« AnteriorContinuar »
POETIC DESCRIPTION OF THE DEVONSHIRE CLIMATE. “ Weary and faint from the fatigue of our journey," says Lieutenant Well
The west wind always brings wet weather, sted, in his Travels in Arabia, “ in order to enjoy the freshness of the
The east wind wet and cold together; evening breeze, I had spread my carpet beneath a tree. An Arab, passing
The south wind surely brings us rain, by, paused to gaze upon me, and touched by my condition and the melan
The north wind blows it back again; choly which was depicted in my countenance, he proffered the salutation of
If the sun in red should set, peace, pointed to the crystal stream which, sparkling, held its course at
The next day surely will be wet; my feet, and said, Look, friend ; for running water maketh the heart glad.'
If the sun should set in gray, With his hands folded over his breast, that mute but most graceful of
The next will be a rainy day. Eastern salutations, he bowed and passed on. I was in a situation to esti
THE DUMB MADE TO SPEAK. mate sympathy; and so much of that feeling was exhibited in the manner of this son of the desert, that I have never since recurred to the incident,
“ In the time of Iluzrut Moossa, (the prophet Moses,) there was an old trifling as it is, without emotion."
woman, a widow, whose years exceeded a hundred, and she had been long SPEECH.
dumb from very age ; but she still insisted on guiding her family, and kept
all her children, who amounted to forty or fifty, locked up in cages in her : "Speech is morning to the mind; it spreads the beauteous images abroad, house, so that they could not go out and enjoy themselves. Weary, at length, which else lie furled and clouded in the soul."--Nat. Lee.
of their confinement, they applied to Moses, and besought him to pray to CARRION CROWS AND YOUNG DUCKLINGS.
God to have their old mother removed, that they might have their turn of In 1815, I fully satisfied myself of the inordinate partiality of the carrion
enjoyinent. • That can be done,' replied Moses ; .but say, shall I not rather
offer her the choice of another husband?' The children scoffed at this idea; crow for young aquatic poultry. The cook had in her custody a brood of ten ducklings, which had been hatched about a fortnight. Unobserved by any
but the old woman, in whose presence this passed, got into a furious passion, body, I put the old duck and her young ones into a pond, nearly three hun.
and her tongue, which had been still for years, got into play at the very dred yards from a high fir-tree in which a carrion crow had built its nest :
mention of another husband. •You wretched wretches !' she exclaimed, it contained five young ones almost fledged. I took my station on the bridge, prevent me from enjoying the good
he offers?!"–J. B. Fraser.
would you interfere with the favour of the prophet of God towards me, and about one hundred yards from the tree. Nine times the parent crows flew to the pond, and brought back a duckling each time to their young. I saved
HUMAN HAPPINESS. a tenth victim by timely interference. When a young brood is attacked by "I have lived," says the indefatigable Dr. Clarke, “ to know that the great an enemy, the old duck does nothing to defend it. In lieu of putting herself
secret of human happiness is this never suffer your energies to stagnate. betwixt it and danger, as the dunghill fowl would do, she opens her mouth,
The old adage of. Too many irons in the fire' conveys an abominable false and shoots obliquely through the water, beating it with her wings. During hood : you cannot have too many: poker, tongs, and all—keep then all these useless movements, the invader secures his prey with impunity.- going." Waterton.
Mr. Paravey writes, that a rabbinical fable is preserved in the work of Youth beholds happiness gleaming in the prospect. Age
Basnage, in which mention is made of the samir worm, used for polishing the happiness of youth ; and, instead of hopes, seeks its enjoyment in the
the stones of the Temple of Jerusalem without noise, when Solomon caused recollections of hope.-Omniana,
the construction of this edifice. All this, says M. Paravey, seems to be ex. RETRIBUTION.
plained by the fact observed by M. Ehrenberg, that certain tripolis are By the sun, and its rising brightness ;
almost entirely composed of the siliceous coverings of infusoria.
CLOCK AT VERSAILLES.
Preparations have been made at Versailles to replace the clock of the king's
death, in the court called the Cour de Marbre. This clock has no mechaniBy the heaven, and Him who built it ;
ism, and has only one hand, which is placed at the precise moment of the By the earth, and Him who spread it forth ;!
death of the last king of France, and which does not move during the whole By the soul and Him who completely formed it,
of his successor's reign. This custom dates from the time of Louis XIIIAnd inspired into the same its faculty of distinguishing,
VAN DIEMEN'S LAND.
