Imagens das páginas


* I, of course, did not refer to individuals, but to the nation in


Gentekl, poor families, reduced to poverty by sudden and Lecturing at Chatham, Mr. Pilkington tells us, that “a number recent misfortunes, occupy the least enviable position of any of the of military officers, well as men, were present, and listened with numerous classes of which society is composed. We say recentgreat patience and attention-an example at once consistent with milated with the class on which they have been thrown back, that

because otherwise they become so entirely incorporated and assigood sense, and worthy of their station as members of polished

no distinguishing traits or features remain visible to awaken our society. This meeting took place at an hotel, where it was sympathies. sonounced that I would lecture again in the Baptist chapel. I

The picture, then, which we would point out for contemplation accordingly returned in a few days, and found it filled with about and commiseration is, that of such a family struggling to maintain

an appearance before the eye of the world worthy of their former a thousand persons, amongst whom I observed many of the officers state, but sorely at variance with their present means. Such who had been present upon the preceding occasion. In the middle attempts as these may be called foolish, and by those who have of this lecture, some person imprudently called out, · Fire!' The more wisdom than feeling they may be considered as the offspring

of vanity ; but we would not be disposed to give them so harsh a consternation that ensued was alarming; I endeavoured to encou

As we are no casuists ourselves, however, we leave the ad. rage the people by sitting quietly on the cushion of the pulpit, but justment of this point to those who are, and content ourselves with in rain; seven hundred rushed out at once. It was, indeed, a saying, that for our own parts, we never look on such melancholy Diatter of thankfulness that no accident occurred.

attempts as those we speak of, or think of the condition of those

who make them, but with unmingled feelings of kindness and " This reminded me of a similar occurrence which took place at

compassion. Dewsbury. In the course of my lecture I was stating that some Particularly do we sympathise with such a family when it conthousand tons of human and horse bones were imported into Great tains one or more young adult females. Modest, accomplished Grimsby, in Lincolnshire, from the plains of Leipsic and Waterloo, girls they are, but oh! pitiful, most pitiful is the contrast between

their poverty-stricken home, their poor, thin raiment thrown on and ground into manure. I remarked thereon that we are not their sylph-like forms with an affecting aim at gentility, and the satisfied in engaging others to fight for us, but after their souls are lady-like manners, the pure and beautiful style of language, and the hurried before the bar of judgment, we take their pulverized bones elegant carriage, of their fair but unfortunate wearers. With the to manure our lands, and eat the vegetables rendered luxuriant and spirit of former days still strong within them, and still fondly

clinging, with a hold which they must soon forego, to that status delicious by the essential oil extracted from the dead bodies of our

in society from which poverty would tear them, the reduced family fellor-men. At this moment, one, who, I afterwards heard, was contrive to continue to reside in a house of rather genteel appearsubject to fits, being overcome by the heat of the place, uttered ance externally; but few except themselves know the dreadful

struggle they have to keep such a house as this over their heads, two or three sepulchral groans. The alarm, thus produced, was

and fewer still know of the misery that is within it, or the wretched as if all the skeletons of our slaughtered soldiery were seen stalking shifts to which its inmates are driven to make out a livelihood. through the windows; many of my affrighted auditors shrieked, Although, however, the house is of rather a genteel appearance and many, both male and female, rushed to the door. One in itself, it is yet, very often, in a populous neighbourhood, and for respectable young lady, following the example of others, vaulted their selection of such a residence there are two principal reasons.

The first is, that houses so situated are generally lower rented. from the seat over the side of the pew, because, in her haste, she The second is, a consciousness of their inability to keep up appearcould not open the door.”

ances with an aristocratic neighbourhood in any of the essentials of Mr. Pilkington went over to Ireland, and his lectures on peace respectable housekeeping ; for it would be impossible to conceal

many trivialities from the prying eyes of those who, being in comand temperance were, on the whole, very well received, in the va

fortable circumstances themselves, quickly observe indications of rions towns he visited. In Dublin, he went to visit the scenes of

an opposite state in others. The reduced family shun this his childhood; and meeting with an old lady who had known his humiliation, and seek a vicinity where the elegances and refinefamily, she remarked, amongst other conversation, “ Your father ments and luxuries of genteel life are less known, and less

regarded. But if the reduced family avoid one evil they encounter was a very benevolent man—everybody loved him; he was always another, perhaps still less easy to bear. They cannot altogether doing good. But sure your step-mother was a very proud woman, conceal from the neighbourhood that poverty is in the house. In at least everybody said so. But oh! how like your father you despite of all the family's efforts to maintain appearances, their con

dition becomes known, and often has the blush been called into are !--sure, I remember you when you were this height-what a beautiful boy you were-oh! but time has made a great change in poor Miss Louisa’s pale but beautiful cheek, by the rude remarks

spoken out that she might hear them as she passed. Modestly you, I would hardly have known you. I always observed that the she trips, or rather steals along; for her steps are stealthy, bandsomest children grew up the ugliest men."

