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return to Boston, he joined in promoting the formation of the
Estab. Mein. Sub. Vols. Lestures, Boston Mechanics' Institution. Mr. Claxton's object in telling his story, is to give, from his own
8. d. personal experience, a practical illustration of the utility of know. Barnsley Mechanics' Institution
152 29 0
Occa. ledge to a working man; and thus to lend force to his exhortations. Bath Mechanics' Institution
1825 350 19 0 1900
Occa. * The great majority of my fellow-craftsmen," he says, “ have
Birmingham Mechanics' Inst. (1836) 1823 300
Bolton-le-Moors Mec. Inst. (1836). 1825 had at least a sufficient inkling of information and self-culture to
1500 Bradford Mechanics' Institution 1832 541
100 2506 (cca. begin to relish their sweets and realise their good.” He wishes
1835 Brentford Mechanics' Institution
250 them to go on.
80 “The mechanics,” he adds, “ have found out
627 Fortnight Bungay Lyceum
40 100 Occa. that they are ignoramuses ; and that while there is no reason on
Bury St. Edmund's Mechanics. Inst. 1824 110 10 6 830 Occa. earth why they should continue to be so, there is every reason why Colchester Mechanics' Institution 1833 142
600 Fortnight they should not : and this is a great point gained—it is half the Coventry Mechanics' Inst. (1234)
300 10 0
3000 Weekly victory. Hence, among other things, the improved character and Deptford Mec. Inst. (Revived 1838).. 1825 16 0 160
Tuosd. amazing cheapness of popular books.
1825 500 10 0
2200 Hence the magazines, and •Derby Mechanics’ Institution
Occa. 1825 130
Weekly papers, and reading rooms, and people’s libraries, and societies of Devonport Mechanics' Inst. (1837)
Occa. useful knowledge, and similar institutions. The people have Dewsbury Mechanios' Institution
Edinburgh School of Arts (1836) 1821 451 waked up, and there is a demand, an outcry, a market for these
12 0 Ex.L. Gateshead Mechanics' Institution 1836 250 10 0 1200
oGlasgow Mec. Class, Anderson's Inst. 1800 250 100 2072 Tw. a Wk. Mr. Claxton is much interested in Mechanics' Institutions. He Glasgow Mechanics' Institution 1823 800 21 0 4000 M. T. W. gives a sketch of their origin ; and has been at pains to collect
Th, & F. information for a tabular list of institutions throughout the coun- Greenwich Soc. for Useful Knowledge 1837 170 10 0 400 Tu.-TL. try. He thinks, however, that there is room for improvement, not
Halifax Mechanics' Institution
417 8 0
Occa. 250 10 0 500
l'rid. merely in the numbers of these institutions, but in their practical Hammersmith Lit. Sci. & Mec. Inst. 1837
Huddersfield Philosophical Society
310 working and character. His table gives the names of twenty such
10 0 1200 Weekly
oHull Mechanics' Institution (1837).. 1825 600 associations in London, and nearly sixty in the provinces, besides Ipswich Mechanics' Inst (1837)
80 1700 Weekly 1825 330
5000 Alt. Mon. the names of forty-eight towns where similar societies exist, but Keighley Mechanics' Institution 1825 119 8 8 896 Occa. respecting which he had not obtained particular information. Leeds Mechanics' Institution... 1825 200 10 0
1270 Occa. Lewes Mechanics' Institution
1450 Occa. EXPLANATION OF THE POLLOWING TABLE.
"Liverpool Mechanics' Institution 1825 2286 21 O Ex. L. W. & S. Col. 1.-This mark (°) denotes the possession of a separate hall or building. Lynn Mec. Lit. and Sci. Institution.. 1827 170
12 O Ex.L. (cca. Information of a date prior to 1838 is denoted thus-(1836).
Manchester Mechanics Institution 1825 1392 20 0 4400 M. & F. 9.-Date when established.
1836 1159 300 3134 Weekly 3.-Number of Members of all Classes.
Newcastle-upon-TyneMec. Inst.(1837) 1824 791 12 0 Ex. L. Weekly 4.-Annual Subscription of Ordinary Members. In many cases the Norwich Mechanics' Institution
1 825 146 10 0 1400 Alt. Tu. payments are made Quarterly. Females, Minors, and Students, Otley Mechanics' Institution..
Occa. generally pay less, and Propriсtors and Honorary Members in Peterborough Mechanics' Institution 1831 110 80 570 Occa. some cases pay more than Ordinary Members.
oPlyniouth Mechanics' Institution .. 1825 150 13 0
1000 Wedn. 3.-Number of Vols, in the Library. Ex. L.-Extensive Library.
Treville-st. Mut. Ins. Soc. 1833
Weekly 6.-Lecture Evenings. M. Tu. W. Th. F. &c, stand for Week-days; Portsmouth Mechanics' Institution.. 1825 70 60 400 Weekly
Occa. for Occasionally; and Al. M. for Alternate Mondays, &c. •Potteries (Staff.) Mec. Inst. (1836). 1826 260 10 0 1000 Fortnight
6) 60 371
Occa. o'Clock; and in the Country from Half-past Seven to Eight. Ripon Mechanics Institution
1831 50 10 0 300 Occa. Sheffield Mechanics' Library (1836).. 1824 671 6 0 4215
352 Sheffield Mechanics' Institution
80 2546 London and Vicinity.
