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During the period when this dark abyss of waters prevailed, the earth was without form, and void; or better, as Hebricians say

- the earth was invisible and unfurnished ;' we may presume that then the early operations of geological formation and arrangement began, by producing the fundamental rocks, and thus providing materials for all the derivative strata, which, in the course of their consolidation, were destined to embosom such an endless diversity of extraneous contents.

** This theory, then, is satisfactory as far as it goes : like the one previously discussed, it fairly recognises and encounters the real difficulty in the case, and it would be quite sufficient to reconcile geology and the Mosaic history, as usually understood, did dot the latter assign particular events to each of the successive periods called days; the most important of these events are, the first emergence of the mountains, and the creation of organized and living beings. It seems necessary, therefore, to embrace the days in the series of geological periods; and the difficulties of our subject will not be removed, unless we can show that there is time enough included in those periods called days, to cover the organic creation, and the formation of the rocks, in which the remains of these bodies are contained.

" 3. The days of the creation were periods of time of indefinite. length.

The illustration of this view will require a separate article.

AULD ROBIN GRAY. LADY ANNE BARNARD, who died in 1825, sister to the late Earl of Balcarras, and wife to Sir Andrew Barnard, wrote the charming song of Auld Robin Gray. A quarto tract, edited by the Ariosto of the North, " and circulated among the members of the Bannatyne club,” contains the original ballad, as corrected by Lady Anne, and two continuations by the same authoress ; while the introduction consists almost entirely of a very interesting letter from her to the Editor, dated July, 1823; part of which I take the liberty of inserting here :-“ Robin Gray, so called from its being the name of the old herd at Balcarras, was born soon after the close of the year 1771. My sister Margaret had married, and accompanied her husband to London; I was melancholy, and endeaFoured to amuse myself by attempting a few poetical trifles. There was an ancient Scotch melody of which I was passionately fond :

-, who died before your day, used to sing it to us at Balcarras. She did not object to its having improper words, though I did : I longed to sing old Sophy's air to different words, and give to its plaintive tones some little history of virtuous distress in humble life, such as might suit it. While attempting to effect this in my closet, I called my little sister, now Lady Hardwicke, who was the only person near me:-'I have been writing a ballad, my dear; Iam oppressing my heroine with many misfortunes. I have already sent her Jamie to sea,—and broken her father's arm,-made her mother fall sick, -and given her Auld Robin Gray for a lover ; but I wish to load her with a fifth sorrow within the four lines, poor thing! help me to one!' • Steal the cow, sister Anne,' said the little Elizabeth. The cow was immediately lifted by me, and the song completed. At our fireside and among our neighbours, Auld Robin Gray was always called for. I was pleased with the appro. bation it met with ; but such was my dread of being suspected of writing anything, perceiving the shyness it created in those who could write nothing, that I carefully kept my own secret. Meantime, little as this matter seems worthy of a dispute, it afterwards became a party question between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Auld Robin Gray was either a very ancient ballad composed perhaps by David Rizzio, and a great curiosity, or a very modern matter and no curiosity at all! I was persecuted to avow whether I had written it or not-where I had got it. Old Sophy kept my counsel, and I kept my own, in spite of the gratification of seeing twenty guineas offered in the newspapers to the person who should ascertain the point past a doubt, and the still more flattering circumstance of a visit from Mr. Jerningham, secretary of the Antiquarian Society, who endeavoured to entrap the truth from me in a manner I took amiss. Had he asked me the question obligingly, I should have told him the fact distinctly and confidentially. The annoyance, however, of this important ambassador from the Antiquaries was amply repaid to me by the noble exhibition of the ballet of Auld Robin Gray's Courtship,' as performed by dancing dogs under my windows. It proved its popularity from the highest to the lowest, and gave me pleasure while I hugged myself in obscurity.”-From Specimens of British Poetesses, by A. Dyer.