her deportment meek; indicating a painful and oppressive Here we part with Mr. Pilkington. Whatever differences of sense of her changed condition and prospects. Poor Louisa's

appearance is still genteel, and this of itself is enough to excite opinion there may be between us, we wish, as cordially as he does, spleen, but there is yet another provocative. By toiling night and that "War may cease unto the ends of the earth.”'

day with her needle, Louisa has contrived to purchase a new scarf, and this thrown gracefully around her has raised the hue and cry of envy and uncharitableness.

We have said that Louisa is subjected to all this. So she is, but SHAKSPEARE, A STUDY FOR DIVINES.

she is not alone in this species of suffering. Her sisters are equally "DR. SHARPE was the rector of St. Giles's, and was both a

persecuted. The blight falls, and with equally withering effects,

on Miss Harriet and Miss Sophia, and equally keenly do they feel very pious man and one of the most popular preachers of the age, it. Even little modest Anne, who would not harm the meanest who had a most peculiar talent of reading his sermons with much thing that lives, is subjected to this torture, and often, also, has the life and zeal.” So far Bishop Burnet; to which Onslow, the blush been called into her little innocent cheek, and the tear into Speaker, adds this note :—“ Sharpe was a great reader of Shak- her gentle but brilliant eye, by vulgar unfeeling slatterns. Often speare. Dr. Magnay, who had married his daughter, told me he mother, while the tears were streaming down her cheeks, and her

in her innocence and simplicity has she expressed her wonder to her used to recommend to young divines the reading of the Scrip- little heart was like to burst; for she is yet too young to observe tures and Shakspeare ; and Dr. Lisle, Bishop of Norwich, who had the caution of her elder sister. On these occasions her mother been chaplain at Lambeth to Archbishop Wake, told me that it was sighs heavily, kisses away the little girl's tears, and bids her pay often related there that Sharpe should say, that the Bible and child, say nothing of this to your poor father: it would only

no attention to the idle remarks of idle people, and adds, “ My Shakspeare made him Archbishop of York. ".

grieve him."



The girls of this unfortunate family have all received the elements render his appearance highly prepossessing and gentlemanlil of a first-rate education, and, in the case of the two eldest, that His friends say, however, that they remark a great change up education was completed before the misfortune befel them which him for the worse within the last four or five years. He is faili reduced them to their present poverty. They, therefore, had fast, and no wonder he should, for he has had much to distress bir looked confidently forward to such a settlement in the world as and when he looks on his unprovided children, and thinks ho their superior accomplishments and their position in society enti- different is their condition from what he once hoped it should tled them to. Suitors they once had: many who fanned them with the old man wishes himself in his grave. He rarely goes abro the soft breath of flaitery, but, one by one, have they all departed, now, and never into the city ; for he dislikes to revisit the scen and departed, too, by the slow, torturing, humiliating process of of his prosperity, or to meet the friends and acquaintance of gradually widening the intervals of their visits, and offering the most better days. When he does go out, it is to take a solitary walk frivolous excuses, until they had rendered even this unnecessary by a mile or two into the country, where he may be occasionally me returning no more.

and appearing to be half interested in the scenery around him, an The girls sometimes meet these mushroom admirers in the half absorbed in melancholy reflection. streets, and frequently in situations where the latter cannot avoid At home he has become a little peevish and cross-temperet coming in contact with them, but they always endeavour to escape, In the days of his prosperity he was all kindness, all good and the ladies feel a momentary sense of humiliation; but pride humour, and urbanity. An angry word then scarcely crossed h comes to their aid, and they return the constrained and hollow sa- lips, a frown seldom marred his countenance, but misfortune ha lutation with a dignified manner. Still, these rencontres soured his temper, and sickened him of the world. His affectionat painful to the sensitive minds of the poor girls, rendered doubly family make every allowance for the old man's weakness, and no sensitive by their misfortunes.

