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NEWSPAPERS.

The vesicle continues to increase for two days, and there is con- rage conveyed the whole distance every week. On the Dundee siderable redness round the part. On the eleventh day the redness and Newstyle line, the railway has increased the annual number begins to decrease, and the surface of the vesicle acquires a brown of travellers from 4000 to upwards of 50,000. Between Liver. colour. The lymph concretes and forms a brown scab, which dries, pool and Manchester, the number of passengers by the coaches contracts, blackens, and falls off about the twenty-first day ; leaving the railway alone.

was formerly 146,000 in the year; it is now more than 500,000 by a cicatrix, or mark, which is permanent, and which ought to be

Similar effects have been experienced in the United States, both about the size of a large split pea, circular, indented by five or six in the increase of travelling and in the rapidity and denseness with minute pits, and be a little depressed.

which the vicinity of railroads and of steam navigation has beIn conclusion, we would earnestly urge all parents to pay atten- come located and peopled. Hence the great stimulus which has tion to the vaccination of their children ; and there is no excuse for been given to the construction of railroads in that country: in the poor, as gratuitous vaccination is extensively performed. Let January, 1835, full 1690 miles of railway had already been com. the children be vaccinated between the third and fifth month, and pleted in the United States, at a cost of about 8,130,0001. sterling. at a time when they are in good health and free from any eruption of rapid communication. The former traffic between Brussels

The continent of Europe is also beginning to feel the influence on the skin, when their bowels are not disordered, and when they and Antwerp consisted of about 75,000 passengers per annum ; are not suffering from any irritation from teething.

the railroad has raised it to more than 1,200,000! Still the proThe failure of vaccination in particular cases can be traced to gress is comparatively slow. In Germany, however, there are a particular causes. “To do justice to the merits of vaccination, number of railroads in construction; one from Vienna to Prague, it ought to be performed by well-instructed and skilful surgeons,

which is advancing rapidly; another between Leipsic and Dres. who are able to discover whether there be any temporary ill pre-lation. In 1835 there were only about 100 steam-vessels employed

den ; and a third from Mannheim to Bâle, with others in specuvailing in the habit of the patient to be submitted to it, in the on the rivers and in the ports of France; and in the year 1836, form of a slight cutaneous eruption (for this will often render the the number was only slightly increased. The French government body unsusceptible, for a time, of effectual vaccination); and it possesses about 40 steam-vessels, used as packets. About the should be carefully observed whether the prevalence of any end of the year 1836, there were 4 steamers employed in the interepidemic disease may interfere with the success of the process ;

course between the ports of Denmark. In the ports of Sweden, for it has been remarked by several experienced vaccinators, that 27; Russia, 26 ; Prussia, only 3. Rostock had 1, Lubeck 2, the influenza of 1837 did make it necessary to repeat vaccination, Hamburgh 3, Amsterdam 3. Rotterdam had 26, from 75 to 100

tons burthen; they ply on the Rhine, between Rotterdam and more than once or twice, before it took effect."

Cologne. Antwerp and Ghent had only 3; Spain and Portugal, 4 ; Parents who are careless about vaccination are very culpable- Sardinia, 5; Tuscany, 1; Naples, 8; and Austria, 6. Great neglectful of their own interests, and that of society. By neg. Britain has about 1000 steam-vessels, and the United States lect or over-confidence, the small-pox might once more become perhaps about 600, many of which are of large capacity. a scourge, and, even in the 19th century, leave a memorial of its increased virulence sufficient to stamp its visit as that of a great plague. We have had a hint of this in the recent augmentation of By a recent parliamentary return, the number of stamps issued its influence in London, and throughout the country.

to periodicals in 1837, appears to be 53,496,207. The four-penny

stamp was reduced in 1836 ; the number of stamps issued during INFLUENCE OF STEAM AND RAILROADS.

that year being 35,576,056. The first year of the penny stamp

shows thus an increase of eighteen millions of stamps. Of The numbers that now go up and down the Thames in search this number, the London press took up about ten millions ; the of health, pleasure, or business, are certainly amazing. Upwards English provincial press, six millions; and the Scotch, nearly of 500,000 persons are conveyed annually by the steamers to

two millions. the short distances of Greenwich, and about 300,000 to Woolwich

There is no perceptible alteration on the Irish and Blackwall, independent of the tens or perhaps hundreds of press. The number of London periodicals taking out stamps in

1836 was 71, in 1837 it was 85; the English provincial press thousands conveyed to Gravesend, Herne-bay, Margate, Rams

appears, in 1836, to muster 194 periodicals; in 1837, the ingate, &c., and of considerably more than 1,000,000 who travel to

creased number of 237. The Scotch newspapers are set down at and from Greenwich by the railway. It is, perhaps, still more astonishing, that the land conveyances have nevertheless increased 54 and 65 ; the circulation rising from 2,654,438 to 4,123,330. with almost equal rapidity. Two coaches, running each twice

England. Scotland. Ireland. a-day, formed the only passenger conveyance between London and

Total. 1833

248

. 46. 75 . 369 Woolwich not longer than 30 years ago. The omnibuses alone

1836
265
54

78 now perform the journey 48 times per day, besides the numerous

397 1837 322

65 Fans and coaches which ply between Woolwich and Greenwich to

71

458 take passengers to and from the railway.