Place the white man on Afric's coast,

Whose swarthy sons in blood delight;
Who of their scorn to Europe boast,

And paint their very demons white :
There, while the sterner sex disdains

To soothe the woes they cannot feel,
Woman will strive to heal his pains,

And weep for those she cannot heal!
Hers is warm pity's sacred glow;

Irom all her stores she bears a part,
And bids the spring of hope reflow

That languished in the fainting heart.
“ What, though so pale his haggard face,

So sunk and sad his looks," she cries :
And far unlike our nobler race,

With crisped locks and rolling eyes?
Yet misery marks him of our kind :

We see him lost, alone, afraid ;
And pangs of body, griefs in mind,

Pronounce him man, and ask our aid.
Perhaps, in some far distant shore

There are who in these forms delight;
Whose milky features please them more,

Than ours of jet, thus burnished bright. Of such may be his weeping wife,

Such children for their sire may call ; And if we spare his ebbing life,

Our kindness may preserve them all!" Thus her compassion woman shows;

Beneath the Line her acts are these : Nor the wide waste of Lapland snows

Can her warm flow of pity freeze. “ From some far land the stranger comes,

Where joys like ours are never found ; Let's soothe him in our happy homes,

Where freedom sits with plenty crowned. 'Tis good the fainting soul to cheer,

To see the famished stranger fed, To milk for him the mother deer,

To smooth for him the furry bed. The Powers above our Lapland bless

With good no other people know; To enlarge the joys that we possess,

By feeling those that we bestow !" Thus in extremes of cold and heat,

Where wandering man may trace his kind, Wherever want and grief retreat,

In woman they compassion find ; She makes the female breast her seat,

And dictates mercy to the mind. Man may the sterner virtues know,

Determined justice, truth severe : But female hearts with pity glow,

And woman holds affliction dear. For guiltless woes her sorrows flow,

And suffering vice compels her tear; 'Tis hers to soothe the ills below,

And bid life's fairer views appear.
To woman's gentle kind we owe

What comforts and delights us here:
They its gay hopes on youth bestow,
Our care they soothe, our age they cheer.



Love which is here a care, The first anthentic event in the history of Alchymy is the persecution

That wit and will doth mar, by Dioclesian, A.D). 290, who caused a diligent inquiry to be made for all

Uncertain truce, and a most certain war; the ancient books which treated of the admirable art of making gold and

A shrill tempestuous wind, silver, and without pity committed them to the flames.-Gibbon.

Which doth disturb the mind,

And like wild waves all our designs commove;

Among those powers above, There is some reason to believe that great numbers of infants, who,

Which see their Maker's face, according to the inhuman practice of the times, had been exposed by their

It a contentment is, a quiet peace, parents, were frequently rescued from death, baptised, educated, and main

A pleasure void of grief, a constant rest, tained, by the piety of the Christians, and at the expense of the public

Eternal joy, which nothing can molest. treasure.-- Gibbon.


DISSIMULATION. In the country of the Comains, when a great and powerful prince died, Dissimulation in youth is the forerunner of perfidy in old age ; its first on his decease an immense grave was made, and the dead person most richly appearance is the fatal omen of growing dopravity and future shame. It adorned, was seated in a magnificent chair within the grave, and the finest degrades parts and learning, obscures the lustre of every accomplishment, horso ho had possessed, together with one of his officers, were let down alive and sinks us into contempt. The path of falsehood is a perplexing maze. into the grave. The officer, before he desc nded, took leave of the king and After the first departure from sincerity, it is not in our power to stop ; ong the cther great personages present, when the king gave to him a large quan- artifice unavoidably leads on to another ; till, as the intricacy of the labyrinth tity of gold and silver coin, which he placed in a scarf round his neck, the increases, we are left entangled in our own snare.-Blair. king making him promise that on his arrival in the other world he would

SIR RICHARD COLT HOARE rostore to him the money, which he faithfully engaged to do. After this, the king gave to him a letter addressed to the first of their monarchs, in Sir Richard Colt Hoare, the owner of the beautiful domain of Stonrbead, which he told him that the bearer of it had well and faithfully served him, in Wiltshire, who died May 19, 1838, aged eighty, was the author of many and on that account entreated he would properly reward him. When this valuable historical and topographical works, and more especially of the his was done, the grave was filled up over the corpsc, the living officer, and the tory of his native county, presenting so numerous and such splendid fune horse, and covered with planks well nailed together. Before night, there real and other monuments of the primitive inhabitants of Great Britain, was a considerable mound of stones piled over the grave in memory of those which he investigated with a perseverance and success unrivalled by any whom they had interred.- Joinville.