1835 100 60 400 Occa.
281 40 Stirling School of Arts (1836).
1000 London Institution, Finsbury-circus 1807
Occa. 960 30 0 40000 Twice
1834 Sudbury Mechanics' Institution
72 80 508 The members area! Shareholders.)
Occa, a Week.
28 London Mechanics' Institution,
Tiverton Reading Society
390 29, Southampton-build.Chancery-la.
Occa. 1835 122
435 Aldersgate-street Institution
oWinchester Mechanics' Institution
88 Western Lit. and Sci. Institution,.. 1825
300 Fortnight 500 42 0 7000 Thurs.
Woodbridge Lit. and Mec. Institution 1836 200 47, Leicester-square.
10 0 2000 Fortnight
1838 Eastern Lit. and Sci. Institution,
300 alt. Mon. 250
Woolwich Institution ....
42 60 83, Hackney-road.
10 0 ©Marylebone Lit. and Sci. Institution, 1832
Tuesd. 42 0 4500 Mon. 17, Edward-street, Portman-square. "Islington Lit. and Sci. Society. 1833 430 42 0 3300 Thurs.
“The particulars given with the list of institutions have been Rahere-st, Mutual Instruction Soc... 1834 40 60 200 Wed. 73, Rahere-street, Goswell-road.
nearly all made up from recent official returns furnished for the Lion-street Mutual Instruction Soc.. 1835 12 40 40 Thurs.
purpose. Lectures are delivered in the winter season only, except Lion-sl.Chap. Neukini-rd. Southw.
in a few instances in London and other large towns. The classes, Milton Institution,
130 20 0 600 Mon, however, in many cases pursue their studies the whole year; and Millon-street, City.
their numbers vary, in different institutions, from one or two Botanical Society of London,
100 21 0 200 Ist & 3rd classes to a dozen or more, as is the case with the London Me75, Neuman-street, Orford-street.
Friday. chanics' Institution. It is becoming now a prevailing opinion Tower-street Mutual Instruction Soc. 1836 60 40 800 Mon.
that the efficiency of the whole system depends very much upon 16, Great Tourer-street, City. Westminster Lit. Sci. and Mec. Inst. 1837
these classes, or evening schools, as they are sometimes calied.
395 24 0 3000 Thurs. 6 & 7, Gl. Smith-st. IVestminster,
In fact, the “Union of Mechanics’ Institutions" in the West St. Pancras Lit. and Sci. Institution, 1837 90 20 0 300 Tues.
Riding of Yorkshire, acting upon this principle, are devising Colosseum House, New-road.
means for employing suitable persons to reside among them for the Poplar Institution,
1837 102 20 0
Tues. purpose of instructing the classes, and also suitable lecturers for East-India-road.
the institutions. “ The Central Committee" is located at Leeds, Society for promoting Practical Design 1837 200 21 0
Tues. of which Mr. Thomas Plint, of that town, is the secretary. Saville House, 6, Leicester-square.
“ Some persons may ridicule the insertion of so small an institu. Young Men's Rel.& Intel.Improv.Soc. 1838 38 10 None Tues. Hinde-st. Chapel, Manchester-sq.
tion as the Plymouth Treville-street Society, because they know South London Mutual Instruction Soc. 1838
not the spirit of this little hand, aud the good which this, as well
30 80 70 Mon. 74, Blackman-street, Borough.
as many other small societies, are doing. Pestalozzian Association, 1838 30 60 200 Mon.
"There are many institutions for popular improvement, of Worship-square.
various grades, in the principal towns, besides those named in the Mazu-Pond Mutual Instruction Soc. 1838 :3 40 None Al, W. tabie, and others in various parts of the country, of which our Maze-pond Chapel, Southwark.
information is only sufficient to give the localities of a small number."
obtained a view over the sea, tossed and agitated by the roaring A TRIP FROM NICE TO GENOA.
tempest; the sky was dark and overcast, and the wind boisterous The town of Nice is situated just within the boundary of the in the extreme. My friend pulled a small telescope from his kingdom of Sardinia. We arrived there late one night, and the pocket, by the aid of which we were able to discern the boat, now next day proving beautifully fair, induced a young French gentle. riding on the top of a wave, and now lost to our eyes till the next man, with whom we were travelling, to hire a felucca, or little wave brought it once more to view. “Why did not the sailors boat, to take us to Genoa, we being a party of five. The boat refuse to proceed?” said I, while my friend was gazing on the was soon procured, and, the wind being extremely favourable, we
weather-beaten and unfortunate vessel. • They did at first," he set sail.