From the last return, up to the 30th of September, 1838, there The number of omnibuses in London, which is daily augment. appear to be 88 London periodicals taking out stamps, and coning, has not prevented the establishment and success of steamers suming upwards of thirty millions annually. One day during last continually plying between Westminster and London bridges, summer, 175,000 newspapers were put into the London Postand daily conveying many thousands of persons, although it is a

office, to be forwarded to the country. Contrast this with the contiguous and parallel line to one of the chief directions of the

statement made in the introduction to the first Number of that oninibus traffic.

most venerable of periodicals, the “ Gentleman's Magazine." From the metropolis, the influence is felt all over the country.

When Cave started the “Gentleman's Magazine,'' his intentions Only two generations back there were no means of reaching Lon

were of the humblest nature-merely to collect in a focus the best don

from Horsham, in Sussex, a distance of thirty-six miles, but results of what was then considered the amazing number of London on foot or on horseback. · Upwards of thirty coaches now pass periodicals. Thus, in the introduction to the first Number for through Horsham daily to and from London, besides post-chaises, January, 1731, it is said :private carriages, &c., while the traffic of goods exceeds 40,000

"Upon calculating the number of newspapers, 'tis found that (be, tons per annum. This change has been solely caused by the con

sides divers written accounts) no less than two hundred half-sheets struction of a good road.

per month are thrown from the press, only in London ; and about as The

Stockton and Darlington Railway was the first in England many printed elsewhere in the three kingdoms ; a considerable part of upon which locomotive steam-engines were used. On the Stock which constantly exhibit essays on various subjects for entertainment ; ton and Darlington road, the passengers conveyed amounted only and all the rest occasionally obligo their readers with matters of public to 4000 annually, previous.to the opening of the railway; they concern, communicated to the world by persons of capacity, through now exceed 16,000. The average number of passengers on the

their

means; so that they are become the chief channels of amusement Bolton railroad is now 2500 per week, although it did not pre

and intelligence. But then, being only loose papers, uncertainly scatviously amount to 300. The coaches running between Newcastle tered about, it often happens that many things deserving attention and Carlisle prior to the railway were only licensed to carry 343 contained in them are only seen by accident, and others not sufficiently persons per week, or both ways, 686 ; now 1596 are on the avec

published or preserved for universal benefit and information."

NUMBER OF NEWSPAPERS IN

Year.

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DIFFUSION OF THE SCRIPTURES.

tea plant might be cultivated with success in some districts of the Himalaya From the appual report of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge,

mountains: and while certain steps, under the auspices first of Lord William ast issued, it appears that 95,649 bibles, 87,496 testaments, 191,723 prayer

Bentinck, and afterwards of Lord Auckland, were being taken to introduce it, books, 10,069 psallers, 145,479 bound books, 2,222,652 tracts, have been sold this

whole forests of it were discovered in the Assam country, growing, as it were, year, making a total circulation of scriptural publications of 2,753,608.

The indigenously. The Assam country, our readers may be aware, lies to the

north of the Burman empire, and forms part of our late conquests. The tea income on the year amounts to only 83,1637. 14s. 5d., while the expenditure is stated at 85,1401, 3s. · The number of schools in connexion with the society

there produced has been duly prepared by persons from China, and several are 6,068 Sunday-schools, containing 438,230 scholars; 10,152 Sunday and day.

chests of it have been very recently received in this kingdom, and their conschools, in which are 514,150 scholars; and 704 infant schools, containing 43,730

lents have been found of a quality not at all inferior to that for which we bare scholars. Total schools, 16,224 ; and total number of scholars, 996,460.

hitherto been indebted to "the Celestial Empire."— Morning Chronicle.