other antiquary. The early possession of an ample fortune, and of all the

luxuries of his noble residence, seem to have stimulated rather than checked, BRITISH AGRICULTURE.

the more ardent pursuit of those favourite studies which occupied his almost Agriculture appears so early as A.D. 359 to have been in a very flourishing exclusive attention for more titan fifty years of his life; and he was at all etate in Britain, as Julian built 600 vessels capable of containing together times, both by his co-operation and patronage, ready to aid other labourers 120,000 quarters, which made several voyages exporting corn from Britain to in the same field which he had himself cultivatod with so much success and rolieve the famine in Gaul and Germany.--Gibbon.


Sir Richard Hoare was a very voluminous original author, and on a great THE PRETENDER.

variety of subjects. He printed a catalogue of his unique collection of books This title was first given to her brother by queen Anne, after the expedi- relating to the history and topography of Italy, the whole of which he pretlon under Forbin in February 1708, which was frustrated by Byng. She

sented to the British Museum, to which he was, on other occasions, a had seemed not unwilling to countenance any attempt for his succession,

liberal benefactor. He likewise published editions of many of our ancient but took fright at an attempt during her life.-Burnet.

chronicles; and it is only to be lamented that one who has contributed under

so many forms to our knowledge of antiquity, and who presents so many ANECDOTE OF ELWES.

claims to the grateful commemoration of the friends of literature and the

arts, should have been influenced so much, and so frequently, by the very “I asked Fox if he remembered the miser Elwes in the House of

unhappy ambition of which some well-known and distinguished literary Commons ? • Porfectly; and that question reminds me of a curious incident

bodies of our own time have set so unworthy an example, of giving an artiwhich one day befell that strange being. In my younger days we often went to the House in full dress, on nights, for example, when we were any of us

ficial value to their publications, by the extreme smallness of the number of

copies which they allow to be printed or circulated ; thus defeating the very going to the opera. Bankes, on an occasion of this kind, was seated next

objects of that great invention whose triumphs were pretended to be the very Elwes, who was leaning his head forward just at the moment when Bankes

groundwork of their association.-Farewell Address of the Duke of Sussex. rose hastily to leave his seat, and the hilt of his sword happening to come in contact with the miser's wig, which he had probably picked off some

GENIUS. scare-crow, it was unconsciously borne away by Bankes, who walked in his

Genius is a sort of oracle which stards between us and many of the stately way down the House, followed by Elwes full of anxiety to regain his

mysteries of nature, and forms the communicating link. He who attempts treasure. The llouse was in a roar of merriment, and for a moment Bankes looked about him wondering exceedingly what had happened. The expla- Sir Egerton Brydges' Recollections.

to mimic it becomes odious and absurd by his presumptuous affectation.nation was truly amusing, when he became conscious of the sword-hilt

Genius must have talent as its complement and implement, just as in like which lo had acquired.""—Wilberforce's Journal.

manner imagination may have fancy. In short, the higher intellectual A FRENCH CANADIAN.

powers can only act through a corresponding energy of the lower.

Coleridge, Table Talk. The little hamlet opposite to Detroit is called Richmond. I was sitting there to-lay on the grassy bank above the river, resting in the shade of a

GUESSING. trce when an old French Canadian stopped near me to arrange something Guessing used to be considered exclusively a Yankee privilege, bat it about his cart. We entered forth with into conversation ; and though I had seems the Long Islanders consider themselves privileged to guess also. A some difficulty in making out his patois, he understood my French, and we tavern-keeper on that island advertises a fat hog, to be guessed for at one dol. got on very well. If you would see the two extremes of manner brought lar a guess—the person guessing nearest the weight of the animal to be into near comparison, you should turn from a Yankee store-keeper to a entitled to it.-Nero York Paper. French Canadian! It was quite curious to find in this remote region such a