replied ; " but, just as you were landing, the elder ladies presented The first day saw us to San Remo ; and, I think, I never en- one of the fellows with a purse containing a few pieces of gold, joyed any scenery so much as I did that which we this day wit- saying, “We shall certainly reach Genoa to-night or early to-morrow nessed. The first town we passed after leaving Nice was Villa morning, in time for the festa, with this fair wind ; and there's Franca, where the small harbour is defended on the one side by a something for your honest exertions ; so make for sea as soon as long tongue of land, and a jetty on the other. The next place of this cowardly Frenchman is ashore.” “ What a couple of simpleany importance was Monaco, the coast of the bay between which tons !” thought I. But our conversation was at this moment place and Mentone is very rocky and picturesque; the sea is interrupted by the entrance of mine host, who inquired whether beautifully blue and very clear ; and the bright shore, smiling in we intended staying here all night, and what we should choose for the sunshine of an Italian sky, had an enchanting effect. We dinner ? This last inquiry was soon answered, and a very good passed under the walls of Vintimiglia, with its curious bridge and meal laid before us, to cheer us after our rough morning's sail. battlements, most truly Italian ; the white fortifications and Dinner being over, my friend sallied out to see if he could meet towers forming a striking contrast with the black mountain on the with a return vetturino, to take us to Genoa, or if there were opposite side of the river. The little village of Ego, adorned with any persons similarly situated as ourselves. The landlord informed luxuriant palm-trees, next presented itself to view. These were us that, as the scenery between this town and that of Albenga was perfect novelties both to the young Frenchman and to me ; for exceedingly beautiful, persons travelling by vetturino for pleasure we neither of us had imagined that this kind of tree could grow in generally contrived to sleep at Oneglia, so that they might enjoy the open ground in Europe. The Florentines, too, who were the scenery under the influence of a bright morning sun. The with us, were astonished, not indeed at the palm-trees, but at us: afternoon was spent in settling with a vetturino; and in the eventhey wondered where we could have been brought up. One of the ing we enjoyed a most delightful walk, passing through a fragrant yonng ladies remarked, that we should see hundreds at Florence orange-grove, on our way to the sea-shore. The silver moon was and Rome; but this is not the case,-a few poor solitary things, brightly shining on the dark waters ; the sky, after the storm, which truly look as though they were not natives of the soil, may being exceedingly clear and intensely blue; the tops of the snowy indeed be met with.
mountains, just discoverable in the soft moonlight, completed this As I have before mentioned, St. Remo received us for the night, lovely landscape. where the inn was indeed most wretched. The young Florentines, The next day's journey was a long, though anything but a tedi. who had been complaining all day, now grumbled worse than ever. ous one; the weather was beautifully fine, and the scenery of the The best room in the house, poor as it was, was assigned to them. Bay of Genoa, which we this day witnessed, is perhaps some of the The night was cold, and the wind, which had been fresh all day, finest and most magnificent that is to be met with in bella Italia. now blew in gusts, as if a storm were approaching. We sat down We left Oneglia early, even before sunrise ; but, since the first to a miserable supper, by the light of a very indifferent lamp. few miles of the road traverses a country which has nothing very which was mounted on a brass stand, and furnished with roker, remarkably beautiful, the want of light was not felt. Soon after snuffers, extinguisher, and tweezers, but which, with all our in- daybreak, however, we arrived at the Capo delle Mellè; and, genuity, we could hardly get to burn. The Florentines now began having turned the promontory, one of the most charming views to tell their beads; but their devotions were sadly broken in upon that I ever beheld presented itself. The road winds down a hill
, by exclamations of “ We shall have a most violent storm!” and on which grew some most luxuriant olive-trees; and their blueish " How shall we proceed to-morrow?” The young Frenchman foliage well contrasted with that of another tree, whose name I soon answered this question, by saying “We'll see when to-mor- forget, the leaves of which were of a bright and lively green ; the row comes. The theatre formed the next theme on which to perfume from the orange-trees and the myrtles, now in blossom converse, and a grand festa which was then near at hand; and the (and which here grow wild) scented the balmy air. On the seatwo poor ladies were sorely afraid they would not reach Genoa time shore stood two most picturesque little towns, but which, when enough to see it.
we entered them, we found to be dreadfully dirty : like most vil. The following morning proved fair, but the wind was still lages on this coast, they had an extremely foreign appearance. howling; and the question was, were we to remain at San Remo, crowned by the ruins of an ancient lighthouse. Ridges of cliffs
Off the land a little island. upraised its head above the surf, procure a carriage, or proceed in our boat? The boat was at stretched far out into the sea, and were lost in extreme distance ; length decided upon, and, about two hours after daybreak, we set and the beauty of the whole scene, which quite baffles description, sail with a rough sea and a high wind. We soon reached San was much enhanced by the clear Italian sky and sea. Steffano, which is an extremely picturesque little town, with its Having passed the curious old city of Albenga, the three towers elegant church and painted tower. The bold and commanding of whose cathedral we descried from some distance, we reached town of Porto Maurizio next presented itself; after passing which of a very steep hill, from the summit of which the town appears.