only never resent his little hasty ebullitions of anger, but alway - It is an affecting sight to see these amiable accomplished young endeavour to soothe and allay the irritability which occasions them ladies, now assembled around one little table in one mean-looking and he is not insensible to the kindness; for he often apologise paltry apartment, labouring with that needle to earn their bread, for the rudeness of a hasty expression the moment he has uttere nay, not only their own bread but that of their parents, and their it, and if it is to one of his daughters he draws her towards him younger sisters and brothers. There is an air of sad cheerfulness and imprints a kiss upon her forehead, a tear glistens in his eye seated on their countenances. Gentle, mild, and resigned, are they and he bids her never mind the unguarded language of a cross old all. But the poverty that presses on them is great. They who His daughter on these occasions makes no reply, she can once had splendid wardrobes can now with great difficulty not, her heart is too full, but she flings her arms around his neck command even such trifles as a pair of new gloves or a cap; and in and sobs. the case of the two younger ones, their best apparel is now so The mistress of this fallen house, again, is a tall, genteel, ladyfaded and gone that they cannot appear in the streets unless their looking person. She evidently was once beautiful, but her beauty scanty and decayed dress be eked out by some of their elder sisters' has long since faded away, not so much from the encroachments of better-conditioned gear. The girls love each other with the most age as from the pressure of misfortune. Her countenance, too, tender affection, and each is more anxious to deck out her sister like her husband's, is grave and melancholy, yet is there much to than herself.

admire in these elegant features, and in the dark eye whose brilEarly and late, as you may perceive by the pale waxen hue of liancy affliction could not altogether quench. The whole couri their countenances, do they toil for the support of the family, yet tenance is eminently impressive, and calculated to command all their toil scarcely produces the means of a meagre subsistence. respect. Their table, which was wont to be so abundantly spread, now Like her husband, she still dresses well, and it is most pleasant boasts but the scantiest, and often the meanest fare. Yet for this to look upon her even in these the days of her poverty.

Her they care nothing, as the merest and plainest trifle will now, as plain, clean, frilled, close cap, white as the driven snow, and her indeed it always did even in their best days, satisfy their wants. Aowing silk gown, one of the remnants of more prosperous times, It is, however, a striking and melancholy memento of their deck out a figure of more than ordinary dignity, a dignity which is fallen condition. Still, neither are they discontented nor unhappy. not a little improved (indicative of decaying physical powers though The house still rings with their melodious voices, singing the it be) by a pair of slender tortoise-shell spectacles. Her manner is songs of their happier days; and in the correct and scientific calm, solemn, and deliberate ; but there is nothing of austerity in manner in which these songs are sung the listener at once recog-it, nothing repulsive. On the contrary, it is gentle, kind, and nises the effects of a superior education. All the girls, especially affable. She is evidently a woman of education, her language and the two eldest, play delightfully on both piano and harp, and they deportment bespeak it; and the apartment in which she at this once possessed handsome instruments. Their father was in arrears moment sits exhibits some beautiful specimens of her attainments for the rent, and the instruments were sold, and sold at half their in the accomplishment of drawing ; executed in the days of her value, to satisfy the landlord ; and thus, piece-meal, has the whole youth, when she feared no evils, when no approaching misery was of their ornamental furniture gone from time to time for the last anticipated.

But the shifts to which this unfortunate family are often driven The father entertained once the most brilliant prospects for his to procure even the means of subsistence, ay, even these, for they two boys, and the education he gave them was calculated to adapt are reduced indeed, is, perhaps after all, the most melancholy part them for almost any situation they could be called upon to fill, and of the picture. More than once has Louisa been seen, under the the lads themselves felt a full consciousness of the advantages they cloud of night, disguised in an old cloak and bonnet, stealing up to possessed, and fully participated also in their father's high hopes the pawnbroker's to procure something wherewith to put off the regarding their future fortunes. Grievous, therefore, was the dis- morrow, or perhaps to furnish the long-delayed meal of the day. appointment, and sad the feelings of both father and sons, when it She hesitates and lingers about the entrance to the pawnbroker's was found necessary, in order to eke out the scanty income, to before she can muster courage enough to go in, yet this courage, allow one of them to go behind the counter of a druggist, and the perhaps, she would never find, did she not also watch the oppor: other that of a haberdasher. Too young to think of calling philo- tunity when the place was clear of applicants. Never