Some years since, the prisoner population, compared with the free, was as
thirty to one; but at present in Van Diemen's Land it is as six to one. This
is easily accounted for: there are very few marriages between prisoners, CARBONIZED TREE.
whereas it is otherwise with those who enjoy freedom; and it is also well A tree in a complete state of carbonization has been found at Guadaloupe, known that marriages in these colonies are for the most part very prolific, buried in the midst of volcanic substances. There was no vestige of leaves ; so that every year the disproportion between the two classes becomes greater. it was broken seven feet below the first branches, and the fracture resembled -Hobart Town Courier. that of trees destroyed by a hurricane ; it was at intervals surrounded by a
DREAMS. parchment-like, cylindrical substance, the colour of a dead leaf, which was
For the most part our speeches in the day time cause our phantasy to work the remainder of a vegetable, called in that country the “burning liana,"
upon the like in our sleep: as a dog dreams of a hare, so do men on such subwhich is as succulent as the cactus, and which, being suddenly exposed to a
jects they thought on fast. For that cause when Ptolemy, king of Egypt, violent heat, lost its aqueous particles without the entire destruction of its
had posed the seventy interpreters in order, and asked the nineteenth man, bark. The whole was found in a stratum of red puzzolanum mixed with
what would make one sleep quietly in the night; he told him, the best way pumice. The charcoal to which it was reduced, was the same as that used
was to have divine and celestial meditations, and to use honest actions in the for domestic purposes, except that a slight smell of coal was exhaled from it
day time-Burlon's Anat. of Mel, during combustion. Six different strata lay above this tree; the uppermost, of vegetable earth, proved the antiquity of the whole, and this, combined
PREVENTION OF FIRE. with the distance from the present active volcano, makes it probable that the
M. Letellier proposes, in a memoir presented to the French Academy of eruption which covered it proceeded from the Huelmont group, of which
Sciences, to steep vegetable substances, such as paper, linen, &c., in a.com the Caraibe forms the principal summit.-Athenæum.
centrated solution of glass formed of four parts of potash and one of silex, AN INCONVENIENT LIKENESS.
in order to render them less liable to take fire. A respectable young man was tried for a highway robbery committed at
A SHOWMAN'S PROCLAMATION. Bethnal Green, in which neighbourhood both he and the prosecutor resided.
The following proclamation of a showman was taken verbatim as he cried The prosecutor swore positively that the prisoner was the man who robbed
it through the streets :-“Will be shown at the Town Hall, Tavistock, at the him of his watch. The counsel for the prisoner called a genteel young
hours of seven, eight, and nine, to the nobility and gentry, what is called in woman, to whom the prisoner paid his addresses, who gave evidence which
the French language phantasmagory, in the English, magic lantern. All proved a complete alibi. The prosecutor was then ordered out of court, and
sorts of birds, beasts, reptiles, and pantomimes, 'specially the forked lightin the interval another young man, of the name of Greenwood, who awaited
ning seen in many parts of England, but chiefly in the East and West Ingies ; his trial on a capital charge of felony, was introduced and placed by the side
also what we are, and what we is to be-namely, death as large as any living of the prisoner. The prosecutor was again put up into the witness-box, and
being, six foot high, with an hour-glass in his hand; and everything instruct
: addressed thus: Remember, sir, the life of this young man depends upon
ing and amusing to all ages and societies, both the old and the juvenile. I your reply to the question I am about to put, Will you swear again that the
hope you will all come. If you cannot all come as many as can come ; young man at tho bar is the person who assaulted and robbed you?' The
and nobody can say it a'nt worth seeing, except he says it agin' his com witness turned his head towards the dock, when, beholding two men so
science. Boys and girls for the sum of one penny. Their honest working nearly alike, he became petrified with astonishment, dropped his hat, and
parents for the sum of twopence. Gentlemen and ladies, sixpence each. was speechless for a time, but at length declined swearing to either. The
God save us all."-Mrs. Bray's Letters. young man was of course acquitted. Greenwood was tried for another offence, and executed; and a few hours before his death acknowledged that he had committed the robbery with which the other was charged.- Jills, London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. on Circumstantial Evidence,
& Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Evans, Whitefriars.
than the king whose forehead frowns beneath the weight of the CHEERFULNESS.