REAL BENEVOLENCE. THE MANUFACTURE OF SHERRIES. At Xeres the old wines are kept in huge casks, not much inferior in size to There is an art in making a man happy which very few understand. It is the great lun of Heidelberg, called Modre butts ; and some of these old ladies not always by putting the hand into the pocket that we remove afflictions; contain wine that is one hundred and twenty years of age. It must, however, there must be something more-there must be advice, and labour, and activity be confessed that the plan adopted in keeping them up partakes somewhat of -We must bestir ourselves, leare our arm.chairs, throw off our slippers, and the nature of " une imposture delicate," since, whenever a gallon of wine is go abroad, if we would effectually serve our fellow-creatores. We must give taken from the oue hundred and twenty year old bult, it is replaced by a like our time, our tongue, and our presence, as well as our money; we must comquantity from the next in seniority, and so on with the rest; so that even the fort them in their sorrows, counsel them in their affairs ; stand between them very oldest wines in the store are daily undergoing a mixing process. It is thus and oppression; intercede, where intercession is needful ; persuade, where perfectly idle, when a customer writes for a “ ten year old" butt of sherry, to persuasion can be of avail, and lend them the authority of our countenance. expect to receive a wide which was grown that number of years previously. He The doing of all this revives that spring of action which misfortune is apt to will get a most excellent wine, however, which will probably be prepared for enfeeble ; and without which no man cun permanently prosper; it creates in him in the following manner :- Three-fourths of the butt will consist of a three the object of our bounty that confidence and emulation which produces the or four year old wine, to which a few gallons of Pajarete or Amontillado will happiest consequences. When to this active and effectual benevolence the be added to give the particular favour or colour required; and the remainder more prompt efficacy of money is added, how great and how lasting may not will be made up of various proportions of old wines, of different vintages; a dash the good be! Few, however, possess this quality of philanthropy: for it costs of braody being added, to prevent sea-sickness during the voyage. To calculate less to give a guinea than to give an hour.-Five Nights at $l. Albans. the age of this mixture, appears, at first sight, to involve a laborious arithmetical

THE WILL AND THE DEED. operation. But it is very simply done, by striking an average in the following manner :--The fond, we will suppose, is a four-years' old wine, with which figure The will to the deed—the inward principle to the outward act,-is as the we must, therefore, commence our calculations. To flavour and give age lo kernel to the shell ; but yet, in the first place, the shell is necessary for the this foundation, the hundred and twenty years' old 'madre' is made to contri- kemel, and that by which it is commonly known; and in the next place as the bute a gallon, which, being about the hundredth part of the proposed butt, dir- shell comes first and the kernel grows gradually and hardens within it, so it is fuses a year's maturity. into the composition. The centigenarian stock-butt with the moral principle in man. Legality precedes morality in erery indinext furnishes a quantity, which in the same way adds another year to its age. vidual, even as the Jewish dispensation preceded the Christian in the educaThe next in seniority supplies a proportion equivalent to a space of two years; tion of the world at large. and a fourth adds a similar period to its existence. So that, without going fur- The Will for the Deed. When may the will be taken for the deed? Then ther, we hare, 4+1+1+2+2=10, as clear as the sun at noon-day, or a demon- when the will is the obedience of the whole man; when the will is in fact the stration in Euclid-Newspaper paragraph.

deed, that is all the deed in our power. In every other case, it is bending the box IVY.

without shooting the arrow. The bird of paradise gleams on the lony branch, Ivy is one of the few shrubs which will bear without injury the smoke of

and the man takes aim, and draws the tough yew into a crescent with right and London, and this property renders it exceedingly valuable for street houses.

main, and lo! there is never an arrow on the string.- Coleridge. About London it is raised in immense quantities in pots, and trained to the

ANECDOTE OF MILTON. height of from six to twelve feet on stakes, so that at any season of the year a hedge may be formed of it, by training it over an iron railing, or wire fence, or

Milton, who liad been Latin secretary to Cromwell, and distinguished himself

by writing in defence of the king's death, seems to have anticipated the fate of wooden railing, or lattice work, or a naked wall covered with it, at an incredibly the regicides. When he found himself excluded from the act of indemnity, he short notice. One valuable use to which the ivy may be applied, in street houses in towns, is to form external framings to the windows instead of archi.

adopted the ingenious device of feigning himself to be dead, and ordered a pub.

lic funeral procession. To this, perhaps, he, in part, owed his escape ; for the traves. In the interminable lines of naked windows in the monotonous briek houses built about fifty years ago, which form the majority of the London streets

king, who was heartily fond of a joke, seemed to have approved of it in the preat the west-end of the town, the ivy affords a resource which any householder of

sent instance, and is said to have applauded the policy of Milton in eluding the taste may turn to very good account.

punishment of death, by a seasonable show of dying.-Cunningham's Great He has only to form projecting archi.