, poor girl, sophy to their aid, or to reason themselves into submission to their does she leave that place but in tears, for it is only when the trial is destiny, the proud boys' hearts were like to burst when the humble past, when agitation and anxiety have given way to reflection, that employment was proposed to them, until habit had reconciled

them she feels fully impressed with the degrading nature of her errand. to their lot, and perhaps shown them the folly of their pride. This expedient, however, and all others of a similar kind, are careThey still struggle to maintain their pretensions superior conside- fully concealed from the unfortunate father. He knows nothing ration, and more especially do they struggle after this distinction of them, or, at least, he is saved the pain of hearing them in the article of dress. But the boys will be the makers of their discussed. own fortunes yet, and the humiliations to which they are now sub- His table is always furnished if not plentifully at least iect will prove a hard, yet a wholesome lesson. The father is a highly respectable-looking elderly man, but his procured. "He is afraid to ask, for although he does not know he

comfortably, and he does not inquire whence or how it has been countenance is care-worn and melancholy. He still dresses gen- guesses the source and the means. Poor decayed family! teelly, however, although his coat certainly appears to be rather the Our object in sketching them will have been accomplished, if worse for the wear, but it is carefully brushed ; and his neckcloth any of our readers, in danger of falling into such a condition

, have is at once remarkably clean and neatly put on. His grave coun- been inspired with a feeling of MORAL COURAGE to burst their tenance, his stately form, and his grey locks, prematurely grey, trammels, and boldly to face the world.

few years.

". We are


AN ARMENIAN MARRIAGE.* In endeavouring to obtain the usual assistance to enable a poor

During a residence of some length at Constantinople, my acboy to return to his parish in Liverpool, I was directed by the quaintance with the Turkish language enabled me to gratify the Overseer to put him in harge of the police, as the only means natural curiosity of my disposition. Before I had been there a suitable to his case, to obtain an order from the sitting magistrate fortnight, I had already an extensive acquaintance, and very shortly directing the parish officers to send him to his home. This, with I found myself admitted to the familiar society of several families. the boy's consent, I accordingly did ; and accompanied him,

It was on the 9th December, 1837, that an Armenian banker whilst yet in custody, to the magistrate's office, Hatton Garden. On arrival, I passed, whilst following the young prisoner, through called on me, to carry me with him to assist at the marriage of one groups of policeinen, who were standing in the doorway and dark of his countrymen. We entered his caicque, a kind of boat peculiar passages. * At length I arrived in the outer room : here my feel to the port of Constantinople, elegant in form, and very light and

ngs were shocked on hearing the chief of this lower apartment swift, but not very commodious. We passed up the Golden Horn, vociferate authoritative directions, intermixed with cursing and swearing, whilst similar oaths were continually uttered in the and directed our course towards Hasse-Keai, at the bottom of the buzz and din of official converse, consequent on his orders, among port of Constantinople, and passed under the recently erected the subordinates. When I pressed through the crowd, the gloomy bridge connecting Galata with Constantinople. We left behind appearance of the filthy floor, greasy walls, cobwebbed ceiling, us, on our left hand, the mosque of the Sultana Valide ; the magni. and dirty windows, seemed to be so perfectly in keeping with their ficent mosque of the great Solyman; and the Fanal, a low and gross expressions, that I fancied myself in some lower abode: nor obscure suburb, the residence of the Greeks : on our right hand, did this imagination want heightening, when, in waiting for my the Arsenal, the public baths, and the beautiful mounds where the turn, I observed so many parties of male and female pick pockets mortal remains of the Mussulmen repose beneath the green shade and rioters, who remained, as they arrived, in distinct divisions of the cypress. We landed near the barracks of the artillerymen, each in charge of its respective district policeman. I was some time detained here, and not a little shocked at the unconcerned. near the house of the bridegroom. Here I was received with a ness with which, in business-like style, the police were conducting politeness and cordiality that affected me, and with honours which some to trial and some to punishment. At length 1 and my young confused me. Pipes, sweetmeats, and coffee, were handed down ; pauper were summoned into the judgment-hall. On entering, then, all wrapped in long pelisses, we reposed upon the cushions could not fail to notice that it was not surpassed in dirtiness and of the divan, whilst waiting the arrival of other guests. fith by the room which I had just left; and, although the official all brothers, we are all children of Christ,” was a phrase frequently inmates were few, their superiority over those of the outer chamber was more discernible. The bench, above which was placed the repeated to me. royal arms, covered with dust, was elevated as high as the ceiling We shortly took our places at table: the repast was not long, permitted :