Finali to dinner. This last-mentioned town is situated at the foot we reacbed Oneglia. The storm had much increased, and the rain fell thick and fast, insomuch that it was deemed wisest and
as it were, directly beneath you. While the horses were resting, best to make for shore. We landed at Oneglia ; and I need hardly edifice, rich in precious marbles and frescoes ; and we both of us
we paid a visit to the cathedral, which is an exceedivgly beautiful state how glad I was to find myself once more on terra firma. thought the hour well spent. Dinner occupied half an hour more, Not so the Florentines : they persisted in proceeding; and the after which we started for Savona. poor French gentleman, who really wished to do the best for all
We had not long left Finali before we arrived at a turn in the parties , finding that he could not , by force of any argument, rising abruptly from out of the bosom of the ocean to the height of
road, which brought us directly under some magnificent cliffs, prevail, was obliged to leave them ;—so, leaping ashore, he proceeded to join me, and I was not sorry to find that he had parted time passed under a tunnel, when the vetturino pointed out to us
many hundred feet. We soon began to ascend, and in a short company with his troublesome and complaining companions. that part of the coast on which stands proud Genoa. Leaving the
We soon reached an inn; from the upper windows of which we cliffs behind us, another beautiful little bay presented itself to
view, with the picturesque villages of Nori and Vado, and their
PARAGUAY AND THE DICTATOR FRANCIA. ruined battlements on the heights. The scene which we now wit. nessed was very similar to that which had so pleased us in the morning ; but the bay is more contracted, the trees fewer ; the
We concluded our former notice on this subject with an account sun, too, was nearly set: the battered and time-worn fortifications, of Mr. J. P. Robertson's first interview with Francia ; and it is our Devertheless, added an interest to the landscape. It grew dark ere we reached Savona, imbedded in its mulberry-groves; so that, purpose now to give a brief sketch of the progress of that extraor on arriving, we had time
for little else but to get our suppers and dinary man. go to bed. The rooms at our inn were clean and comfortable, the junta in whom the government was vested, and had occupied
It will be recollected that Francia had retired in disgust from which for Italy is rather extraordinary; and the cast-iron bedsteads with their snow-white curtains, 'displayed the taste of the himself, whilst in apparent seclusion, in secretly fomenting discon.
tents with the government and distrust in its members, who in fact bost or hostess, who seemed a very agreeable, pleasant couple. The
were none of them at all fitted for the responsible offices they filled. next day saw us at Genoa ; and, the evening proving very fine, The secret of Francia's success seems to be, that he really was the my friend proposed that we should go to the theatre, where we saw
only man in the country possessed of sufficient energy and steadiness some very good acting.
of character to control a people for the first time, since they had We stayed at Genoa two days, during which time we were able been a fixed society
, possessed of liberty: the secret of the violent to visit many of the churches and palaces of the nobility ; but it is pot my intention to give a list or catalogue of all the different line of conduct he has pursued appears to be the absurd estimate
he had made of the requisites of a supreme governor. He had paintings, &c. in the various picture-galleries and rooms of every heard of the brief, decisive, and peremptory manner in which one or any of the palaces ; – my description must be very brief, Napoleon was wont to give his orders, and in this, he conceived, and rather general than particular. There are, nevertheless, four lay the great secret of command ; forgetting that the extended in. things in Genoa which I'must not altogether pass over in silence ; | formation and clear judgment which dictated the cominands of that -the first of these is a Portia, by Guido, in the Durazzo palace, surprising man were not possessed by himself; but the obstinacy, klich has a great deal of soul and feeling in it, and is extremely or it may be firmness, of his disposition, and the pride which was beautiful: she is represented about to swallow the hot coals. natural to him and increased daily by the indulgence of his ambiThe next and only other painting : shall mention is the altar-piece tion, prevented him from ever changing his course, though he in the church of St. Stephen, depicting the martyrdom of that knew himself to be in the wrong. There is no reason to doubt the szint
, which is the work of two artists ; the upper part from the soundness of the views which led him to consider it impossible pencil of Raffaelle, and the lower part, executed by Giulio Romano,
that Paraguay could be governed in peace, save by one man pos. does not disgrace the work of his great predecessor. The third sessed of supreme power. The people were not as a body possessed thing I shall mention is the hall of the Palazzo Ciro, which is one of the most gorgeous spectacles I have ever witnessed ; being of either knowledge or national virtue sufficient to enable them to
govern themselves; the example of the other Spanish colonies, completely covered with gilding, lapis lazuli, marble, costly look. Peru in particular, where the inhabitants have for years been cuting glasses, &c., with a fresco on the ceiling, the place is more ting each other's throats, and lately threatened a general massacre like a fairy palace or a work of magic, than a habitation for man. The last wonder is perhaps the most astonishing of anything that of all foreigners, prove that Francia was so far right. But the
course he has pursued shows that this apology for his arbitrary I have described. – viz. the Emerald Vase in the cathedral; to see conduct, made whilst his authority was yet unsettled, was but a which alone it is worth coming to Genoa. This is not shown specious pretence, and that he who professed so great a regard withont an order, which our guide procured for us. Its size and for his country cared only for the gratification of an insane dimensions will best speak its praise : it is made of one solid piece passion, the possession of unbounded power: this he obtained, of emerald, is of an hexagonal form, and measures from corner to
and seemed to delight in assuring himself of the fact by wantonly corner fifteen inches, and is four deep. There is one detraction, exerting it in the most cruel manner, and then exultingly looked and that is a great one ; it is sorely broken. Napoleon took it to
round to see who would question the will of the great dictator. Paris, and it returned not as it went.—But I have left myself What a melancholy spectacle of human nature! Ambition has little or no room to describe the town.
