen human beings, or the rigging, and on the deck, and over the sails. The spray, as the common fixtures on a vessel's deck. Thinking, however, that it dashed over the vessel, froze wherever it struck; several inches there might be living men on board, who, if they could be roused, of ice had gathered on deck, small ropes had assumed the appeare might change the direction of the schooner, so as to avoid the apance of cables, and the folds of the shattered mainsail were nearly proaching death shock, they raised a shout, clear, shrill, and filled. The danger was imminent, that the accumulating weight alarming. Whether it was heard they knew not. But very soon, of the ice would sink the schooner; yet all means of relieving her the three men emerged from the cabin, and exhibited themselves from the increasing load were utterly out of their power.

on deck; shivering, half clad, meeting at every step a dashing It being now impossible either to proceed on the voyage, or to spray, frozen ere it fell, and exposed to a cutting wind, as if they gain shelter in Plymouth, there was no alternative but to endeavour to get back to their own harbour. It was difficult to make

all naked feeling, and raw life.' the heavy and encumbered vessel yield to her helm. As to starting å rope, the accumulated ice rendered it impossible

. round the rocks ; there's a safe harbour on the leeward side.

• Put up your helm,' exclaimed an aged master, ‘make sail, and Nevertheless, by persevering effort, they got her about; and as wind and tide set together that way, they cleared Monimet Point, Lest his words might not be heard, he addressed himself to their and came round into Barnstaple Bay once more. They were now

eyes; and by repeated motions, wavings, signs, and signals, well but a few miles from their own homes. Even in the moonlight, known to seamen, warned them of the instant danger, and pointed as they floated along, they could discern the land adjacent to the the direction in which they might avoid it. No movement on master's dwelling-house; and they earnestly longed for the lay, board was seen in consequence of this direction and these signals. in hopes that some of their friends might discover their condition, Ellis and his two men felt that such effort would be unavailing, and send them relief. It was a long, perilous, and wearisome and did not even attempt it. night. The cold continued increasing every hour.

The men It was a moment of thrilling interest to both spectators and sufwere so chilled by it, and so overcome with exertion, that, after ferers. The difference of a few rods, on either side, wonld have they had rounded the last-named point, they could make but little carried the vessel to safety and preserved the lives of the men. effort for preserving their ship. They beheld the ice accumulate the straight-forward course led to instant destruction. Yet that upon the deck, the rigging, and sails; they felt the vessel straight-forward course the schooner, with seeming obstinacy, purbecoming more and more unmanageable, and their own danger sued, as if drawn by mysterious fascination ; and hurried toward growing more imminent every moment; yet were wholly unable the rocks by a kind of invincible desire. Near and more near she to avert the peril, or hinder the increase of its cause.

It was

came, with her encumbered bulk, till she was lifted as a dead mass with them,

on a powerful wave, and thrown at full length upon the fatal ledge.
• As if the dead should feel

The men on board, when they felt the rising of their vessel for
The icy worm around them steal,

her last fatal plunge, clung instinctively to such fixtures as they
And shudder as the reptiles creep,

could grasp, and in solemn silence waited the event. In silence
To revel o'er their rotting sleep ;

they endured the shock of her striking; felt themselves covered
Without the power to scare away
The cold consumers of their clay.'

not now with spray, but with the partially frozen substance of the

waves themselves, which made a highway across the deck, filled Morning at last began to dawn. But in its first grey twilight the cabin, and left them no place of retreat, but the small portion they could only perceive that they had been swept by the land of the quarter abaft the binnacle, and a little space forward near the they desired, the home they loved. Yet not so far but that, in windlass. To the former place they retreated, as soon as they rethe dim distance, they could see a smoke from their chimney top, covered from the shock, and there they stood, drenched, shivering, reminding them of the dear objects of their affections, from whom and ready to perish ; expecting at every moment the fabric under they were thus fearfully separated, and between whose condition their feet to dissolve; and feeling their powers of life becoming and their own so dreadful a contrast existed. They looked less and less adequate to sustain the increasing intensity of cold. between themselves and the shore, saw the impossibility of re- “We will make an effort to save them;' said the agonised specceiving assistance from their friends; and abandoning their vessel tators of the scene. A boat was procured, and manned by a hardy to fate, sought only to save themselves from perishing of cold.

crew, resolved to risk their lives for the salvation of their imperilled, Their last remaining sail had now yielded to the violence of the although unknown fellow men. The surf ran heavy, and was comblast, and its accumulated burden of ice. It hung in shattered posed of that kind of ice-thickened substance, called technically and heavy remnants from the mast. The vessel, left to its own | sludge ; a substance much like floating snow. Through this she

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