: on either side of it were magistrates' chairs; and, in but agreeable and delicate; just midway between the scrambling front of the whole, a long narrow table, like a counter. On the dinners of the Orientals and the formal meals of Europe. We each bench sat the principal magistrate, & person of immense corpu. bad knives and forks, but we all carved from the same dish. As lence; bis substantial countenance, being thrown into shade by the

soon as dinner was over, all hastened from the restraint of a chair, only light which passed through the dirty windows at his back, without doubt must have rendered him an object of terror to the which is as hateful to an Armenian as to a Turk, and sought the criminal. Below the level of the bench sat clerks at a small table comfort of the divan and chibouk. The presence of a Frank taking notes, while others were engaged swearing the witnesses as served to break the ordinary silence which is the general accompathey entered. One of these advanced to meet me with a quick niment of the pipe. All these Armenian bankers, usually so grave step, evidently anxious to save time, and without any ceremony and quiet, became most merciless questioners. Many were the presented me a New Testament, saying, “ You shall well and truly queries put to me upon the customs and institutions of Europe, Smear on the --” "I will not swear at all."

upon our treatment of women; on the best means of making and Starting, he quickly turned to the magistrate, and sharply said, preserving a fortune ; on the different commodities of life; on the "Here's a man won't swear, sir !"

various productions, the fruits, and the quality of bread and of "Come up here,” said the magistrate, in a deep and hollow water in Europe. I answered all these questions as well as I

could, and with the more pleasure as my national pride was grati. I mounted the steps in front of the counter, and he thus conti- fied whilst doing so; and I had it also in my power to remove, or nued, "Why-won't-you-swear ?"

at least to weaken, many prejudices, especially regarding the place "Because I am a Christian."

which women occupy in our families and in society. Are you a Quaker?"

After a well-occupied evening, we all lay down on mattrasses Why—Fon't-you-swear?”.

spread on the floor in the Turkish fashion, but nevertheless form"Because I conscientiously believe that a Christian ought not ing comfortable and even elegant conches. The pillows and to do so ; for our Lord said, Swear not at all.''

counterpanes are ornamented with lace and embroidery rarely met "Will you affirm?”

with in Europe. The breakfast in the morning was a repetition of "I will."

the dinner of the previous evening. There were, however, some Say on, then."

additional guests, and it was accompanied by music and singing. As neither they nor I knew how to affirm, they took my evidence

Five musicians (among whom an old Greek, the Paganini of at once.- Pilkington's Adventures.

Constantinople, was pointed out to me) were seated on the carpet in one corner of the room, and composed the orchestra. Two of the musicians sang, accompanying themselves on the guitar; there were also two violins and a flute. Even with a knowledge of the

words of the song, it was impossible to distinguish a single syllable, These ensigns, which are commonly supposed to be peculiar to the artist rested so long upon each letter, as it were, drawling out European nations, were customary among the Saracens. Joinville, his nasal tones. The airs are sometimes melodious, but monotoa French Nobleman, who accompanied St. Louis on his unfortunate nous, and quite destitute of rhythm and harmony. The music, expedition to Egypt ,bears witness, with many others, to this fact. however, appeared to give great delight to some of the bankers, He says, speaking of the Saracen chieftain, or Soldan,--This who, being either richer or better judges than the other guests, Sacedon chief of the Turks was held to be the most able and cou.

encored their favourite airs and liberally rewarded the musicians.

An air on the violin, executed by the famous Miron, gave them rageous of all the Infidels. He bore on his banners the arms of the greatest delight; every time he prolonged for a full minute a the Emperor, who had made him a knight. His banner had harsh quivering tone on the treble string of his three-stringed Several bends, on one of which he bore the same arms with the violin, they held their sides with laughter. After amusing us in Sultan of Aleppo, and on another bend on the side, were the arms of the Sultan of Babylon.”Johnes's Joinville.

* Translated from the “, Revue de Paris.'



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this manner, the musicians removed to the women's apartment, things will soon be but matter of history, and will never again be where probably the same scene was enacted.

revived. Some of the most noted among the Armenian clergy were pre

When we reached the church, I seated myself, cross-legged like sent at this breakfast. Soon after it was over, we ascended into the rest, on the rich carpets which covered the pavement. The the principal room of the house, where the benediction of the schismatic Armenians, who resemble the Turks in their manners nuptial garments was to take place. The Armenian clergy dis much more than their orthodox brethren, seem to have extended played great magnificence in this ceremony. The richness and this imitation of their masters even into their churches. The pro splendour of the pontifical costumes was very remarkable. At fusion of carpets and the vast number of lamps, are common to least twenty boys, from twelve to sixteen, performed the duties of both Armenian churches and the temples of Islamism. After long choristers. Their voices were generally sweet and pure. This prayers and chantings, the mass was begun: it was seven o'clock music was of a different character from that we had heard before ; in the evening, but as the ancient division of the days is still folthe rhythm could be distinguished, and the parts were in harmony. lowed in the East, as, for instance, Sunday evening with us is the