generally been characterised by some noble traits ; the men most Genoa at first sight would seem a city of kings; but this im celebrated for the indulgence of this passion have sought to be adpression soon wears away, particularly after you have traversed its mired as well as dreaded, and, when they have acted meanly, havo many narrow and dirty streets, which are infinitely more plentiful nad the grace to be ashamed of it. But what has been the ambiThe Strade Nuova, Nuovissima, and Balbi, are
tion of Francia ? What fame, but that of a cold blooded and in. certainly magnificent streets, and reminded me not a little of tensely selfish man, has he obtained abroad? what, except terror High-street
, Oxford ; though I hardly think the Genoese palaces and deadly hate, has he excited at home? No one ennobling act can be compared to the English colleges; the architecture being has brightened the dark course of his murderous path. inferior, though the buildings are more massive and substantial, —
When Francia at length emerged from his retirement, he found many of them, indeed, much more resemble prisons than noble himself enabled to dictate to his colleagues, who were distrusted, men's mansions. Those most worthy of attention are the Durazzo whilst he himself was looked upon as the only man who could palace, which contains perhaps some of the most interesting calm the dissensions of the state. His abilities were confessedly of paintings; and the Brignole palace, which has the largest collec
a superior rank, and his strict integrity caused great reliance to be I might also mention the Vicini, the Spinola, and the placed on him.' It may cause some surprise to hear that the man Queen's ; the last of which is remarkable for the tastefulness of the who could act so iniquitous a part in the indulgence of his ambition furniture. The Palazzo Reale we did not see, as the King was
could ever have been remarkable for integrity ; but such is the then at Genoa. The great hall at the Hotel de Ville is a noble fact, and he distinguished himself in his profession by such an room, and several of the churches are well worth a visit; among exercise of this noble quality as would have done honour to a the number I would just name the Chiesa di S. Annunziata (which Roman. is rich in costly marbles), and the cathedral.
The junta was speedily dissolved, and the government was then Yet, though the principal streets and edifices are very magnifi. lodged in two consuls, Francia being one. His colleague was quite cent, Genoa has many drawbacks, and the town, take it as a whole, unable to cope with him, and Francia in effect possessed all the most, notwithstanding all its grandeur, be called a dirty place. power; but this did not satisfy him, he was determined to rule Its harbour is the admiration of all visitors, and may fairly be con. sidered the first in Italy: the port of Naples does not nearly come
alone. Having reason to apprehend some opposition in Assump
tion, especially from the old Spaniards, he contrived a scheme up to Ancona is, I should think, the second. The view from which completely answered his expectation. Pretending a desire the lighthouse is very extensive; and the traveller may obtain a
to ascertain the sense of the whole people in the amplest manner, Fery good notion of the manner in which the town is built from he summoned a congress of a thousand members. In such an Genoa in former days triumphed over most of the cities of Italy; members could not understand a word of the proceedings ; for
assembly discussion was impossible. One half at least of the as proof whereof, the chains of Pisa may be seen hanging, dan- | they spoke nothing but Guarini, the language of the Indians. . In zling down, as trophies over one
of the gates. In the afternoon of such a tumult, Francia found it easy to overcome his adversaries : the second day, we went to the Dorian palace, where we noticed a he was elected dictator for three years, and his first act was to disstatue of Andrea Doria, who, be it remembered, was the most re- solve the congress. nowned hero of Genoa.
This was in 1814.
than broad ones.
and maintaining a standing body of troops, during his consulship. their hair ; here, in silence, solitude, and despair, the victims of made it his first object, when he became dictator, to establish this the dictator's vengeance, and often of his mere displeasure or camain instrument of his power. He himself attended to the mi- price, are constrained to pass a life to which death would be a thounutest details, even to the fit of each individual uniform and the sand times preferable. *** Entombed alive,-cut off from all due repair of each musket. His soldiers were his sole dependence. human intercourse and sympathy,-he drags on a hated and loath.