Britain, traves of wire to his windows, and to place a pot of ivy on his window-sill, or in

WHO IS RICH ENOUGH. a small balcony, at the base of each jamb, taking care to fix the pots securely, and to make a provision for supplying them regularly with water. In rooms,

He is rich who hath enough to be charitable; and it is hard to be so poor, ivy, when planted in boxes, and properly trained, may be made to form a rustic

that a noble mind may not find a way to this piece of goodness." He that screen, cither to soften the light, or io exclude a disagreeable view: and in very giveth to the poor leudeth to the Lord," There is more rhetoric in that one large drawing-rooms, plants in boxes or vases, trained on wire parasols, or other sentence, than in a library of sermons.—Sir T. Browne. overhanging framework, will form a rustic canopy for small groups of parties,

INSCRIPTION ON A PORTRAIT OF JAMES I. who may seat themselves under its shade, in the same manner as parties sit under orange-trees in the public rooms of Berlin, and other cities of the Con

Crowns have their compasse, length of dayes their date; tinent.—Loudon's Arboretum.

Triumphes their tombes, felicitie her fate ;

of more than earth can earth make none partaker, WRITING INK.

But knowledge makes the king most like his maker. The late Dr. Wollaston recommended the following mode of making ink.

Beloe's Anecdotes. Eight ounces of Aleppo galls, coarsely powdered; four ounces of gum-arabic ; four ounces of green vitriol ; a quarter of an ounce of cloves, also coarsely pow. dered. Pour two quarts of boiling water on the galls, and stir frequently till

[We cannot permit this, our first Number, to pass into the hands of cold: the next day pour of three pints and a quarter of the infusion. Dissolve the public without a brief observation. Such of our readers as may the gum-arabic in hot water, co make half a pint of mucilage, and mix this have perused our “ Preliminary Number," are, doubtless, acquainted thoroughly with the infusion. To this mixture then add the vitriol (previously with the general character of the motives and principles which actuate dissolved in hot water),'and the cloves. When poured of for use, care should us in starting and conducting the “ London SATURDAY JOURNAL." be taken uot to disturb the sediment.

But the objects indicated in that preliminary Number are not to be CULTIVATION AND MANUFACTURE OF TEA IN BRITISH INDIA.

accomplished in a week or a month. They are rather to be considered One of the most important discoveries connected with our commerce in the

as the animating principle of our periodical existence. Conscious of East has recently been made. It may end in the entire liberation of this country

the sincerity of our motives, we ask for a kind and sympathising from dependance upon China for tea, and if so, it will open new and grand fields

audience; and desire our friends to recollect, that if we appear occafor mercantile enterprise, and afford a fresh and inexhaustible source of wealth sionally to deal in generalitics, it is not because our own opinions are to this country, and prosperity to her East Indian possessions. It appears unfixed, but because we wish to come with acceptance amongst all from an official memorandum, just issued from the India Board, that the

classes of readers.] project of Sir Joseph Banks, in 1788, for introducing the cultivation of tea into British India, has been suddenly and unexpectedly accomplished. It was London : WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER thought by Dr. Wallick, of the Botanical garden near Calcutta, by Dr. Fal- AND Co. Dublin: CURRY AND Co.-Printed by BRADBURY AND Evans coner, of the Botanical garden at Seharunpore, and other authorities, that the Whitefriars,

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PROGRESSIVE INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY.

ether which, astronomers now tell us, pervades the universe; THERE is an anecdote recorded of a Frenchman, who, while he inflicts a wound on it, then it encounters that great ocean of

gradually it overthrows Paganism, and Paganism, as it dies, was resident in London, was told that there was a mob in the barbarism which overspread the Roman empire, and covered its streets. He therefore ran out, and mingling with the crowd, ruins, but still, like the salt of the ocean, its pervading and preeagerly asked every one around him, “Where is the mob, where serving influence can be traced and seen ; a misinterpretation of a is the mob?” Something like this is performed frequently by Scripture caused that extraordinary commotion all over Europe at ourselves, when we are told that we are living in society which is the end of the tenth century, by which the minds of men were in a state of revolution. We rub our eyes, and looking around us, ask our neighbours, “ Where is the revolution?"

shaken by the idea, that the end of the world was at hand, and

We are too apt to associate revolutions exclusively with grand events, public many, disposing of their lands and goods, hurried to Palestine, to demonstrations, and outbreaks of physical violence, forgetting that ing this, and partly a result of it, was the first crusade, termed by

meet, as they vainly thought, the descending Son of God; follow. all that is really valuable in a movement is mental in its operation, M. Guizot, the first event" of modern European society ;-—the and has taken place frequently before it begins to display itself first circumstance, in modern history, which animated entire openly. It is thus that we meet, in history, with examples not nations with one impulse, with one co-operating spirit. We need only of individuals, but of whole portions of a community, who not here speak of the prodigious influence of the crusades, as felt resemble those inhabitants of London who sometimes become first throughout the entire structure of European society; of the dawn acquainted with events that happened in the metropolis, by meeting with the record of them in the columns of a provincial news

of the Reformation ; of the Reformation itself; nor of all that has paper. Or, to use a more appropriate illustration, they are like resulted from it, still extending its influence, and spreading out to

the future. the sleeping inhabitants on the banks of a river, who are made aware of the presence of a flood, by finding themselves swimming Now, in all these changes it is most interesting to observe, how in their beds.