GOOD NATURE. porfect specimen of an old-fashioned Norman peasant-all bows, courtesy, and good-humour. He was carrying a cart-load of cherries to Sanılwich, The parts and signs of goodness are inany. If a man be gracious and cour and when I begged for a ride, the little old man bowed and smiled, and teous to strangers, it shows he is a citizen of the world, and that his heart poured forth a volublo speech, in which the words enchanté! honneur! and is no island cut off from other lands, but a continent that joins to them. I madame! were all I could understand; but these were enough. I mounted he be compassionate towards the afflictions of others, it shews that his heart the cart, seated myself in an old chair surrounded with baskets heaped with is like the noble tree that is wounded itself when it gives the balm. If he ripe cherries, lovely as those of Shenstone

easily pardons and remits offences, it shews that his mind is planted abova “Bcattering like blooming maid their glances round,

injuries, so that he cannot be shot. If he be thankful for small benefits, it And must be bought, though penury betide !"

shews that he weighs men's minds, and not their trash.-Novum Organun.

THE INFINITE. For his cart-load of cherries my old man expected a sum not exceeding two shillings.--Ars. Jameson.

The Infinite we cannot understand, and therefore we have no clear idca

of a universe-of a God! The attempt to supply this defect by earthly VALUE OF PROVISIONS IN THE REIGN OF HENRY I.

images and allegories sinks us only into superstition. Worship the Infinite!

and though thou canst not see him, yet His working is everywhere In Uenry I.'s reign (1100-35) wheat to make bread for one hundred men

Knebel. one day, was valued at one shilling; one sheep at four-pence; one hide (twenty acres, of land was taxed at one shilling a year, and there being 244,400 hides south of tho Huniber, this tax amounted to 12,2201.-Chro.

London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: Fraser nology.

& Co. Dublin : CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Erans, Whitefriars,

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To skilful Albert owned the chief command :


The extent of the establishment which the captain thinks FOURTH ARTICLE.—THE CAPTAIN'S ESTABLISHMENT.

proper to maintain, either on shore or afloat, will therefore

depend on the means he possesses beyond his pay, in the shape “ The stately ship, with all her daring band,

of private income. The pay itself is scarcely equal to the lowest Though trained in boisterous elements, his mind

establishment that can be formed : but all are impressed with Was yet by soft humanity refined."-FALCONER.

the necessity of upholding the dignity of their rank and station, During the time the ship is fitting in harbour, the captain and many we fear make grievous sacrifices for the purpose. invariably resides on shore. Last war, it was the custom for the respect of the crew is of course enhanced towards those captains to take up their quarters at the Crown at ·Portsmouth; whom they perceive the captain honour with an invitation to his the lieutenants patronised the Fountain, the next hotel in rank; table, and therefore it is usual for him to invite every officer in and the “gentlemen” delighted in the Blue Posts, a house of his turn, except the “warrants,” who are not considered in the inferior pretensions, but where they were under less restraint. rank of gentlemen, being raised to their stations from common The latter inn is called by the seamen the “Blue Posteses,” seamen, and generally not of the most polished behaviour. and in order to a more particular description, they add, “where Under the present circumstances, therefore, there is no inthe midshipmen leave their chesteses, to pay for their break- ducement for a captain to accept the command of a ship, to the fasteses."

injury of his private fortune, or the probability of involving All this applies however to old times, for now the “gentlemen” himself in debt, were it not that the regulations of the navy are really such ; and we only hope that with their gentility they require an officer to serve six years in peace, or three years in may still retain the reckless daring spirit that distinguished their war, in command of a ship, before he is eligible to be promoted predecessors, to whose freaks on shore the term was not quite to a flag—that is, to the next step in rank, a rear-admiral. so applicable.