He took all his measures gradually, and many were deceived by some existence, till, stricken to the soul by anguish. or a victim to his conduct, which at first appeared actuated only by the caution disease, or in the convulsions of madness, he yields to Him a ho and firmness necessary to establish the infant state. He intro- gave it, a soul into which the iron has so deeply entered as to make duced various improvements, and, though all his actions were him receive, as the best of boons at the hands of his God, a release performed in the most arbitrary manner, yet that might have been from his earthly woe. Thus died my friend and companion borne, since public good was ihe result. For instance, he deter. Gomez; thus died my friend Dr. Savala ; thus died Padre Maiz; mined on paving the city; he sent orders to private quarries for thus died the old Governor, General Velasco ; and thus died bis the stone necessary, which was worked by the country people, faithful butler. Thus died Machain ; and thus, or on the ban. pressed into the service by his orders; and the inhabitants of the quillo, perished almost every kind and simple-hearted friend I ever houses in the city were compelled each to pave the portion of the had in Assumption." The banquillo is a low stool or form, on street before his own door, at his own expense. Thus he accom- which, in a sitting posture, delinquents are shot. The mode in plisheil his purpose without expending a farthing of the national which Francia exercised this instrument of his tyranny is best illustreasure; and this he called good economy.
trated by a short anecdote. The society of Paraguay had heretofore been divided into three " When Francia proceeded to annihilate or debase the monastic parts, distinguished by birth. The old Spaniards, born in Spain, orders," (he seized upon their revenues,) "he converted into bar. had always enjoyed greater liberty, and in general had possessed racks some of their monasteries. On this occasion an old Spaniard, more wealth, than any others; they occupied all, or almost all, called El Pelado, was so imprudent as to give loose to the following public offices; they were the ackrowledged aristocracy of the state. remark: • The Franciscans have gone to-day ; but who can tell Their children, of pure Spanish blood, held a second rank, and were that Francia's turn to go may not be to-morrow?' By some busy seldom permitted to hold office. The third rank, the offspring of and malicious informer this short, but fatal speech, was conveyed to whites and natives, including all who were tinged with native the ears of the dictator. He summoned El Pelado to his presence, blood, were held interior, under the old Spanish regime. Francia and addressed him in these terribly emphatic words :- As to himself was of the latter class : bis father was, according to his when it may be my turn to go I am not aware ; but this I know, own account, a Frenchman, according to others, a Portuguese ; his that you shall go before me.' Next morning El Pelado was mother, a Creole.
brought to the banquillo, placed not far from Francia's window; In the contemplation of the plan which he had from the first and the dictator delivered, with his own hands, to three soldiers, proposed to himself, Francia, influenced probably by national the three ball-cartridges with which the unfortunate man was to be feeling, desired to get rid of “the old Spaniards, as being the shot. The aim was not effectual, and the executioners were class whose fidelity to the new government was most to be doubted; ordered to dispatch him with their bayonets. Upon the whole of yet these men possessed the greatest wealth of any in the land, this scene of barbarity and blood, Francia looked from his and the commerce, restricted as it had been, was chiefly in their window, being not distant more than thirty yards from the place of hands. He feared them and their influence; and to this may be slaughter. *** Of all such executions, too, Francia was an attributed his ultimate measure of closing up the country, and exulting spectator ; nor were the bodies which had been consigned destroying its commerce totally, forcing the inhabitants to rely to death in the morning, ever permitted to be removed till the solely on themselves for their supplies.
evening. At frequent intervals, during the day, the dictator came Under various pretences, and often under no pretence at all, he to his window, and stood gazing on them as if to glut his eyes with began to restrict the liberty of commerce by continually closing the the work of murder, and minister fiendish satisfaction to his port, and suffering neither native nor foreigner to enter or depart
. revenge, by the view of the mangled carcasses of those whom, upon It would frequently happen that he suddenly declared the port to alleged enmity, he had thus made to lick the dust.” be open, merchants hastened to load their vessels, but before they In 1814, Francia, when the three years of his dictatorship could ake their departure, the port would be closed again ; the expired, procured his election as perpetual dictator, and took the vessels had to be unloaded, and the goods rotted in the warehouses. title of Supremo. His tyranny became more oppressive as his The natural consequence was, that commerce was gradually power became more firmly established; and at length, notwithdestroyed; and as a finishing stroke Francia at length shut bimself standing all his precautions, a conspiracy against bim was actually and his country up entirely by prohibiting all intercourse whatever, formed, and its execution was fixed for Good Friday, 1820. It was except on very rare occurrences when he himself needed foreign betrayed, and now all his fury broke out. His prisons were supplies.