an expansion of the intellect of man has preceded or followed an We apply the word revolution to physical, mental, and moral expansion of Christianity. We talk of the purity of the primitive movements. The earth daily presents its scarred face to the sun; age ; and certainly the Christians who could ask counsel of those and year by year continually it runs its silent course in the heavens, who had seen their Lord in the flesh had a far better chance of returning to the place from whence it came. The mind of man, being rightly informed of the truth than we have. But we must also, is ever in motion, but, unlike the earth, it runs, not in a recollect that the general intellect of man was then far lower than circle, but on a straight line, which stretches out to infinity. It it is now. It is a peculiar glory of Christianity that it is adapted never returns to its starting point, but presses forward to an unseen

to the wants of the most ignorant as well as the most refined : but goal. All that takes place on the earth-wars, and rumours of

appreciate it in all its cellence and purity requires a large and wars, upturning of governments, changes of language, and manners,

cultivated mind-it is another glory of Christianity that the inand costume,--are but indications of the movement, marks of the tellect or wit of man can never outgrow it. We are therefore restless, busy, and progressive spirit. Junius has a much approaching to a period when Christianity will be seen more pure applauded sentiment, to the effect, that in revolutions whatever is and glorious than ever it has been since the days of the apostles. light and worthless floats on the top, while whatever is solid and Nay, we are wrong in using the word “purc;" Christianity has valuable sinks to the bottom. This is only true locally. Were

never been corrupted ; men, in their dull, narrow, and sluggish we wise beings—if we clearly saw our own and our neighbour's minds, have mixed up portions of its spirit with their own fantasies interest and welfare, and were disposed to act on our convictions, and errors ; they have called the mixture Christianity, and fought none of those frightful events would occur, to which the name of for it and died for it—while such portions of the truth wbich they revolution has been almost exclusively attached. But we are not held was ever struggling with the error with which it was united, wise beings; good and evil is ever mixing in ou lot; and so, and labouring to drive it out. under the overruling providence of God, revolutions arise and To illustrate this, let us refer to the different interpretations of burst out, like storms in the natural world—and during the process, the parables, taking the parable of Lazarus as an example. Thus, the good flies off, like a volatile spirit, to seek some new combina- for instance, amongst other follies at Jerusalem, they show to tion, while the worthless is shivered to pieces.

credulous pilgrims and incredulous travellers the houses of the Rich In this perpetual and progressive movement, Christianity has a Man and the Beggar. Major Skinner, a recent traveller, was most important share. Its primary and its great work is moral in shown the house of Dives, " at the end of a street in the Turkish its nature, and deals with individuals: but it has a secondary quarter of the town. We stood for a while to gaze at it, many of work, of a mental character, which is performed not on individuals the pilgrims shaking their heads and uttering expressions of scorn; as individuals, but on man as an intelligent creature. We are when, turning round, some one, in a more softened tone, profrequently murmuring,—Why has Christianity made so little pro- claimed, 'And this is the house of Lazarus himself.' The people gress during the eighteen hundred years that have passed away?- rushed towards it, (for it is within sight of the spot where the why has it been so circumscribed in its operation and its influence? dogs came and licked his sores,') and stood in nearly as much But we forget, poor pigmies that we are, that God's ways are not astonishment at it as I did. It is an exceedingly clean and neat as our ways. Man himself has presented a resisting medium to building, of a middling size. I know not how old this tradition is : the spread of Christianity: but, at the same time, during all the but if one of the monks had not assured me of its certainty with period that has elapsed, it has never retrograded, never stood still. very great solemnity, I should have thought the whole affair had We can but dimly see it, in the flickering, uncertain light of been meant as a joke.” history, spreading through all the Roman empire, like that elastic Between the Christian who believes in the literal fact of the

VOL. I.