When this ceremony was over, we embarked in a boat, to go to beginning of Monday with them, the day ending with supset as is the residence of the bride, where similar entertainments to those observed by the Jews in all countries, the service was designated we had been engaged in had been going on. She lived at Fanal,- as matins. The church was of a very elegant form, and the dome, that is to say, on the shore opposite the Golden Horn. I was in which was freshly painted and shining with varnish, reflected the the same boat as the bridegroom, who appeared alternately agi- lights of the wax candles and lamps. The incense which rose around tated by hope and fear, and took no pains to conceal his emotions. us was almost overpowering. Young children bearing wax tapers He had never either seen or conversed with his bride. These paraded round the gallery of the dome, chanting all the time ; marriages in the dark seem strange to us; but when we consider others, below, bore discs of silver, hung round with little belis, on the insignificant part played by an Eastern woman in society, our the end of long gilt sticks, which they shook from time to time, surprise is lessened ; and, in spite of all, celibacy is much less and by that signal increased or diminished the loudness of the song. common among the Orientals than with us, and they marry much At the moment of the sacramental invocation, calling upon God to earlier. The Mussulman is occupied all day abroad, and does not manifest himself in the elements, on the altar, a veil hid the ofireturn home till the evening, and even that time is frequently ciating priest and the acolytes from the sight of the faithful, and spent in the society of his friends : if he goes out to see them, his the children in the gallery grouped themselves immediately oppo. wife is either left at home, or on her arrival separated from him ; site the altar, and raised their voices in a slow and sweet-toned she is never in his company, except in the harem, and all he re- strain. Their young heads, standing out in relief from the clouds quires from her is conjugal fidelity and attention to her maternal depicted on the dome, appeared like a choir of celestial spirits. duties. As to the first, he relies upon the complete seclusion in The young pair, kneeling face to face, were occupied in prayer, which she is kept; and as to the second, what mother does not whilst expecting the nuptial benediction, with one attendant cirlove her child ? How different is it with us : our wives are conti- cumstance at which I was very much struck. For a considerable, nually with us ; they take part in our pleasures, and frequently in time the priest held the crucifix immediately over their heads bowed our business ; we require so much from them, that it is not sur- nearly together. What lessons may not be learnt by that imposiprising if we often hesitate for a long time to contract a connexion tion of the redeeming cross! so complete and intimate.

The bride remained covered with the nuptial veil, throughout A great many relations and friends were assembled at the house the whole course of these ceremonies, and it was not until she of the bride's father, in the same manner that there had been at arrived at her husband's house, that she was unveiled to bim in the the bridegroom's. The court of the Areopagus could not have presence of some of the nearest relations of both sexes.

I had it presented a graver and more imposing aspect than this assembly of in my power to have assisted at this ceremony, but I apprehended Armenians, arrayed in their dark flowing robes, and close black fur that by so doing I might have infringed upon etiquette, and discaps, sitting cross-legged on the sofas surrounding the apartment, cretion imposed a curb on my curiosity. I knew that she was beneath the shadow of the undulating clouds sent up from their young and handsome ;-probably one of those clear and fair como pipes. After the delay of an hour spent in preparations, the bene- plexions and large dark eyes which characterise the Armenians, diction of the garments of the bride was performed in nearly the and are expressive of purity and peace of mind : those eyes are same manner as had taken place with those of the bridegroom. rarely animated by aught but simplicity of character and beneShe was then dressed in the women's apartment, and soon after we volence of soul. The daughters of Armenia are certainly the saw her come forth accompanied by the relations of the bridegroom most charming of their sex among the inhabitants of Constanwho had come with us to take her away. She was covered with a tinople. long veil, composed of strips or ribands of gilt paper, which The dinner which followed was more abundant and longer than reached to her feet, and not only prevented her from being seen, that of the preceding evening, the orchestra was more noisy, and but herself from being able to see her way; in consequence, she the company more numerous, but everything was conducted in the was obliged to walk so slowly that it took her more than a quarter of an hour to traverse a little garden to reach the boat which waited coffee ; the women in nearly the same way; some Greek ladies

The men passed the night in sinoking and taking for her. Are this temporary blindness, and the veil which enve- alone began a dance, a kind of circular movement, without cadence lopes the bride, meant as emblems of resignation and modesty, or are they only intended to cover maidenly shame? As she passed, the fatigues of so busy a day, I was very glad of the opportunity of

or character. A sleeping apartment was offered to me ; and after a shower of small pieces of money was scattered over her, a symbol of the abundance and happiness presumed to be in store scenes I had witnessed had made upon me.

the privacy, in which I could recall the impressions which the

The chief of the for her.