crowded, the banquillo was drenched with gore ; he erected what He probably thought that by these means he should drive out he called “a chamber of truth," where by means of the old buc. the old Spaniards, but although sinking into ruin they still held by caneers' mode of torture, a leather strap tied round the head and their ancient homes, and did not dare even to murmur. Discon- then twisted till the pain became insufferable, he obtained what. tents were not confined to them alone, for all classes suffered ever evidence he pleased. Numbers were banished to a vile unequally ; Francia knew well that he was driving them to resistance, healthy establishment called Tevego, which he had long before but he took measures to prevent it. He established so complete a established and used as a place of. hopeless exile for the unhappy system of espionage throughout the whole society, that no one Paraguayans. In 1821, he imprisoned all the old Spaniards whom dared to whisper the dictator's name even in the solitude of his own he had not been able to charge with any crime, and kept them in chanıber. If he conceived the slightest suspicion of any unfortu- confinement for eighteen months, when he liberated the survivors nate, the victim was hurried off, and without form of trial loaded (for many died in confinement), obliging them, however, to pay with irons aud immured in the public prison, or, what was worse, heavy ransoms from the relics of their ruined fortunes. He had now to the state dungeons, where numbers of the best men of the completely crushed the country; the elements for revolt were anni. country miserably perished. “The public prison was a large hilated, chiefly by the destruction of the moral feelings by his system building one hundred feet square, destined to receive inmates of of espionage ; no man could trust another: and from one of the most every class save and except political delinquents. • The court open-hearted, free-spirited people in the world, the Paraguayans attached to the prison had an area of about twelve thousanj feet; were reduced to the rank of crouching terrified slaves. He now and in each dingy, suffocating apartment, there were crowded to- prohibited all intercourse whatever with Assumption, and ordered gether from thirty to forty human beings. There was not room that the little traffic which he was obliged occasionally to permit, in these apartments to accommodate, outstretched upon the floor, should be carried on through Corrientes, where all goods intended 80 many wretched iomates ; and those who could not find room to for Paraguay are landed, and thence transported across the Paraua rest there, were suspended in small hammocks, hung one over to Neembecu, beyond which no foreigner is permitted to pass. another." "The state dungeons are small, damp, vaulted dun. Several foreigners. Englishmen and others, who were in Paraguay, geons, of such contracted dimensions, that to maintain an upright were detained there for several years, till at length they were libeposture in them is impossible, except under the centre of the arch. / rated through the intervention of the British Consul at Buenos Here it is, that loaded with irons, with a sentinel continually in Ayres, Sir Woodbine Parish. view, bereft of every comfort, left without the means of ablution, Thus has Francia lived for years—a dreaded solitary tyrant. and under a positive prohibition to shave, pare their pails, or cut Fearing assassination, he suffers no one to approach within a
hundred yards when he is abroad ; and when he grants an inter- pess, proposed to me that I should become his clerk. I jumped view, the visiter must approach with his hands hanging down at at the proposal. The attorney, however, was somewhat offended his sides, lest he should use concealed weapons, and must stop at by my leaving him, and spoke disparagingly of my ability. There the prescribed distance. He has not a single friend or confidant was no engagement, however, and the barrister had conceived a even among his soldiers, and he dares not even smoke the cigars fancy for me. Therefore did I become the barrister's clerk. prepared for him by his own sister, before he has unrolled every Now was I happy! I had surmounted one obstacle ; and if I leaf to make sure that it is not poisoned. Such is the picture of could but accomplish the task of eating my way through an Inn of this wretched victim of ambition. He is now an old man, at least Court, I might become a barrister, and have, one day, a clerk and eighty years of age, and must in the course of nature soon be called chambers to myself. My employer was well connected, (what can to render a fearful account.
a professional man do in London without a good connexion ?) and Our readers may naturally be curious to know how Messrs. besides, he was one of those persons who in common life are Robertson escaped the fangs of the dictator, to which we reply that known as lucky individuals. Almost everything he took in hand they were fortunately banished the country in time. We had pur- succeeded with him. There was a buoyancy about him, combined posed in the present article to give a short detail of their progress with almost perfect suavity of inaoner, and a large portion of and adventures, and also to notice the country and productions of cleverness, which carried him swimmingly. He never knew what Paraguay, but our limits forbid us; and although we wish to avoid it was to fear or doubt the possibility of his success in life, and giving our readers too much of one dish, yet so much still remains therefore he was equally free from the hesitation of a timid nature, to be said, that we shall be under the necessity of again reverting and the bullying forwardness of a vulgar one. The word gentleParaguay."
man sums up his character. He knew his own position, kept it, never went under it or over it, and, as a natural consequence, was
able to allow to others full deference and acknowledgment, without A LAWYER'S CLERK'S TALE.