Should he attain by seniority to the head of the list of captains, The old adage of “ birds of a feather,” nevertheless, still applies (and this he must do if he lives, whether employed or unemto naval officers, more perhaps than to any other class of men, ployed), he will be passed over in a flag promotion, if short of for they continue to maintain the distinctions of rank on shore the required term of service, even by a single day; and cases have or afloat, the different grades associating together, generally to occurred of late years when the rule has been most rigidly exerthe exclusion of those next in dignity; and although this observance cised, even in the case of distinguished officers. He is consigned to may be somewhat relaxed in time of peace, when so many young what is called a retired list, to which, under the name of “yellow men of family abound in the navy, it is, on the whole, as all admirals,” some disgrace was formerly attached, because the experience proves, a good custom to keep up a certain degree of persons so consigned were considered as incapables or objectionrestraint, and thus prevent too great a familiarity amongst classes ables; it is so no longer, however: aud amongst the retired admirals, in a service where implicit obedience is exacted, and a rigid may be found some who, as lieutenants and commanders, and

a discipline of necessity maintained.

even as captains, were distinguished for gallant exploits, although The lieutenants and the midshipmen still patroniso the hotels they have not served long enough in the latter rank to bring alluded to, in their visits on shore, some of the most aristocratic them within the regulation for flag promotion. perhaps not condescending to anything below a private room at To return from this digression. Every morning at half-past the Crown ; but now the captain generally lives in hired apart- eight, the captain's gig (a light boat having four or six oars) ments, where he entertains two or three of his officers occasion leaves the ship, with one of the young gentlemen-a volunteer ally, his regular establishment not being formed until he takes up of the first class, who reaches the captain's lodgings about nine his residence on board.

o'clock, presents the surgeon's and other reports, and is ready to This alteration has been produced by a necessity for economy. execute commands or to take the chief on board his own or any In war, when the captain shared one eighth part of every other ship. The youngster is generally invited to breakfast, and capture, it was a poor prize indeed that would not give him a the captain, if not otherwise engaged, avails himself of this opporfew hundred pounds, and his luck was bad if he did not occa- tunity to question him as to his proficiency, and the progress he has sionally fall in with something better. At present, not only is made at school,&c. ; by this means he forms an opinion of what may his share of prize-money greatly diminished, but the chance of be expected from him, at the same time that he instils some making it is nil, and he cannot calculate on any extra emolument good advice for his future guidance. If particularly recombeyond his net pay, described in the scale, unless he is some- mended to his care, the captain will also enquire after his times fortunate enough to be employed in the conveyance of friends, and probably devote more than ordinary attention to his treasure.*


* By Royal Proclamation, dated June 23, 1831, the conveyance of trea- , and risk of safe delivery and making good deficiencies, but not of insurance sure is paid for as follows. Between any two ports not more than six from the elements, or the enemy; and the proceeds of freight are divided hundred leagues apart, for the crown per cent. ; for private parties per into four parts. If the admiral commanding on the station, to whose cent. in peace, and 1 per cent. in war. Between two ports when the distance squadron the ship belongs, wishes to partake in the advantages, he must does not exceed two thousand leagues, for the crown I per cent.; for private also partake in the risk. In that case, one fourth goes to his share, two parties 14 per cent, in peace, and 14 per cent in war. Any distance exceed fourths to the captain, and the remaining fourth to Greenwich Hospital. ing two thousand leagues, for the crown 1 per cent.; for private partics 1 If the admiral declines, then the captain has three fourths, but in all cases per cent. in peace, and 2 per cent in war. The captain incurs the obligation one fourth goes to Greenwich Hospital.

VOL. 1.


Proclury and Evans, Printers, I bitefriars,



In the mean time, the coxswain of the gig repairs to the Post- hulk, where the remainder of the work proceeds more rapidly, office for letters and newspapers, and the captain, after dismiss- as no time is now lost by the parties going to and fro. Still, it ing his young aide-de-camp with orders to wait to take him on is necessary that boats should be daily despatched to the dock. board, or to return without him, proceeds to the admiral's office, yard, &c. for articles required, but the sea stores of rope, &c. where he meets the lieutenant, who has brought on shore the are not taken in until all the rigging is completed, lest some report of progress in fitting, a document which the port admiral should be appropriated in harbour, and a deficiency arise at sea requires daily; and having signed this and other papers, looked when it cannot be replaced. over the orders, received his official letters, obtained an audience After the lapse of another week or two, the standing rigging of the commander-in-chief or of his secretary, according to the of the ship is completed ; that, and the yards, are then covered occasion, he repairs to the dock-yard to overlook the equipment with a mixture of coal-tar, boiled in salt water, so as to produce of his ship, going on under the special direction of the first lieu- a jet black appearance, and the ship is painted inside and out; tenant. The officer having copied any new order that the the dock-yard people, such as joiners, &c. &c., who, up to this admiral may have issued, repairs on board, or to the dock-yard, time, have been working on board, are then got rid of, the guns or wherever his services are required, and this is the routine are received on board, and the coins and carriages marked by that occurs every morning whilst the ship is in port.