Armenian nation, whose good sense and intelligence, as well as his We again crossed the sea, and then the men on foot, and the very attentive politeness, had interested me much during the whole women in a carriage drawn by oxen, repaired to the church where day, was the only person besides myself who was permitted to the union was to be consecrated. Before describing this ceremony, retreat and take «French leave." The rest

of the party passed a I ought to mention a very characteristic circumstance. The young sleepless night. bride had scarcely disembarked, when a servant came up, who with a mysterious air spoke a few words to the bridegroom's brother, sleep, but that grave and sad ideas visited me may appear so;

It is not strange that I had difficulty in composing myself to who then held a short conversation in a whisper with the principal is true, that, from my windows I could see the minarets and imguests. I inquired the meaning of all this of my companion, who had never quitted me for a moment, and with an almost over- perial tombs of the Mosque of Eyoub; but this fine, gilded, enawhelming politeness had made a point of introducing me to every melled asylum of the inhabitants of the seraglio, of those unknown one of his friends. He told me that the colonel of the artillery, A1 princes who pass but from one tomb to another, has nothing in its Bey, had sent during our absence to say that although they had the aspect which inspires melancholy. To adorn the dead is the pracpermission of the seraskier-pacha for celebrating the feast with tice of the East; and after seeing all her

cities and high places, our music and other entertainments, he would not permit its conti- first reflection is that the dead are better lodged than the living, nuance if they did not give him a Baksheesh (a present), and I was surprised to find that this demand was complied with. I have and the beasts are better used than the men. since learned that it was impossible to refuse, for these haughty Sleep came at last; it was unbroken till I was roused by the mendicants have been known in such a case to seize the bridegroom report of the cannon, which announced to Constantinople them and throw him into prison. It is to be hoped that such a state of | anniversary of the birth of Mohammed.

same manner.



previously marked out. It is so in everything. This morning a

man was digging a path through a deep snow-bank. It was almost The whole character may be said to be comprehended in the insupportably cold, and he seemed to make but little head-way, term habits ; so that it is not so far from being true, that “man is though he worked as if upon a wager. At length, getting out of a bundle of habits.” Suppose you were compelled to wear an iron breath, he paused, and marked out the width of the path with his collar about your neck through life, or a chain upon your ankle ; shovel, then marked out the width of each shovel-full

, and consewould it not be a burden every day and hour of your existence ? quently the amount of snow at each throw of the shovel. In You rise in the morning a prisoner to your chain ; you lie down at fifteen minutes, he had done more, and it was done neater and night, weary with the burden; and you groan the more deeply, as easier, that in thirty minutes previous, when working without a you reflect that there is no shaking it off. But even this would be plan. It is of little consequence by what we illustrate, if we make no more intolerable to bear than many of the habits of men ; nor a thing clear, and impress it upon the mind. I have found, in my would it be more difficult to be shaken off.

own experience, as much difference in the labours of two days, Habits are easily formed—especially such as are bad; and what when working with, or without a plan, as, at least, one-half, withto-day seems to be a small affair, will soon become fixed, and hold out having the satisfaction, in the latter case, of knowing what I you with the strength of a cable. That same cable, you will recol- have done. lect, is formed by spinning and twisting one thread at a time; but, Experience will tell any man, that he is most successful in his when once completed, the proudest ship turns her head towards it, own pursuits, when he is most careful as to method. A man of and acknowledges her subjection to its power.

my acquaintance has a small slate, which hangs at his study-table. Habits of some kind will be formed by every student. He will On that he generally finds, in the morning, his work for the day hare a particular course in which his time, his employments, his written down ; and in the evening he reviews it, sees if he has thoughts and feelings, will run. Good or bad, these habits soon omitted any thing, and, if so, chides himself that all is not done. become a part of himself, and a kind of second nature. Who does -Todd's Student's Manual. not know, that the old man, who has occupied a particular corner of the old fire-place in the old house for sixty years, may be rendered wretched by a change? Who has not read of the release of the aged prisoner of the Bastile, who entreated that he might again