the fear that he was thereby detracting from himnself. He was, With one of my schoolfeliows, whose father was clerk to an indeed, a kind-hearted, open, candid gentleman ! eminent barrister, I paid occasional visits to the courts in Business flowed in upon him. No Jew in disposition, he raised Westminster Hall. I was with him, also, one day at the bar of my salary as he filled my time with work—as hix fees increased, the House of Lords during the arguing of an appeal case. We so did mine. By the time I had shot up from the shape Fere not unfrequently, likewise, in the Old Bailey during the ses• and thoughts of a more youth into the look and consequence of a sions. From thenceforward my imagination was filled with nothing young man, I was in the receipt of an income of about 2001. yearly, bat a vision of wigs and gowns. Many a time have I astounded and it promised to increase still more. My employer would unan Old Bailey jury, badgered a witness in the Common Pleas, and doubtedly rise in his profession, and I would rise with him. He even broken jokes with my lords" the judges. I have been hand might become attorney-general- he might be made a julge! My and glove with the Lord Chancellor himself, and (for my imagina. prospects were far better than that of many a briefless barrister; tion exercised its ubiquitous privilege, and flew as it pleased | I scorned to desert my employer, and abandoned all thoughts of between common law and equity,) I have leaned familiarly over anything but being his clerk' for life. “Well, Bill," said my the bar of the House of Lords, addressing the woolsack and empty father, one day, as i handed him some money to pay up irrears of benches on some intricate case on which I had been retained with rent-there was a tear in his glistening eye-"I was wrong, and a fee of a thousand guineas.
you was right, when you wanted to be a lawyer !” My mother My decision was made - my profession was chosen— I should be would sit and look at me, while gratification and pride lighted up a lawyer. My father, a plain, hard-working man, learned the her face-or she would smile as my sister pulled the ring off my decision with a kind of contemptuous carelessness, but finding me little finger, and placed it on her own, or my younger brother persist, it made him somewhat uneasy. Once on a time, he said, examined the texture of the silver watch-guard, that, like an he had done a little business with lawyers himself, and had found alderman's chain, decorated my person. I was the great man of them a precious pack of scoundrels. "He hated lawyers cordially, the family, and grew great in my own estimation. A bed-room and he had a reason for it. The reason was this. He had fancied
was carefully assigned me-my father brushed my boots and shoes, that he had a claim to a property which wanted an owner, and he nor would he allow any one else to do it. One night, I took him had spent some trifle of money in trying to establish his claim. to the gallery of the House of Commons. Though fund of a bit of But other and much nearer claimants ihan he had started up, and political discussion, especially in his favourite parlour at the Rose from that time he never could forgive the lawyers. We seldom and Crown, his attention was riveted, not on the speaker or his beard the story when he was sober : but when he came home wig, or the clerks at the table with their wigs, or the mace, or the tipsy (which, to do him justice, was not frequently,) we were sure members, but on the sergeant-at-arms, and the messengers of the to get the whole bistory and mystery of this property, and perhaps House. He was getting tired, lie said, of hard work, and he it was but the second edition for that evening, if he had got any “ would just like to be one of them chaps," to sit and hear the auditors in the parlour of the Rose and Crown. My mother used speeches, and have nothing to do but order the folks in the to call him an old fool, and desire him to go to bed, which he would strangers’ gallery to sit down and be quiet. I promised to use all do
very good-humouredly, but as he sank to sleep he still kept my influence to get him put on the list, and no doubt he would be muttering about how the lawyers had cheated him of his appointed in due course ! property.
Time wore on; my money was as plentiful, or more so, as ever ; My father resisted my inclination to be a lawyer; he would far and I became, not a dissipated, but a gay, thoughtless young fellow. rather, he said, see me at some honest trade. With my mother I | I ventured, now and then, into the pit at the opera, occasionally had more success; I told her I had a turn and a taste for the law, treated my sisters (my mother would never go) to a box at the and she believed that I had ; 1 affirmed that I would rise in the play, and when “master and I” went on circuit, I drank my wine law, and she believed that I would. I at last caught my father's " like a gentleman.” About this time, I was smitten by the consent by a manæuvre, which had some cunning in it and some charms of a pretty, affectionate girl, (she is, thank goodness, if not real enthusiasm. He was harping one evening on the old string as pretty, at least as affectionate as ever she was,) and-we mar. of his property, when I exclaimed that if I were but a barrister, i ried! Who blames me? My employer was glad to hear of my would drag the unlawful holders of the property through every marriage. He said that he would repose greater confidence in me court in the kingdom, and compel them to disgorge-perhaps if i than ever, that he felt he had a greater hold upon me than he had were a barrister, father might have the property to keep him in his before, that, in fact, I had “ given hostages to fortune." I told all old age. He looked at me for a moment; then taking his pipe out this to my wife, and though she did not exactly understand what of bis mouth, and laying it on the table, he vowed that I should giving hostages to fortune meant, she thought it must mean
something very complimentary, considered my employer a very fine But how to become a lawyer was now the consideration. At gentleman, wondered he did not take a wife himself, but concluded last my mother bethought her of a very distant relation who was a that he had not yet met with the one that was destined for him. clerk in an attorney's office the result of her application to him I look back to the first two years of my married life as one does has, that I was taken into the office, and the attorney promised to a pleasant vision, which seems to 'float indistinctly in the that if I proved as sharp and apt as I looked he would take care memory. They were spent in one round of thoughtless happiness.
We never dreamed of saving any money, as we might have done. About a year afterwards a young barrister, who had just taken My absences on circuit were at first a source of annoyance, but possession of his chambers, and was beginning to get some busi- she became used to them, and they were amply made up by our
be a lawyer.