spirit-level, so as to point out when each piece is in a horizontal During the time a ship remains in harbour any severe cases position, from which the degrees of elevation and depression may of illness or accident are sent to the naval hospital, and there afterwards be calculated; and everything being ready, the men the captain visits the patients occasionally, to see that they are are passed over from the hulk to the ship, which is then hauled properly attended to, or, truly speaking, to make a show of doing off, and takes up separate moorings in the harbour. The hulk 50 ; for he has no authority there, neither does he assume any, being thoroughly cleared, is delivered up to the master at. as everything is provided under the inspection of the proper tendant's charge. officers : such marks of attention have, however, a wonderful The running rigging is now rove, the square-sails are next effect upon seamen, and it should be the policy of the captain to bent (tied) to the yards, sheeted home and hoisted—that is, dis. win the regard and esteem of his crew, and to encourage good tended ; and allowance being made for stretching in the boltbehaviour by kindness, as well as to deter bad conduct by a rope--that is, the rope which surtounds the canvas,-a minute rigorous but not harsh discipline. His crew should be con- investigation takes place, to ascertain that each fits well, and any sidered by him as his children, and very much of their comfort necessary alteration is made, not only in the sails in use, but the depends upon his disposition, and the manner which he adopts, store sails to replace them. The jibs and stay-sails are also and obliges his officers to exercise towards them.

hoisted for the same purpose, and the yards braced each way to Although the captain interferes but little in fitting the ship, prove that everything is in its place and works freely. Provisions and then only in quiet consultation with his first licutenant, his and stores for sea are now continually arriving, and the ship presence occasionally is desirable, and his influence sometimes assumes the appearance of a regular man-of-war. necessary, to expedite matters by reference to the superintendant During the whole time a ship is in harbour, either when fitting, of the dock-yard ; for should difficulties arise and expedition be or for any purpose of repair, the crew are indulged with as much required, he makes the proper representations to remove ob- time on shore – or liberty as they call it—as they can reasonably structions.

desire. In most cases the whole of one watch-that is half the The captain usually makes the rounds of every part of the crew--are permitted to go on shore every evening after work ; dock-yard and gun-wharf, wherein the ship’s furniture is pre- the condition being that they return next morning sober, and paring, in the course of the day; and what with deciding on the should they fail in this, their leave is stopped. The refusal of many matters referred to him, holding surveys, &c., his time is leave was one of the greatest grievances of which the seamen fully occupied. He generally visits the hulk also ; and when complained during the war, but as they were then pressed, and men are put in the report, as it is called, on complaint of some took every opportunity to desert, this indulgence could not be crime or neglect, he minutely investigates the charge against permitted, and the withholding it was one of the many evils which them, examines the witnesses brought forward to substantiate impressment carried in its train : for it became necessary to adnit and rebut it-in fact, takes every means to ascertain the truth, women on board in vast numbers, without scrutiny as to whether and to come to a just decision, either for acquittal, or corporal or they were married or not, and the reader may suppose how such other punishment ; but if corporal, it is never carried into effect a system operated upon the real wives, mothers, and sisters of until the next day.