most splendid crown. An Italian monk, having been once asked how it happened that I have a pet phrase, which I use so often that my friends turn it he at all times, in the cold of winter as well as in the heat of into a subject of ridicule. An event happens, (not a very pleasant summer, looked so cheerful, while most of his brethren of the one, perhaps,) and, though it concerns my own welfare, I am same monastery appeared addicted to a temperament quite the very little disposed to grieve about it. My wife wonders at my reverse, answered, that whenever he found himself at all disposed imperturbability, and asks why I do not lament it? I ask in my to be gloomy, he looked out of his little window towards the sky, turn, “ cui bono ?” This is my great resource, my talismanic or upon the earth, and his heart was at once filled with emotions temple of refuge. Can grief mend the matter? Can dull, down. of the most unqualified happiress. If it were morning, he beheld cast looks,- ,—can a failing heart,-can an impatient temper, fit ms the sun, round which myriads of nations—not only those dwelling for hearing up against a misfortune which has really occurred ? 18 upon our planet, but those placed also upon the other spheres be- it has occurred, it is already passing away. If it, only be aplonging to our system,—were moving in the enjoyment of the one proaching, who knows but it may by other events be turned aside great central source of light. Nor were they the nations of men altogether? and then my fears (if fears I entertain) are so much of merely in whose felicity he rejoiced. He felt that there was not a merry existence absolutely and most unnecessarily spoiled. If the bird in the air, nor a gnat in the sunbeams,-not a quadruped in calamity has come and gone, cui bono to recall it, and to turn it the forest, nor a lily in the field, nor a fish in the deep,—that did around on all sides for the critical examination of a gloomy habit of cot more or less exult in the return of the day. Why should he mind? My cui bono may be laughed at, but nevertheless there is not share in their joy?
more of philosophy ir the phrase, and if I may presume to add If it were night, and sadness knocked at the door of his solitary of sound religion, too, than in many ponderous volumes of sermons cell
, again he looked to the heavens, and in vain attempted to which I could name. count the new suns and worlds through which he was journeying
" Ever against eating cares with the planet upon which it was his destiny to be fixed for a
Lap me in soft Lydian airs, while. He thought of the hosts of intelligent creatures for whose
Married to immortal verse,
Such as the meeting soul may pierce, benefit those glorious lights were created. He felt that, however
In notes, with many a winding bout humble he was, however limited the sphere of his duties, he was
of linked sweetness long drawn out, one of those to whom the care of the Great Parent of all extended.
With wanton heed and giddy cunning; His bosom swelled with the hymn of praise which those multitu.
The melting voice through mazes running, dinous legions were raising towards the fountain of life and light.
Untwisting all the chains that tio
The hidden soul of harmony." His feelings bounded beyond the thresholds of time; his soul passed for the moment into those regions of space where years, or I cannot, however, claim originality for my cui lono. I days, or hours were unknown ; his mind overflowed with love,- borrowed it of an old man, who deserved to be a brother of the that absorbirg, seraphic, ever increasing love, which no temporal Italian monk already mentioned. He had, however, seep more of object can ever excite. He then turned to the traveller who had the world than the anchorite, and he was never upprepared to find interrogated him, and said, “ You may think me a visionary, per- a subject of consolation for persons in every station. haps ; but, after all, I would not give these my dreams—if dreams unmarried,” he would say—“ well, you are freed from the cares of they be—for all the realities of that which is usually called life. children-the perplexities of household affairs the peril of having These are the sources of my cheerfulness. They help me in the drawn something else than a prize from the lottery of matrimony. performance of my various duties. They enable me to look upon It will cost you but a little industry to make a competency ; enjoy the necessary evils of human existence as so many trifling occur- it by sharing it with your friends. Keep a clear conscience, and all rences not worthy of notice, at least, not worthy of a tear ; and, if will be well with you. You are poor be it so, does wealth I feel happy in my heart, I cannot help showing it in my counte. produce happiness? I know a man who possesses more money
than he can ever spend, unless he chooses absolutely to throw it The stranger acknowledged that he had never heard more wisdom into the sea. He has a splendid mansion in town-a beautiful villa accumulated in a few words than in those which had just reached in the country—an elegant woman for his wife, and a numerous his ear from the smiling lips of the Italian monk, whose cheek, and lovely family. Yet he is not happy, though he beasts of though bronzed by many a summer sun, still glowed with the having no want. But you have, I said to him, the greatest of vigour of a healthy constitution. In truth, the cultivation of wants-you want a want. This was literally the fact. He had cheerfulness is the secret of health of the highest and the most nothing to desire, so far as temporal affairs were concerned. He uniform order. It is, moreover, in itself a virtue well entitled to had retired from business, and was without any regular occupation a place amongst those which are called the cardinal. It fits the adequate to engage the energies of his mind. We were walking mind for study, for conflict, for command or obedience ; it enables through his grounds on a fine spring morning. I stopped him to the body to sustain fatigue; and the person in whose bosom it observe a company of gnats who were divided into sets of tens or usually resides has more power to make those around him happy, twelves, and dancing in regular figures. They seemed, short as
" You are
Pradbury ard Evans, Printers, Whitefrları
A PARAGRAPH FOR DRUNKARDS. - HOW TO FACE AN ENEMY.