с

(Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.)

parable of Lazarus, and the Christian who sees in it one of those having the Bible for its object, sufficient of itself to form and beautiful imaginations, through the medium of which the MASTER expand the mind of any nation whatever. taught awful and immortal truths, what a great distance is there ! A great portion of scepticism, and of the irregularities of The difference does not lie in the parable, nor in the truth taught. religious enthusiasm, have been produced during the transitions of The unintellectual Christian, who seriously believes that there was the popular mind from a lower to a larger appreciation of Christa beggar named Lazarus, and that he was actually carried by ianity. To mistake a corrupted faith for the faith of the New angels into Abraham's bosom, may derive as much edification and Testament, has been the fault or the misfortune of men in every as much warning from the doctrine of a future state taught in the age of the history of Christianity : yet even a corrupted faith acts parable, as may the refined and cultivated Christian, who sees in as ballast, and, should it be thrown overboard suddenly, the vessel the story of the beggar but the vestments of the great truth may be upset. And just as from generation to generation the of the immortality of man. Yet what a difference is there in national faith has been moved forward with the advance of the the degree of justice done to the truth by the two minds ! national mind, so, in each transition, scepticism has shifted its The one, because of his lower range of intellectual capacity, but ground, and clothed itself in a new form. And this makes us ill understands the Scripture, and may fall into the gross and think it possible, that, before we reach a higher elevation in ludicrous error of believing that the houses of the rich man and religious truth, another and a newer form of scepticism, as well as Lazarus are to be seen in Jerusalem to this day. The other more other developments of religious enthusiasm, will spread over the correctly perceives the object of the parable, does far more justice, surface of society. Should this be the case to any extent, the not merely to the truth, but to the simple and affecting grandeur commotion will be fearful. The press, with its hundred tongues, of the manner in which the truth is told; and has a mind prepared will clamour loud and long; and men, accustomed to pay but or preparing to taste and enjoy the moral beauty, the purity, the small reverence to mere authority, may filing away the bonds of majesty, of the Christianity of the New Testament.

their old faith before they fall down to worship the new. But at As with individuals, so with man as a whole. Even in the apos- the very time that ruin seems impending, the voice of the tempest tolic age, the great majority of those who embraced the gospel will be stilled, and men will perceive Christianity“ looking forth but ill comprehended what they believed. Can we wonder at as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as this ? The larger portion of the early converts were “ignorant an army with banners.” and unlearned men," who belonged to the middle and lower We may compare the present time with the century that preclasses of society-mechanics, domestic servants, or rather slaves. ceded the Reformation. The steam-engine is to this age what There was then no magic printing, to perform its wonders before printing was then ; and facility of communication, and the adthe people. Converts came with their inveterate Jewish preju. | vanced state of all our physical resources, may be fairly compared dices, or their Gentile philosophy, or the lingering remains of with the Mariner's Compass, the discovery of America, and the Pagan superstition or Pagan habits; and into such a soil as this passage of the Cape of Good Hope. Men were burned at the was the precious truth dropped! Frequently, the very men who stake for reformation long before the Reformation began ; and so loved the truth as to "count not their own lives dear" to the Church had confessed a necessity for reformation, and had themselves, were sometimes blameably forward in offering to attempted it, before Luther opened his mouth. The great intel: seal their testimony with their blood.” The errors of the early lectual excitement of the fifteenth century was followed by a corre. Christians were those of excess, addition, and deficiency of per. sponding great religious movement. Reasoning from analogy, ception; and to those who look no further than the surface, a may we not expect that the still higher mental activity of the large portion of the employment of Christians in all the ages that nineteenth century will be followed by a still higher development have elapsed seems to have been merely a process of ravelling and of religious faith and practice ? All good men look for it, and unravelling the bandages with which the truth has been swathed. long for it. Milton saw it afar off, when he prayed that the The ark of the covenant has been carried backwards and forwards “ Mighty One" would " gird his sword upon his thigh, and go throughout this dry and rocky wilderness of the past world's forth, as of old, conquering and to conquer;" and now, more than history;

and all the men who came out of Egypt have died without in Milton's time, is there visible sign and token that “the whole entering the promised land. Nevertheless, the manna has con- earth sighs to be renewed." tinued to fall, and the living stream has flowed. How far are we

This advance in Christian knowledge and faith may be preceded yet from the banks of the Jordan, whose waters are to roll back, or accompanied by a change in social condition. "We shall while the tribes cross over on dry land ?

find,” says M. Guizot, " that every expansion of human intelli. Even the sceptic must admit the prodigious influence which gence has proved of advantage to society; and that all the great Christianity has exercised on the civilisation of man. In spite of advances in the social condition have turned to the profit of all retarding influences—in the midst of blunders, and folly, and humanity. One or other of these facts may predominate—may ignorance, the truth has ever striven to rise outwards and upwards, shine forth with greater splendour for a season, and impress upon and to carry the human mind along with it. Man, in his ambitious the movement its own particular character. At times it may not and selfish pride, has repeatedly tried to forge chains out of the be till after the lapse of a long interval, after a thousand trans. corruptions of Christianity, with which to bind his own intellect. formations, a thousand obstacles, that the second shows itself, But the truth itself has been too ethereal to be bound down: even and comes to complete the civilisation which the first had begun; in the darkest and most humiliating portion of the history of but when we look closely, we easily recognise the link by which Christianity it may be seen struggling to get free. Christianity they are connected. The movements of Providence are not was as a pharos, sending its light across the troubled sea of restricted to narrow bounds: it is not anxious to deduce to-day European society, before it settled down into the form of the the consequences of the premises it laid down yesterday. It may feudal system ; it exercised an influence over the rude, fierce, but defer this for ages, till the fulness of time shall come.