seamen, when they beheld their husbands, sons, or brothers, torn We shall take another occasion to describe the manner in away and consigned to a society where their minds would be corwhich this and every other matter is performed on board the rupted, and their affections estranged if not lost to them for ship ; at present we may briefly remark, that, under the regu- ever. This evil-and it was a dreadful one—is now at an end; lations, no men can be punished until the form of investigation none but the undoubted wives of seamen, and those only in small is gone through, and twenty-four hours elapsed, to afford the numbers and of respectable characters, are ever permitted to captain due time for reflection and consideration, as to the nature come on board, and the men have as much liberty as they desire and amount of the punishment to be inflicted ; neither can a to go on shore. As seamen seldom have money at this period, petty officer be flogged for a first offence, without sentence of a however, and are only entitled to two months' pay in advance becourt-martial. His punishment is disrating to a common seaman, fore going to sea, out of which they are expected to provide clothes, in the first instance ; but if he repeats the crime, the captain they cannot, therefore, contrive to “ raise the wind” for those can then flog him at the gangway.

frolics which, when they have a cash galore," they delight to Meanwhile, constant progress is making in the equipment, and indulge in ; they do not therefore require leave very often. when the heaviest articles are got on board, which is generally The ship now takes her turn for guard, and performs all the the case at the end of a month, the ship is hauled out of the duties of vessels that are ready for sea, or nearly so, called “ senbasin, either alongside the dock-yard wharf, or at once to her going ships.” At daylight a revellie is played by the drummer

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and fifer, varied by tunes on the bugle, if there is a bugler on ON THE PRESERVATION OF HEALTH. board, and the sentries discharge their muskets in concert with

“ Too strict attention to rules for the preservation of health," the gun from the admiral's ship ; the top-gallant and royal yards , says Rochefoucauld, " is a very wearisome disease ; ' and in this are swawed up and crossed at eight o'clock, sent down at sunset, instance the sententious Frenchman expresses the general opinion and at eight o'clock in the winter, and nine in the summer, the

—so far as that is indicated by the practice-of mankind. The revellie is beat again, the sentries discharge their muskets, and few persons give themselves any trouble to secure it ; seeming to

value of good health is universally admitted, but comparatively re-load for the night. The guard is taken each day in rotation by regard the necessity for unceasing care and attention as a greater the ships in harbour, by signal from the “ Flag” at eight o'clock affliction than occasional attacks of disease, or even than general in the morning, when the ship taking up the duty hoists a union ill-health : nor, in many cases, has the example of those who have juck at the mizen, and one of the lieutenants examines all vessels in this respect differed from the majority of men, been such as to

diminish the force of this feeling, or to show the wisdom of an that arrive during the next twenty-four hours, rowing about the opposite course of conduct. Who has not heard and read of men harbour from sunset to sunrise, reporting all these vessels, whether who, free from necessity for bodily labour, and possessing little in commission or ordinary, whose sentries or look-out men do energy of mind, have passed their time in observing their own not hail the approach of his boat. It is the duty of this officer to habit became insensible; and whose imagination, acting upon this

sensations, watching all their variations with closest care, until the carry his report to the admiral's office the following morning. narrow circle of ideas, has filled them with unfounded apprehen

Every Sunday the men are mustered at divisions, and inspected sions, and at length, by means of the mysterious sympathies by the captain ; after which they are either taken on shore, and which exist between the mind and the body, has actually produced marched in procession to church, accompanied by their officers, But because some men, not rightly comprehending either the ob

the evils which were at first mere figments of a disordered brain ? or divine service is performed on board ; during which a pendant ject of their endeavours or the means of attaining it, and unfavour. is hoisted at the mizen peak, to denote that prayers are going ably circumstanced for its realisation, have defeated themselves by forward, and no boat is permitted or indeed attempts to come

the excess of care which they took to secure success, it is assuredly alongside when this signal is exhibited, unless on some special whatever, and thus to leave a matter of vital importance to the

most absurd to conclude that the safest plan is to make no exertion business that cannot be delayed.