was the time they were doomed to live, in the enjoyment of perfect
THE LUMBERERS OF AMERICA. bliss. These creatures, said I, have each of them a want, they are full of a love that seeks reciprocity; and while they are in pur- The following interesting description of the “ processes of the suit of the favourite object, what can equal their activity, their lumber business," as carried on in Maine, is from the North
American Review. Maine, as our readers are aware, is the most happiness? The moment that want is satisfied, they peris!ı.
easterly of the United States, adjoining the British province of “One man,” continued my aged friend, “ is less prosperous in New Brunswick-the great timber district of America. The busihis profession than his neighbour. But look at his children, you ness of procuring the timber for exportation, is called lumbering see none more blessed with talent. They learn with such a sur
“When a lumberer has concluded to log on a particular tract, the prising facility that it is delightful to teaca them. They forın for first step is to go with a part of his hands, and select suitable situathe fire-side a source of unmixed gratitude, a consolation for all the tions for building his camps. In making this selection, his object ills of life. Another had amassed great wealth for his children, but is to be as near as possible to the best clumps of timber he intends they have all gone from his side, carried away by some contagion or
to haul, and to the streams into which he intends to haul it. He
then proceeds to build his camps, and to cut out and clear out his an hereditary disease. Well—they have gone to prepare his way to principal roads. The camps are built of logs, being a kind of log a better world—to alienate him betimes from an excessive love for houses. They are made about three feet high on one side, and this life ; and it is in his power to remove the despair of the unpro- eight or nine on the other, with a roof slanting one way. The roof vided widow-to dry the tear of the orphan. The peasant, who is is made of shingles, split out of green wood, and laid upon rafters
The door is made of such boards as can be manufactured out of a below the reach of care, is often the gayest of the gay for that very log with an axe. Against the tallest side of the camp is built the
In short, let us but act upon the impression that there is chimney; the back being formed by the wall of the camp, and the scarcely a position in life without its means of cheerfulness, and if sides made by green logs, piled up for jams, about eight feet apart. we only take the trouble to adopt them, we shall be amply rewarded The chimney seldom rises above the roof of the camp; though
some, who are nice in their architectural notions, sometimes carry for our labour."
it up two or three feet higher. It is obvious, from the construction, that nothing but the greenness of the timber prevents the camp from being burnt up immediately. Yet the great fires that
are kept up, make but little impression, in the course of the win. HENRY PÅrker, at the age of seventeen, was, by the death of ter, upon the back or sides of the chimney. A case, however, his master, left alone in the world to gain a livelihood as a shoe- happened within a year or two, where a camp took fire in the maker. He shouldered his kit, and went from house to house night, and was consumed, and the lumberers in it were burnt to making up the farmers' leather, and mending the children's shoes. death. Probably the shingle roof had become dry, in which case At length a good old man, pleased with Henry's industry and a spark would kindle it, and the flames would spread over it in a steady habits, offered him a small building as a shop. Here Henry moment. applied himself to work with persevering industry and untiring “ Parallel to the lower side of the building, and about six feet ardour. Early in the morning he was whistling over his work, and from it, a stick of timber runs on the ground across the camp. The his hammer was often heard till the “noon of night.” He thus space between this and the lower wall is appropriated to the bedobtained a good reputation, and some of this world's goods. He ding; the stick of timber serving to confine it in its place. The soon married a virtuous female, whose kind disposition added new bedding consists of a layer of hemlock boughs spread upon the joys to his existence, and whose busy neatness rendered pleasant ground, and covered with such old quilts and blankets as the and comfortable their little tenement. Time passed smoothly on; tenants can bring away from their homes. The men camp down they were blessed with the smiling pledges of their affection, and together, with their heads to the lower wall and their feet towards in a few years Henry was the possessor of a neat little cottage and the fire. Before going to bed, they replenish their fire; some two a piece of land. This they improved, and it soon became the or more of them being employed in putting on such logs, as with abode of plenty and joy. But Henry began to relax in his conduct, their handspikes they can manage to pile into the chimney. As and would occasionally walk down to an alehouse in the neigh- the walls of the building are not very tight, the cool air plays freely bourhood. This soon became a habit, and the habit imperceptibly round the head of the sleeper, making a