Its logic comprehensive mind of Charlemagne ; it inspired with hope and will not be less conclusive for reasoning slowly. Providence noblest effort our own Alfred, and made his reign a great landmark moves through time as the gods of Homer through space : it makes in English history; it taught the monks to feed the lamp of litera.

a step, and ages have rolled away! How long a time, how many ture with oil, though frequently that oil was anything but pure ; it circumstances intervened, before the regeneration of the moral * tinged war with something like a generous sentiment, and gave to powers of man, by Christianity, exercised its great, its legitimate chivalry a portion of its romance; stirred the mind of the English influence upon his social condition? Yet who can doubt or misnation, and supplied our early literature with a treasure-house of take its power ?” That power, we may add, will work with a holy and sublime images ; and now, in our own tongue alone, tenfold influence in the ages that are future, as compared with there is a mass of learning, research, controversy, and criticism, those that are past.

CIVILISATION IN MADAGASCAR.*

tures might be griffins, such as are represented in painting, half birds

and half lions, particularly questioned those who reported their baring MADAGASCAR was first made known to Europeans by that most intelligent and veracious traveller, Marco Polo. He was, as the altogether that of birds, or, as it might he said, that of the eagle.

seen them as to this point, but they maintained that their shape was reader may be aware, for many years (from 1275 to 1292) in the The grand khan ving heard this extraordinary relation, sent mes. service of Kublai Khan, the great conqueror of China. Being sengers to the island, on the pretext of demanding the release of one highly in favour with his employer, and acquainted with many of his servants who had been detained there, but in reality to examine of the languages spoken within the wide extent of the Mongol into the circunstances of the country, and the truth of the wonderful empire, he was frequently sent on distant missions, and to places things told of it. When they returned to the presence of his majesty, so remote, as often to be six months in travelling to his desti. they brought with them, as I have heard, a feather of the rukh posination. He kept a journal, in which he entered not only what tively affirmed to have measured ninety spans, and the quill part to came under his own observation worthy of record, but whatever have been two palms in circumference. This surprising exhibition information he received from others respecting countries which afforded his majesty extreme pleasure, and upon those by whom it he had not visited. Of course, he was occasionally both inten

was presented he bestowed valuable gifts. They were also the bearers tionally and unintentionally deceived, and was also, as was the

of a tusk of a wild boar, an animal that grows there to the size of a character of his age, a little credulous. But his book of travels buffalo, and it was found to weigh fourteen pounds. The island conopened a new world to the people of Europe, and exercised a

tains camelopards, asses, and other wild animals, very different from great influence at the time of its publication.

those of our country." Madagascar he did not visit; but his account of it bears evidence of having been derived from those who did ; as, for

It was not till the passage by the Cape of Good Hope was instance, his mention of the strong currents which run along the made, and Portuguese barks were ploughing the Indian ocean, coast of Africa. He consounds some of the productions of the that Madagascar was known by actual examination of its coasts. continent with those of the island, and mentions elephants, The Portuguese made a small settlement on the south-eastern giraffes, and tigers, which are not to be found in Madagascar. extremity of the island, but the settlers were cut off by the The reader will be amused by his fabulous rukh, and be reminded

natives. The island, however, lay under the eye of the early of the roc of the Arabian Nights. But though Marco Polo men

voyagers to the East Indies; and Portuguese, Dutch, French, and tions only the “Saracens" or Arabians as inhabitants of Mada | English vessels, touched at some of its harbours for refreshment. gascar, (they form but a small section of the inhabitants,) his

Great exaggeration prevailed respecting the wealth and resources description of the active commerce carried on renders his account

of Madagascar, and about the middle of the seventeenth century, of the island, which he calls Magaster, worthy of quotation. It

the French and English seemed to be trying a race for its posis as follows:

session. A Mr. Walter Hamond, who visited it in 1630, pub" Leaving the island of Soccotera, and steering a course between south lished, in 1640, a short and somewhat foolish tract, with a long and south-west for a thousand miles, you arrive at the great island

and flaming title, of which the following is a copy :-"A Paradox, of Magaster, which is one of the largest and most fertile in the world. prooving that the inhabitants of the isle called Madagascar, or In circuit it is three thousand miles. The inhabitants are Saracens, in temporall things are the happiest in the world : where