mercy of fortuitous events. Ridiculous as this seems when plainly It is a very beautiful and impressive sight to witness the per- stated, it has nevertheless been almost universally done. While formance of divine service on board a ship of war, and mark the years of labour and study are devoted to the acquisition of a knowattention with which our hardy tars regard the ceremony, more

ledge of the arts necessary to our subsistence, or to the accumula

tion of wealth, how seldom is the smallest attention bestowed upon particularly when the chaplain suits his discourse—as he always the means of preserving health !-health, which is essential to the should do-to the comprehension of his congregation. Sailors enjoyment of our acquisitions, and without which all external ad. are supposed to be an unthinking careless class of persons by vantages are comparatively worthless. When this subject is better those who only witness their gambols on shore, free from restraint, of the principles of hygiène will form an essential part of the edu.

and more generally understood, the communication of a knowledge and often excited by drink. On board, their conduct, particularly cation of the young; for no parent, who clearly perceived the during religious ceremonies, is most decorous and feeling, and immense advantages of such knowledge, would fail to make every quite as respectable as may be met with in any congregation in exertion to secure it for his children. the kingdom.

Here may be noticed the objections of two sets of persons, who,

though for very different reasons, disapprove of popular expositions Such of the men as take frequent leave, adopt many schemes of the laws by which health is governed :—the one, because they and devices to raise the wind for money to spend ; the publicans imagine the common sense or instinct of men is sufficient to ens and Jews are willing enough to credit them up to the extent of able them to take care of their health, without any assistance froin their two months' advance, which they know will be paid before rules; the other, from a fear that the knowledge thus acquired

may lead many to invade the province of the physician. Against the ship leaves the port, but that is but a small sum in comparison the innumerable proofs which every day affords of the incorrectto the wants of the majority. Scarcely a ship therefore leaves the ness of the former opinion, such persons fortify themselves by one port wherein she fits, but the crew are many hundreds, if not

or two cases, which they assume to be on their side of the ques. thousands, of pounds, in debt to the inhabitants. Their charges refutation of whatever may be alleged on the other. The instance

tion ; and these they adduce on every occasion, as a conclusive are bigh, but we must admit that the risk is great—not only of most frequently and triumphantly referred to is that of old Parr, the seaman's return, but his inclination to pay when he has the who, though destitute of all knowledge derived from books, yet

With the full knowledge of this, the Lords of the Ad-prolonged his life in health and vigour to the great age of 152 miralty generally arrange tha: the ship shall be paid off in the years. But the history of that renowned old man is a striking

proof of the value of rules. He has himself recorded that he same port wherein she was commissioned, and as the men have then strictly observed a certain regimen, to which he attributed his three years' wages to receive in a lump, they are quite able and freedom from disease and his long life; and the soundness of generally willing to discharge their old obligations.

whicb is proved by modern physiology. It does not follow, how, The officers are frequent visitors to the shore; the theatres, ever, that because Parr; by observation and experience, arrived evening parties, &c. are the attractions for them, and a boat is independently at correct conclusions, that every one can do so : all

are not gifted with such sagacity as he possessed ; nor, even if it generally kept waiting until a late hour for such as return on

were possible, would it be advisable to reject the assistance of board to sleep. In well-regulated ships, boats are in attendance science : little progress would the world make if this plan were at fixed hours for parties going and returning, generally to suit adopted in other matters. But, as an able writer has remarked, the dinner hours ; for wanting this provision, the first lieutenant men never trust to unaided common sense in those points in which is continually pestered (particularly by the marine officers, who they possess the knowledge of a system of rules. The man who have much leisure time) for the means of going or sending for should attempt to navigate a ship, or build a house, under the

guidance of common sense alone, would be regarded as insane, not some one from the shore.

only by the sailor or architect, but by everybody else ;* and assu. We will suppose at length that the crew is completed, the stores redly the fact, that the plan of committing the care of the health and provisions in, the stock of the officers (except the live stock, to this favourite faculty is so generally entertained, proves only which is never taken on board tilt the last) provided, and the how little is known respecting the animal economy, ship reported ready to go to Spithead, where she generally re- The other class referred to is chiefly composed of professional nains a few days to put things to rights, and that she only waits men, who, feelingly alive to the dangers attending the use of even for orders ; the orders arrive, and we shall next carry the ship the most simple reniedies in the hands of non-medical persons, and to that anchorage, and also introduce our readers to a naval court martial before proceeding to sca.

. Whately's " Elements of Logic." Preface,


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