difference of temperature grew upon him, until (to the grief of all who knew him) he became between the head and the feet not altogether agreeable to one in. a constant lounger about the alehouse and skittle ground, and, used to sleep in camps. A rough bench and table complete the going on from bad to worse, he became an habitual drunkard. furniture of the establishment. A camp very similar, though not The inevitable consequences soon followed : he got into debt, and so large in its dimensions, is built near for the oxen. On the top his creditors soon took possession of all he had. His poor wife of this the hay is piled up, giving it some warmth, while it is conve. used all the arts of persuasion to reclaim him, and she could not nient for feeding. think of using him harshty: she loved him even in his degradation, "A large logging concern will require a number of camps, which for he had always been kind to her. Many an earnest petition did will be distributed over the tract, so as best to accommodate the she prefer to Heaven for his reformation, and often did she endea- timber. One camp serves generally for one or two teams. A tean, vour to work upon his paternal feelings.' Over and over again he in ordinary logging parlance, expresses, not only the set of four of promised to reform, and at last was as good as his word, for he was six oxen that draw the logs, but likewise a gang of men employed induced to stay away from the alehouse for three days together. to tend them. It takes from three or four to seven or eight men, His anxious wife began to cherish a hope of returning happiness; to keep one team employed ; one man being employed in driving but a sudden cloud one day for a moment damped her joy; the cattle, and the others in cutting down the trees, cutting them “Betsey," said he, as he rose from his work, "give me that bottle.' into logs, barking them, and cutting and clearing the way to each These words pierced her very heart, and seemed to sound the knell tree. The number of hands required, depends upon the distance of all her cherished hopes ; but she could not disobey him. He to be hauled inversely. That is, most bands are required when the went out with his bottle, had it filled at the alehouse, and, on re- distance is shortest ; because the oxen, returning more frequently, turning hoine, placed it in the window immediately before him. require their loads to be prepared more expeditiously. “Now,” said he, “I can face an enemy.” With a resolution * Having built their camps, or while building them, the main fixed upon cvercoming his pernicious habits, he went earnestly to roads are to be cut out. These run from the camps to the landing work, always having the bottle before him, but never again touched places,
or some stream of sufficient size to float down the longs on it. Again he began to thrive, and in a few years he was once more the spring freshet. Other roads are cut to other clumps of timber, the owner of his former delightful residence ; his children grew up, They are made by cutting and clearing away the underbruāb, and and are now respectable meinbers of society. Old age came upon such trees and old logs as may be in the way, to a sufficient width Henry, and he always kept the bottle in the window where he had for the team of oxen, with the bob sled and timber on it, to pass first put it; and often, when his head was silvered over with age, conveniently. The bob sled is made to carry one end of the timo he would refer to his bottle, and thank God that he had been able ber only,
the other drags upon the ground; and the bark is chipto overcome the vice of drunkenness. He never permitted it to be ped off, that the log may slip along more easily. removed from that window while he lived, and there it remained “The teams proceed to the woods when the first snows come, until after he had been consigned to his narrow home.-Chest. Gaz. / with the hands who are not already there, and
the supplies. The
supplies consist principally of pork and four for the men, and established, extending across the river, for the purpose of stopping Indian meal for the oxen. Some beans, tea, and molasses, are all the logs that come down. It is made by a floating chain of added. Formerly hogsheads of rum were considered indispensable, logs connected by iron links, and supported at suitable distances by and I have before me a bill of supplies for a logging concern of solid piers built in the river ; without this it would be impossible three teams in 1827-28, in which I find one hundred and eighty to stop a large part of the logs, and they would be carried on the gallons of rum charged. But of late, very few respectable lumber- treshet down the river, and out to sea. The boom is owned by an ers take any spirits with them. And the logging business is con- individual who derives a large profit from the boomage, which is sequently carried on with much more method, economy, and profit. thirty-five cents per thousand on all logs coming into it. The The pork and flour must be of the best quality. Lumberers are boom cost the present owner abont 40,000 dollars. He has offered seldom content to take any of an inferior sort; and even now, when it for sale for 45,000 dollars. It is said the net income from it flour is twelve dollars a barrel, they are not to be satisfied with the last year, was 15,000 dollars. coarser bread stuffs.