IMMORTALITY OF THOUGHT. return to his gloomy dungeon, because his habits, there formed, Pearful indeed is the responsibility which rests upon each were so strong, that his nature threatened to sink under the attempt one in the formation of the characters of those around him ! a to break them up? You will probably find no man of forty, who has not habits which he laments ; which mar his usefulness, but responsibility, too, from which none can escape, not even the which are so interwoven with his very being, that he cannot break weakest. Every one to whom God has granted the liberty of through them, at least he has not the courage to try. I am ex. speech—nay every one to whom is given the power of conveying pecting you will form habits. Indeed, I wish you to do so. He even a single idea to the mind of another, may contribute in some must be a poor character, indeed, who lives so extempore as not degree to modify his character. Look how much the whole comto have habits of his own. But what I wish is, that you form plexion of the soul may be changed by the operation of a single those habits which are correct, and such as will every day and hour thought. Its influence ceases not as the sound of our voice dies add to your happiness and usefulness. If a man were to be told that he must use the axe, which he now selects, through life, would

away. In the mind of him to whom it is imparted it often long he not be careful in selecting one of the right proportions and afterwards "lives and moves.” Neither does it stand there temper? If told that he must wear the same clothing through life, isolated and alone. Perhaps it touches some secret spring, and would he not be anxious as to the quality and kind ? But these, awakens a train of reflections, of which he who first gave it birth in the cases supposed, would be of no more importance than is the

never dreamed. By the principle of association, another thought, selection of habits in which the soul shall act. You might as well

which seems naturally to arise from it, is called into being, and place the body in a strait-jacket, and expect it to perform, with

then another from this, until they flow on in long succession to tase, and comfort, and promptness, the various duties of the body, as to throw the soul into the habits of some men, and then expect end we know not where. Sometimes the sentiment thus lightly it will accomplish anything great or good.

imparted in conversation, which was forgotten at once by the Do not fear to undertake to form any babit which is desirable ; speaker, has remained in the mind of him who heard it, recurring for it can be formed, and that with more ease than you may at first to his memory again and again, through a length of years. How suppose. Let the same thing, or the same duty, relurn at the powerful an effect then may a single sentence produce in modusame time every day, and it will soon become pleasant. No matter lating character! and who would carelessly take the responsibility if it be irksome at first; but how irksome soever it may be, only let it return periodically, every day, and that without any interrup

of fixing in the mind of another that thought, which is to link to tion for a time, and it will become a positive pleasure. In this itself such important results ? way all our habits are formed. The student who can with ease now What a striking hypothesis, by the way, is that of Coleridge sit down, and hold his mind down to his studies nine or ten hours connected with his curious history of the German servant-girl

, a day, would find the labourer, or the man accustomed to active familiar, no doubt, to our readers—that no thoughts which have habits, sinking under it, should he attempt to do the same thing, once entered into the mind ever perish—that, instead of passing I have seen a man sit down at the table spread with luxury, and away, as we are accustomed to believe, or being utterly blotted eat his sailor's biscuit with relish, and without a desire for any other out, they are only for a time concealed and buried beneath more food. His health bad compelled him thus to live, till it had recent impressions—that they are inscribed upon the imperishbecome a pleasant habit of diet. Previous to this, however, he had able tablet of the memory, there to remain for ever ; like those been rather noted for being an epicure. “I once attended a pri- buried cities of Italy, safe and uninjured, though their very existsoner," says an excellent man, " of some distinction, in one of the ence was forgotten. Every one's experience furnishes at least prisons of the metropolis, ill of a typhus fever, whose apartments something analogous in confirmation of this idea. How often do were gloomy in the extreme, and surrounded with horrors ; yet this thoughts, which for years have slumbered, again suddenly flash prisoner assured me afterwards, that, upon his release, he quitted upon us in all their force, we know not how, or whence ! The them with a degree of reluctance; custom had reconciled him to words of an old song-the incidents of our childhood—the feelings the twilight admitted through the thick-barred grate, to the filthy which then influenced us, but which had for years perished from spots and patches of his plastered walls, to the hardness of his bed, the memory, suddenly awake from their silence, and sweep back and even to confinement."

over the soul. There is fearful solemnity in the thought, that in I shall specify habits which, in my view, are very desirable to our unguarded moments of social intercourse, we may fix in the the student, and, at the same time, endeavour to give specific direc- minds of others thoughts and influences which we would not wish tions how to form them.

to remain there for ever, especially if we follow out the suggestion 1. Have a plan laid beforehand for every day.

referred to that this is the mysterious record implanted within These plans ought to be inaturely formed the evening previous, man, which is one day to give with unerring certainty the long and, on rising in the morning, again looked at, and immediately history of his life, at that day when the thoughts of all hearts entered apon. It is astonishing how much more we accomplish in shall be called into judgment--nothing lost-nothing forgotten.a single day, (and of what else is life made up ?) by having the plan New York Review.

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