St. Lawrence [it was called St. Lawrence by the Portuguese], or followers of the law of Mahomet. They have four sheikhs, which in our language may be expressed by “ elders," who divide the govern

unto is prefixed, a briefe and true description of that island,

the nature of the climate, and condition of the inhabitants, and ment amongst them. The people subsist by trade and manufacture, their speciall affection to the English above other nations : with and sell a vast number of elephants' teeth, as those animals abound in the country, as they do also in that of Zanzibar, from whence the colony there, in respect of the fruitfullness of the soyle, the

most probable arguments of a hopefull and fit plantation of a exportation is equally great. " The principal food eaten at all seasons of the year is the flesh of benignity of the agre, and the relieving of our English ships both

to and from the East Indies.” The “ Paradox,' camels. That of the other cattle serves them also for food, but the

to which the former is preferred, as being both the most wholesome and the most

account of the island is a prefix, is a ludicrous enough affair. palatable of any to be found in this part of the world. The woods modities and riches of this island," and vehemently affirming

While the author is exhorting the English “concerning the comcontain many trees of red sandal, and in proportion to the plenty that " for wealth and riches no island in the world can be prein which it is found, the price of it is low. There is also much ferred before it,” he rings the changes on the advantages of ambergris from the whales; and as the tide throws it on the coast, it is collected for sale. The natives catch lynxes, tigers, and a variety of poverty and the evils of wealth, deplores the abject servitude into other animals, such as stags, antelopes, and fallow.deer, which afford

which the use of clothes and money brings the man of civilisation, much sport; as do also the birds, which are different from those of and admires the ease, freedom, and absence of all care and anxiety

which be fancies the paked savage enjoys. our climates. " The island is visited by many ships from various parts of the

Mr. Hamond reappeared in 1643, with another tract—“Madaworld, bringing assortments of goods, consisting of brocades and silks gascar the richest and most fruitful island in the whole world;"

dedicated to the “ Honourable John Bond, governor and captainof various patterns, 'which are sold to the merchants of the island, or bartered for goods in return, upon all of which they make large profits. I entertained by the English government for a settlement on Mada

general of Madagascar.” That there was a serious intention There is no resort of ships to the other numerous islands lying further south, this and the island of Zanzibar alonu being frequented. This gascar, we learn from a work published in the following year(1644), that direction as to render their return impossible. The vessels that is once really possessed of, and strongly settled in, that brave, is the consequence of the sea running with such prodigious velocity in by a Mr. Richard Boothby, a merchant of London, who gives it as

hiz “humble opinion” that " whatsoever prince in Christendom sail from the coast of Malabar for this island perform the voyage in fruitful

, and pleasant islard, by computation three times as big as twenty or twenty-five days, but in their returning voyage are obliged to struggle for three months, so strong is the current of water which England, may with ease be emperor or sole monarch of the East constantly runs to the southward.

Indies." He did not foresee that a private company of “mer

chant adventurers" was about to become almost “ “ The people of the island report that at a certain season of the year, sole monarch of the East Indies,” even without the possession

emperor or an extraordinary kind of bird, which they call a rukh, makes its of Madagascar. The troubles of the reign of Charles the First appearance from the southern region. In form it is said to resemble the eagle, but it is incomparably greater in size, being so large and prevented the

execution of the scheme mentioned in Mr. Boothby's strong as to seize an clephant with its talons, and to lift it in the air, gustine's Bay, but the individuals composing it did not experience

tract; a settlement however was formed by the English in St. Auwhence it lets it fall to the ground, in order that, when dead, it may prey upon the carcasc. Persons who have seen this bird assert that

that “ benignity of the air” of which Mr. Hamond boasted on when the wings are spread they measure sixteen paces in extent from

his title-page, for almost all the settlers were cut off by the cli. point to point, and that the feathers are eight paces in length, and hot, moist, and abounding with an exuberant vegetation, Hence

mate. The greater portion of the coast of Madagascar is marshy, thick in proportion. Messer Marco Polo, conceiving that these crea

there is a mal' aria (bad air), the subtle poison of which is fatal • HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR ; comprising also the Progress of the Christian Mission established in 1818; and an Authentic Account of the recent

not only to foreigners, but even to natives at certain periods of the Martyrdom of Rafaravavy, and of the Persecution of the Native Christians.

year. Compiled from chicfly Original Documents, by the Rev. William Ellis,

While the English government was talking, the French governForeign Secretary to the London Missionary Society. In two vols. London,

ment was acting. In 1642, Cardinal Richelieu granted a patent, under which a French East India Company was formed. A settic

1818

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