“Here all the logs that come down the Penobscot, are collected Hay is procured as near to the camps as possible. But as in one immense muss, covering many acres, where is intermingled most of the timber lands are remote from settlements, it is gene- the property of all the owners of timber lands, in all the broad rally necessary to haul it a considerable distance. And as it region that is watered by the Penobscot and its branches, from the must be purchased of the nearest settlers, they are enabled to east line of Canada above Moosehead Lake, on the one side, to the obtain very high prices. From twelve to twenty dollars per ton west line of New Brunswick, on the other. Here the timber is usually paid. When the expense of hauling it to the camp is remains, till the logs can be sorted out for each owner, and rafted added, the whole cost is frequently as high as thirty dollars a ton, together to be floated to the mills or other places below. Rafting and sometimes much higher. Owners of timber lands at a distance is the connecting the logs together by cordage, which is secured from settlements, may make a great saving, by clearing up a piece by pins driven into each log, forming them into bands, like the of their land, and raising their own hay.
ranks of a regiment. This operation is performed by the owner of " Some one of the hands, who has not so much efficiency in the boom. The ownership of the timber is ascertained by the getting timber, as skill in kneading bread and frying pork, is marks which have been chopped into each log before it left the appointed to the office of cook. Salt pork, flour, bread, and tea, woods ; each owner having a mark, or combination of marks, of constitute the regular routine of the meals, varied sometimes with
When the boom is full, only the logs lowest down can salt fish or salt beef. Potatoes are used when they can be had. be got at, and the proprietors of other logs must wait weeks, Now and then, perhaps, when the snow is deep, they catch a deer, sometimes months, before they can get them out, to their great and live on venison.
inconvenience and damage. " The men are employed, through the day, in cutting the timber “ After the logs are raited, and out of the boom, a great part of and driving the teams. In the evening some take care of the them are lodged for convenience, in a place called Pen Cove, oxen ; some cat wood for the fire ; then they amuse themselves which is a large and secure basin in the river, about two miles with stories and singing, or in other ways, until they feel inclined below the boom. From this cove they can be taken out as they to turn in upon the universal bed. On Sundays the employer are wanted for the mills below. While in the boom, and at claims no control over their time, beyond the taking care of the other places on the river, they are liable to great loss from plun. cattle, the fire, and the cooking. On this day, they do their derers. The owners or drivers of logs will frequently smuggle washing and mending; some employ themselves besides, in seek all that come in their way, without regard to marks. The ing timber, and some in hunting partridges ; whilst some remain owners or conductors of some of the mills on the river are said in the camp and read the Bible.
to be not above encouraging and practising this species of piracy. "They remain in the woods from the commencement of sled- Indeed timber, in all its stages, seems to be considered a fair ding, some time in December, until some time in March ; in the object for plunderers, from the petty pilferer who steals into the course of which month, their labours are usually brought to a close, woods, fells a tree, cuts it into shingles and carries it out on his either by the snow's getting too shallow or too deep. If there are back, to the comparatively rich owner of thousands of dollars. heavy thaws, the snow runs off, not leaving enough to make good “ When the logs have been sawn at the mills, there is another hauling. If, on the other hand, it gets to be four or five feet deep, rafting of the boards, which are floated down the river to Bangor, the oxen cannot break through it, to make the path which it is to be embarked on board the coasters for Boston. In this pronecessary to form, in order to get at each individual tree. The cess they are subject to much injury, first by the mode of catch. men and teams then leave the woods. Sometimes one or two ing them as they come from the mill sluices, the rafters making remain, to be at hand when the streams open. I know one, who use of a picaroon, or pole with a spike in the end of it, which is last winter stayed by bimself in the woods, fifteen or twenty miles repeatedly and unmercifully driven into the boards, taking out from the nearest habitation, for the space of twenty-eight days ; | perhaps a piece at each time ; secondly, by the holes made by during which time he earned 203 dollars by getting in timber with the pins driven into the boards in rafting ; and thirdly, by the his axe alone, being allowed for it at the same rate per thousand rocks and rapids and shallows in the river, breaking the rafts to that the lumberers were, in getting it in with their teams. He pieces, and splitting up the boards as they descend. These in. found some berths in the banks of the stream, where all that was conveniences will be partly remedied by the railroad now in necessary was to fell the tree so that it should fall directly upon operation, unless other inconveniences in the use of it should be the water, and there cut it into logs to be ready for running. found to overbalance them.
“When the streams are opened, and there is a sufficient freshet “ The kinds of timber brought down our rivers are pine, spruce, to float the timber, another gang, called .river drivers,' take charge hemlock, ash, birch, maple, cedar, and hackmatack. Far the of it. It is their business to start it from the banks, and follow it greater part of it is pine. The lumberers make about six kinds down the river, clearing off what lodges against rocks, pursuing of pine ; though they do not agree exactly in the classification, and bringing back the sticks that run wild among the bushes and or in the use of some of the names. The most common division trees, that cover the low lands adjoining the river, and breaking up is into pumpkin pine, timber pine, sapling, bull sapling, * Norway, jams that form in narrow and shallow places. A jam is caused by and yellow or pitch pine. The pumpkin pine stands pre-eminent obstacles in the river catching some of the sticks, which in their in the affections of the lumberers, because it is the largest tree, turn catch others coming down, and so the mass increases until a and makes fine large clear boards. They are soft and of a yel. solid dam is formed, which entirely stops up the river, and prevents lowish cast. The timber pine and saplings are the most common. the further passage of any logs. These dams are most frequently The former is generally preferred, as being larger and more formed at the top of some fall. And it is often a service that likely to be sound. Yet the saplings are said to make the harder requires much skill and boldness, and is attended with much danger, and more durable boards. The common sapling grows in low to break them up. The persons who undertake it must go on to lands, generally very thick, but is apt to be much of it rotten. the mass of logs, work some out with their pick poles, cut some to The buil sappling is larger and sounder, grows on higher land, pieces, attach ropes to others to be hauled out by the hands on and mixed with hard wood. The Norway pine t is a much shore, and they must be on the alert to watch the moment of the harder kind of timber than the others. It is seldom sawed into starting of the timber, and exercise all their activity to get clear of boards, though it makes excellent floor boards. But it is geneit, before they are carried off in its tumultuous rush.
rally hewed into square timber. In the provinces it bears a "Some weeks, more or less, according to the distance, spent in
* All the kinds here named, with the exception of the two last, are this way, brings the timber to the neighbourhood of the saw mills. varieties of white pine. A short distance above Oldtown, on the Penobscot, there is a boom + This pino is called also red pinc, from the colour of its bark.
higher price than the others. There is not much of it brought racter, which enables him frequently to outstrip his competitors. to market, and it is not very abundant in the woods. The yellow Working men, too, must usually be self-taught : for, obliged as pine is very scarce, if to be found at all in that region.
they are to commence earning a subsistence early in life, much “We will conclude with some remarks upon the different modes that they acquire must be obtained in time taken from their brief of operating, made use of by owners of timber. These are three. moments of relaxation, when the tired body and mind naturally One is, for the owner to hire his men by the month, procure shrink from anything in the nature of mental exertion. This teams, and furnish them with equipments and supplies. A second must still continue to be the case to a large extent, even though is, to agree with some one or more individuals to cut and haul the present generation, to use Mr. Claxton's phrase, “lives in the timber, or cut, haul, and run it, at a certain price per thou- clover,” as compared with the past. sand feet. The third way is to sell the stumpage outright; that Mr. Claxton tells us that he was " born in the year 1790, about is, to sell the timber standing.
a hundred miles from London, and one mile from a small market “ The first mode is seldom adopted, unless the owner of the town." His father was a day-labourer ; and he himself took care timber is likewise a lumberer, and intends to superintend the of a flock of sheep, and afterwards worked “in a garden for sup. business himself. The second mode is very common.
It is plying the market, till I was near thirteen, when I was apprenticed. considered the most saving to the owners, because the lumberer | My father gave me the choice of being a carpenter or a whitesmith. has no inducement to select the best timber, and leave all that is I chose the latter ; and have continued in that business, or kin. not of the first quality; to cui down trees and take a log, and dred branches, now over thirty years. I was to serve seven years leave others to rot that are not quite so good, but which may be for certain weekly wages, and ten pounds were to be added at the well worth hauling. Its inconveniences are, that as the object end of the terın, if I was thought to deserve it.” He passed his of the lumber er is to get as large a quantity as possible, he will apprenticeship creditably, picking up information as he couid; take trees that are not worth as much as the cost of getting and, having a strong partiality for mechanical pursuits, by trying them to market, and which, besides being of little value them. his hand in making ingenious toys and gimcracks. When he had selves, render the whole lot less saleable by the bad appearance served out his time, bis master gave him ten pounds, and inquired they give it. The owner too is subject to all the losses that may
what he should do with himself. ** Go to London, sir,' answered happen, in running the logs down the river. Very frequently he 1, for 1 had made up my mind. • Well, Tim,' said be, keep is obliged to make one contract to have the timber cut and hauled your right hand forward, and you will do well enough ;' and he to the landing places, and another to have it run down ; for the gave me a hearty farewell.” river drivers are a distinct class from the lumberers. Most of “I reached this great city in April, 1810. From the circum. them are indeed lumberers, but it is but a small part of the stance of having lived in a rural district, I had then never seen so lumberers that are river drivers. A great part of the lumberers much as a steam-engine, or heard a lecture on anything, or read a are farmers who must be on their farms at the season of driving, book connected with the arts and sciences, save what I hare men. and therefore cannot undertake anything but the cutting and tioned, and a poor Geography borrowed for a short time. The hauling. They are paid for the number of thousand feet they reader will bear these things in mind. He must make allowances deposit at the landing places; and the logs being surveyed, or for the generation of mechanics of that day, which are not to be sealed, as they are hauled, their ohject is to get as many thousand taken for those of this. A man, or a boy, then, mighit possibly as possible on the landing places ; while the river drivers may be talk with some plausibility of the lack of opportunities. Nothing very careless about getting them all down, and the owner may had then been done to cheapen, and circulate, and simplify useful never receive nearly the quantity be has paid for cutting and knowledge for the mass of the people. There were no Mechanics' hauling. In operating in this mode, the owner usually furnishes Institutions-no popular libraries or reading rooms-00 lectures the supplies, provisions, &c.; and the lurberer procures the teams which we operatives could get at, or understand if we did." and hires the men. The owner commonly does not bind himself
continues Mr. Claxton, “just twenty-five years of to pay, before the logs get to market; and he frequently makes a age, wben I saw for the first time a course of lectures announced. contract for his supplies on the same condition, in which case he It was on Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. The talk abo'rt has to pay from twenty-five to thirty-three per cent. more for his pneumatics, hydrodynamics, &c., was of course all Greek to me; goods, than he would dealing on cash or common credit. Some. but looking farther down, I found notices of experiments to be times, when there is no freshet, the logs do not get down until the made on engines, and so on, and so I bought a ticket, and atsecond year; and then the trader and lumberer both suffer for want tended the first lecture. This pleased me so much that I took
notes, and also drew sketches of the apparatus. Going home, I “The third mode is the simplest and easiest for the owner. sat up very late to write out all I could remember of the lecture; He avoids all trouble of furnishing supplies, of watching the and here my juvenile practiee helped me again, even the tiresome timber on the river, and of looking out for a market. But he copying I used to do for my father. So I went on, from October must have a man of some capital to deal with, as he furnishes his 1815 till the next April. Then I got a book on Natural Philoown teams and supplies, and pays his men, receiving very heavy sophy, and followed the subject up, for there's nothing, I found, advances. The purchaser of it has no interest to cut the timber like · striking while the iron is hot.' Then I made various arsavingly, and he sometimes makes dreadful havock among the ticles to try experiments with, which my mechanical practice trees, leaving a great deal of valuable stuff on the ground to rot. rendered easy work. I went to a second course, and then 10 And if he selects only the best trees in a berth, much of the others given by other persons. Finally, I applied for admission timber left standing may be lost, because no one will afterwards to a Philosophical Society ; but, alas ! one wanted friends at court want to go into that berth, from which all the best trees have been in those days. Never discouraged, however, what should I do in culled. It is common now, in all large concerns, for the owner such a case? Let any mechanic of this generation imagine him. to employ a man to pass the winter in the camps, living alternately self living twenty years ago, and consider. • Why,' thought I, at one or another, for the purpose of sealing the logs, keeping a 'I am a mechanic, and though that is the very reason why I wish correct account of them, and seeing that the timber is cut accord- to be admitted, and why I should be, it is the very reason also, ing to the contract. But, after all, there is always found to be a why I am not. It is clear, then, the mechanics must look to considerable difference between timber cut by the thousand, and themselves, and to each other. Well, a number of us having that which is cut on stumpage.
talked it over, I wrote a circular, dated June 24th, 1817, (it was “ Each mode has its troubles. But we think that owners at a well I could write one,) got it printed, and sent it round town." distance will manage their concerns with least vexation by selling This was six years before the London Mechanics' Institution was the stumpage, provided that they have hopest men to deal with." ormed.
The result was, that a small society was formed, called the Me. MECHANICS AND MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS.* chanical Institution, which existed about three years, from 1817 MR. CLAXton is what we may term a mechanic of the right sort,
to 1820. Mr. Claxton acted as secretary. In the last-mentioned -a self-taught man, who, having helped himself through life, year he went to St. Petersburg, being employed to erect gas-works wishes all his brother mechanics to do the same. He accordingly
in a large building, used for the transaction of the military business sots great value on self-instruction, and certainly we have no wish
of the Russian government. Here he remained three years. In to depreciate it ; for whatever may be the defects incident to the
1823 he left Russia for Boston, United States, and engaged 10 education of a self-taught man, he usually exhibits a force of cha.
work in a machine-shop at a cotton factory, situnted something
less than thirty miles from Boston, where he was engaged till Hints to Mechanics, on Self-Education and Mutual Instruction, Ry 1826, and took a leading part in a society for reading and mutual TIMOTHY CLAXTON. London: Taylor and Walton, 1839.
instruction, which was in existence before he arrived. On his
of their pay: