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fearful that a knowledge, however slight, of physiology, and of the

CHARACTERS OF FIVE GREAT MEN. causes of disease, would embolden many to assume the office of physicians, denounce all attempts to popularise those subjects. THỊNLY, very thinly, were great men sown in my remembrance. We cannot but think such apprehensions unfounded, and that the I can pretend to have seen but five. The Duke of Cumberland, diffusion of the knowledge in question would be attended with Sir Robert Walpole, Lord Mansfield, Lord Granviile, and Mr. Pitt. diametrically opposite results. For who is it that places his reli- I have expatiated on all their characters separately; and yet I amn ance for the cure of disease on the impudent and ignorant quack, inclined to say a few words more in the light of comparison. It is or on the well-reaning though not less ignorant friend ? Not, assuredly, the man who has learned how delicate are the organs, ty setting the same characters in different oppositions and points and how casily deranged the functions of his body, and who knows of view, that nearer acquaintance with them may be struck out. that symptoms, apparently identical, frequently arise from very Lord Granville was most a genius of the five; he conceived, different causes ; but he to whom health and sickness are myste- knew, expressed whatever he pleased. The state of Europe, and ries, about which he can exercise no judgment or discrimination, the state of literature, were equally familiar to him. His eloquence and who therefore is duped by every impostor who promises him was rapid, and flowed from a source of wit, grandeur, and knox. health and long life. To nothing else but ignorance of the prin. ledge.' So far premeditated, he allowed no reflection to chasten it. ciples of hygiène is attributable the ease with which unprincipled It was entertaining, it was sublime, it was hyperbole, it was ridicu. empirics have at all times deluded the multitude with their gross lous, according as the profusion of ideas crowded from him. He absurdities, which they have not seldom palmed off even upon the embraced systems like a legislator, but was capable of none of the better educated in other respects ; and which a very small amount detail of a magistrate. Sir Robert Walpole was much the reverse : of the requisite knowledge would have sufficed to expose. The be knew mankind, not their writings; he consulted their interests, objections of medical men above mentioned are now disappearing, not their systems; he intended their happiness, not their grandeur. and some of the brightest ornaments of the profession have not Whatever was beyond common sense he disregarded. thought it derogatory to attempt to enlighten their fellow-creatures Lord Mansfield, without the elevation of Lord Granville, had on the means of preserving their health.

great powers of eloquence. It was a most accurate understanding, In endeavouring to aid them in this important object, we would and yet capable of shining in whatever it was applied to. He was especially address ourselves to women. On them is devolved not as free from vice as Pitt, more unaffected, and formed to convince only the care of their own health, but, in a great measure, of that even when Pitt had dazzled. of infants and the young also; a heavy responsibility, to enable The Duke of Cumberland had most expressive sense, but with them to support which scarcely anything has yet been done. that connexion betweeen sense and sensibility, that you must Nay, it has been held a departure from the proper province of the mortify his pride before you could call out the radiance of his unfemale sex to acquire the knowledge necessary for the due per- derstanding. Being placed at the head of armies without the formance of this trust. Women,” says Dr. Southwood Smith, shortest apprenticeship, no wonder he miscarried. It is cruel to

are the earliest teachers; they must be nurses: they can be have no other master than one's own faults. neither, without the risk of doing incalculable mischief, unless Pitt's

's was an unfinished greatness. Considering how much of it they have some understanding of the subjects about to be treated depended on his words, one may almost call his an artificial greatof” (the physical and mental constitution of man). “On these ness; but his passion for fame, and the grandeur of his ideas, comgrounds 1 rest their obligation to study them; and I look upon pensated for his defects. He aspired to redeem the honour of his that notion of delicacy which would exclude them from knowledge country, and to place it in a point of giving law to nations. His calculated, in an extraordinary degree, to open, exalt, and purify ambition was to be the most illustrious man of the first nation in their minds, and to fit them for the performance of their duties, Europe; and he thought that the eminence of glory could not be as alike degrading to those to whom it affects to show respect, and sullied, by the steps to it being passed irregularly. He wished to debasing to the mind that entertains it.".

aggrandize Britain in general; but thought not of obligiog or beneThe science of hygiène is commonly supposed to relate exclu. fiting individuals. sively to the well-being of the body; and hence it holds a much Lord Granville, you loved till you knew him-Sir Robert lower place in public estimation than it deserves. The mighty in Walpole the more you knew him.-You would have loved the Duke, fluence of the body on the mind and disposition, especially in if you had not feared him.- Pitt liked the dignity of despotism, infancy, giving to it an important share in the formation of cha. Lord Mansfield the reality ; yet the latter would have served the racter, has been elaborately expounded by several philosophical cause of power without sharing in it. Pitt would have set the physiologists (among whom Cabanis claims distinguished men- world free, if he might command it. Lord Granville would have tion); but is comparatively unknown beyond the medical profes preferred doing right, if he had not thought it more convenient to sion. Yet, without some acquaintance with this subject, even the do wrong. Sir Robert Walpole meant to serve mankind, though most careful parent or instructor is sure to make frequent mistakes he knew how little they deserved it; and this principle is at once in the training of the young;-mistakes, the consequences of the most meritorious in itself and to the world. which may be to pervert the faculties and corrupt the feelings of

Lord Orford's Memoirs. all exposed to their influence. A knowledge of this science, and of its relations with moral science, ought therefore to form an essential item in the qualifications of all who undertake the charge of the young, whether as parents or teachers.

LORD St. Vincent, during his anxious command, passed many The subjects above alluded to are too extensive, and some of sleepless hours in the night, and generally rose between two and them too abstruse, to be more than incidentally and briefly noticed three o'clock in the morning ; his usual hour of retiring at that in our pages. We can only indicate the principal points, and

time being eight o'clock P.m. One night, feeling very restless, he refer our readers to the sources of more complete information. In rang his bell, and ordered the officer of the watch to his bed-side. a work of this kind, we are necessarily confined to the considera. The officer was Lieutenant Cashman, a fine rough unlettered sailor, tion of those branches only of the subject which are of the most night, my lord.”—“ Nothing stirring? no strangers in sight

of the true breed.——“What sort of a night, sir?" " A very fine direct and obvious importance, and which may most readily be expounded in a popular form.

"No, lord.'

my "Nothing to do on deck ?" "No, my lor1?" We are convinced that mere precept, however good the autho

--" Then you may take a book, and read to me. Any book-it rity on which it rests may be regarded, is never so well obeyed as

don't signify—take the Admiralty Statutes.” Cashman handed when its reasonableness and propriety are made known. Accord.

out the huge quarto, and having placed the lantern with which he ingly, there can be no doubt that a knowledge of the principles of in his watch-coat, and read a part of those Acts of Parliament out

was furnished to visit the ship on the table before him, sat down physiology, on the part of the patient, renders him much more ready to comply with the directions of his medical adviser, with

of which our naval code is formed ; Acts which, I will venture to whom it enables him in many cases usefully to co-operate. Dr. S. say, he never heard of before, and I am sure never looked at Smith, indeed, mentions this fact as a strong argument in favour again. of the diffusion of the knowledge in question. Few persons would

Lord St. Vincent, in telling the story, used to say, "Sir, I willingly act so as to injure themselves, and we hope to make it thought I should have suffocated myself ; I was forced to keep my appear ihat the adoption of the advice we propose to give from head so long under the bed-clothes, to conceal my laughter at the time to time will conduce to human happiness.

manner in which he stumbled and hobbled through his task.

And well he might, with a horn lantern and a farthing candle." # " Philosophy of Ucalth,” p. 10.

Brenton's Life of Sl. F'incent.




ignorant-women have generally a hardy healthy cast of mind,

which our modern system of female education is calculated “What a 'miserable thing it is to be a woman!” was lately greatly to impair. There is nothing more delightful than to the exclamation of an amiable but high-spirited lady. She had meet, in the ordinary walks of life, with a woman of sound good been admirably educated by indulgent parents, and taught ac- whose conversation and manner show that her mind has ccmplishments beyond her station in life. Now, being married been well educated, and stored with useful and ornamental to a worthy man, of moderate income, and having a family of knowledge. But we are constrained to say, that this is a rarer young children, the little elegances and accomplislıments and case, than to meet with a feeble or au affected creature, whose fomance of youth had to be laid aside, and duties of a plain and only use of an “accomplished education” is alternately to shine sober cast claiined incessant attention. Her husband was out and murmur. all day-he had to hurry off in the morning, and often came “ There is one class of duties," says Mrs. Sandford, “which, home tired and worn-out late at night. She herself, of a buoyant as it went out with our grandmothers, is now considered quite disposition, passionately fond of society and public meetings, and obsolete. We wonder, indeed, how these venerable ladies could who had, when free, been an active member of more than one be so familiar with the pantry, and yet never soil their petticoats ; " Ladies' Committee,” was now, as she expressed it, tied up like how they could preside over the culinary department, and be a dog to its kennel. The piano was untouched, unless now and adepts in every domestic art, and yet be still as stately as their then the little girl, standing on tiptoe, contrived to give it a ruffles or brocade. Ladies were in those days accountable for jarring thrum ; the sketch-book was a sealed book; her own every dish ; they smiled with conscious triumph when the sauce senss of domestic duty led her to practise economy, as far as it was praised ; they made currant wine and raspberry vinegar ; could be carried; she loved her husband, and had every reason, and their cupboards were stored with expressed juices and ingeshe said, to be perfectly happy: yet old recollections would nious confections. But now there is something inelegant that revive, and feeling as if she were now reduced to the capacity of attaches to the ménage. It is associated with making puddings being merely a nurse of chiidren, she exclaimed pettishly, “What or mending stockings, or scolding servants. A good housewife a miserable thing it is to be a woman!”

is a good sort of bustling person, who has always a good dinThis is an old complaint of the ladies, and is amusingly enough ner and a clean house ; who jingles a bunch of keys, and gasps put forward in a tract, published exactly a century ago (1739) for an opportunity of replenishing your plate.” under the title of “ Woman not inferior to Man; or a short and That men and women were intended, in one sense, to be on an modest Vindication of the natural Right of the Fair Sex a equality, seems evident, botlı from nature and Scrip

; and perfect equality of power, dignity, and esteem, with the Men. married men, who sometimes exhibit a very commendable proBy Sophia, a person of quality.” The reputed fair authoress priety in their general conduct, are frequently grossly selfish in says, “Was every individual man to divulge his thoughts of our leaving to their wives all the burden, all the restraints, and all sex, they wouid all be found unanimous in thinking that we are the dulness, of a family and of home. “God created man in his made only for them, and only fit to nurse children in their tender own image ; in the image of God created he him : male and years, to mind household affairs, and to obey, serve, and please female created he them." Population tables show that there is our masters,—that is, themselves, forsooth! All this is mighty scarcely any disproportion in the births of males and females, fine, and amongst a seraglio of slaves could not but sound mighty thus bringing the sanction of nature to scripture, and demonstratbig from a Mussulman's mouth. . . . To stoop to some regarding that though polygamy existed by permission in Old Testafor the strutting things is not enough ; to humour them more ment times, it is against a natural rule. Heeren advances the than we could children, with any tolerable decency, is too little ; position, that the great moral, social, and intellectual superiority they must be served, forsooth! Pretty creatures indeed!" of European nations over the Eastern, is owing to the simple fact

Sophia, however, takes a just view of the importance of one of of the non-prevalence of polygamy. There appears to be great the chief duties of women. “ It is too well known,” she says, truth in this. Wherever woman stands on an equal footing with " to be dissembled, that the office of nursing children is held by man, there man himself rises, and society improves. Woman, the men in a despicable light, as something low and degrading in the East, has no social consideration. Indirect influence she whereas, had they Nature for their guide, they would not need has, of course-for even amongst coarse-minded, unintellectual to be told, that there is no employment in a commonwealth which savages, where she is compelled to perform all the drudgery, deserves more honour, or greater thanks and rewards. Let it woman has influence—but this is exercised in a way which but be considered, what are the advantages accruing to mankind neither improves individuals nor society. from it, and its merit must stand immediately confessed. Nay, But while women were thus intended to be man's social and I know not whether it may not appear to render women deserving domestic equals, the life and ornament of his society, they were the first places in civil society. ... How largely are they never intended to be his intellectual equals ; and that education rewarded who succeed in taming a tiger, an elephant, or such- which attempts to force this equality will only defeat itself, and like animals ; and shall women be neglected for spending years injure its objects. We must prop ourselves here with an opinion. in the taming that fiercer animal, man ? ”

The author of " Home Education” says, “ Every day, in society, To an active-minded woman, who occasionally thinks, the we may meet with women equal to, or surpassing men in intelliburdens, pains, and duties of life must occasionally appear to be gence; but if male and female minds, of apparently equal invery unequally divided ; and when left to her own reflections, telligence, are brought into comparison, very few instances will map will at times seem, if not a savage, at least a very selfish occur in which the latter are not far inferior to the former in animal. The “march of intellect” has not hitherto done women POWER." “ Some allowance,” he adds, “ought, as I am inclined much good in this respect. Their mental faculties have received to think, to be made in the culture of the female mind for what a wrong direction ; they share in that ascending spirit which I would not call an organic difference of structure, if I could mental stimulus communicates ; they receive what is called a find a term nearer to my meaning, and not so liable to misconfine, or an accomplished education, are made sensitive, sympa- struction.” thetic, and delicate ; and go through life struggling to maintain To this we cordially subscribe ; and the intellectual difference, a balance in the equivocal half-lady half-servile position of a thus pointed out, at once directs attention to the character and governess, or they sink into an ordinary marriage, with perhaps a object of female education. Home should be the sphere to which decided distaste for the mere dull routine, as it seems, of a small the female mind should ever be directed. Let the females of a domestic establishment. This appears to us to be one of the nation fulfil, in intelligent spirit and truth, the duties of home, evils of our state of society, which is both serious and large in and there is little fear of its men. In all ages the WOMEN OY amount. Ignorance is bad : but ignorant—that is, comparatively ENGLAND have exercised a powerful, social, and domestic influ

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With us the fireside virtues have ever been reverenced | land, from the earliest period down to our own day, has ever been This, therefore, is to be taken into account in the history of our that of fulfilling the domestic relations of life with zeal, strictness, rise and progress as a nation ; and far distant be the day when a and fidelity. Pope, in uttering a sarcasm, paid them a complifalse system of education, or a vain straining after intellectualment, when he said, “most women have no character at all.” pre-eminence, shall lead them to quit their stronghold, and The sarcasm was aimed at that class of triflers, who formed the make them dissatisfied unless they can spend their time in the fashionable world with which Pope was chiefly acquainted : but public view, fluttering and promenading, like butterflies in a when applied generally, it is so far true, that the great bulk of summer's sun !

women have no character-that is, no distinctive peculiarities of Guizot, in his History of Civilisation in Europe, dates the origin mind, to make them stand out in relief ; and this very want of of the influence of woman from the feudal system. He draws a character is their great excellence, and that which fits them to picture of a feudal castle, on a hill, at the foot of which lies its shine in the domestic circle. Characteristic women are often village of serfs. The lord of this establishment can maintain no troublesome companions; and a female requires much good sense familiarity with his dependants ; he can scarcely have any equal to balance mental peculiarities, or intellectual cleverness. companionship, unless when engaged in war and hunting. “ The

We conclude with an illustration taken from the vegetable chief, however violent and brutal his out-door exercises, must kingdom. The Banyan tree (Ficus Indica) is a native of most habitually return into the bosom of his family. He there finds parts of India ; and we are told that “if the seeds drop in the his wife and children, and scarcely any but them; they alone are axils of the palmyra tree, the roots grow downwards, embracing his constant companions ; they alone divide his sorrows and the trunk in their descent ; by degrees they envelop every part soften his joys; they alone are interested in all that concerns except the top, whence, in very old specimens, the leaves and him. It could not but happen, in such circumstances, that do- head of the palmyra tree are seen emerging from the trunk of! mestic life must have acquired a vast influence ; nor is there any the banyan tree, as if they grew from it. The Hindoos regard lack of proofs that it did so. Was it not in the bosom of the such cases with reverence, and call them a holy marriage, instifeudal family that the importance of women, that the value of tuted by Providence. The banyan tree, covering with its trunks the wife and mother, at last made itself known? In none of the a sufficient space of ground to shelter a regiment of cavalry, and ancient communities-not merely speaking of those in which used as a natural canopy for great public meetings, has been so the spirit of family never existed, but in those in which it ex- often described by writers on India, as to have become familiar isted most powerfully ; say, for example, in the patriarchal system to the reader. The branches spread to a great extent, drop~in none of these did women ever attain to anything like the ping their roots here and there, which, as soon as they reach the place which they acquired in Europe under the feudal system. ground, rapidly increase in size, till they become as large as, and It is to the progress, to the preponderance, of domestic manners similar to, the parent trunk ; by which means, the quantity of in the feudal halls and castles, that they owe this change, this ground they cover is almost incredible.” improvement in their condition. The cause of this has been Our readers, we trust, require no application of this illustration. sought for in the peculiar manners of the ancient Germans ; in To our minds it is a beautiful exemplification of that intimate

; a national respect which they are said to have borne, in the midst union and mutual protection and dependence which constitute of their forests, to the female sex. Upon a single phrase of character of modern female education tends in some degree to

the roots of human society, and which we fear the stimulating Tacitus, Germanic patriotism has founded a high degree of su- injure. But as we have probably given enough of our prose, let periority-of primitive and ineffable purity of manners, in the us part with a nice little bit of Moore's poetry :relations between the two sexes among the Germans. Pure chimeras ! Phrases like this of Tacitus-sentiments and customs

They tell us of an Indian tree, analogous to those of the Germans of old,--are found in the nar

Which, howsoe'er the sun and sky ratives of a host of writers, who have seen, or inquired into, the a

May tempt its boughs to wander free,

And shoot, and blossom, wide and high, manners of savage and barbarous tribes. There is nothing primitive, nothing peculiar, to a certain race in this matter.”

Downward again to that dear earth, Now, with all deference to this great master of philosophical

From which the life that fills and warms

Its grateful being, first had birth.. history, we do think that there is something “ peculiar to a cer

'Tis thus, though wood by flattering friends, tain race in this matter ;” and in England, at least, his theory of

And fed with fame (if fame it be), the origin of the influence of woman will not hold. Not to go so

This heart, my own dear mother, bends far back as Boadicea, and the ancient Britons, we find that the

With love's true instinct, back to thee! condition of women in early Saxon times was, on the whole, very favourable. In old illuminations they are represented as sitting During the reign of Sultan Moezz Aibek, the first discovery of at table with the men ; they are scarcely, if ever, exhibited as the city of Petra appears to have been made. A revolt was raised taking a part in the labours of the field ; they appear to have by the Baharite Mamelukes in Cairo; but Aibek gained possession been almost exclusively occupied within doors ; and their names

of the leader's person, put him to death, and had his head fung are poetically expressive—Adeleve, the noble wife ; Wynfreda, and sought safety in flight. Twelve of the Baharite Mamelukes


into the midst of the insurgents : they were thrown into confusion, the peace of man ; Deorwyn, dear to man ; Deorswythe, very in their fight, became entangled in the desert called Tib-benidear ; Winnefride, a winner or gainer of peace.

Israel (the waste of the Israelites), and wandered about at random The feudal system was perfected in England after the Norman for five days. On the sixth, they perceived at a distance certain conquest ; and we have abundant proof, during the long period ruins

, of a greenish colour, towards which they directed their course. from William the Conqueror to Henry the Eighth, and Eliza- They found a large city, with walls and gates, wholly built of green beth, that the influence of French customs on the court and nobi- marble. They traversed the interior, whose streets and houses lity, while they polished the manners of the ladies, deteriorated

were buried in sand. The vessels and vestments which they found their morals. 'The Reformation elevated female character, though to have belonged to a cloth-merchant, they found nine pieces of

crumbled into dust when touched. In one vase, which appeared the process was apparently interrupted by the gross buffoonery gold, on each of which was impressed the figure of an antelope, of the court of James I. The civil wars tended to develop the surrounded by an inscription in Hebrew letters. The Mamelukes strength and single-mindedness of woman, when sustained by having excavated one spot, came to a solid pavement, which they religion : of this we have noble examples in the respective Me- lifted up: they found a fountain cold as snow, of which they drank moirs of Lady Fanshawe, and Mrs. Hutchinson. But the Resto- greedily. Having travelled all the night, they met a troop of ration cast once more a blight over female character, as far as

Arabs, by whom they were conducted to Karak: there they prethe influence of the court extended.

sented the coins to the money-changers, one of whom declared that

"these pieces were struck in the time of Moses." With this exception, the characteristic of the women of Eng.

History of the Mameluke Sultans.


Far better loves to bend its arms






Public attention, especially since the affair of the “ Vixen," Livia, a noble lady of the city of Porli, had an only son, named has been greatly attracted by the proceedings of Russia ; her Scipio, adorned with every accomplishment, and warmly attached progress, which had been disregarded, her moral force, which to his mother. He was enamoured of a beautiful lady who was had perhaps been undervalued, have become objects of attention, sought by many suitors, and amongst these a young man, whom and every addition to the knowledge we already possess of her Scipio, the favoured lover, accidentally encountered. They quar- policy and resources, is very valuable. Many people of the present relled, and fought, and the son of the widow received a wound of day fondly persuade themselves that true wisdom, that is Chriswhich he expired soon after. The homicide was instantly pursued tianity, for the terms are synonymous, has already so strong à

by the officers of justice, and, seeing the door of Livia's mansion hold on the minds of men, as to render it very unlikely, almost į standing open, sought refuge in the apartment of the mother of morally impossible, that Europe should again plunge into war.

Scipio, and implored her protection. She granted his request, and Despite the quarrels in Portugal and Spain, they hold the civilized concealed him. Suddenly the door opened, and the corpse of her world at large as too far advanced in knowledge to be guilty of beloved son was brought into the room.

the great folly of general warfare, and to a certain extent we The unfortunate mother

agree in this opinion. We hold it to be a moral and political burst into loud lamentations, and was rendered so insensible by truth, that war is an evil; that no success, not even the posses. grief, that she did not perceive the officers searching for, and dis- sion of a disputed territory, can compensate for its mischiefs ; corering the murderer, whom she had taken under her protection. but we hold it also to be a moral and political truth, that the Then she saw bim brought in fettered, her affection for her son nation who does not early oppose aggression, and take all wise was subdued by her sense of honour. She denied his having been precautions against the opportunity of attack, is aiding the folly the cause of her son's death ; but the young man, seeing the cer

of those whose ambition inclines them to disturb the tranquillity

of nations, and the general improvement and progress of the tainty of death before him, made the last effort, and, in moving human mind, which steadily proceeds in peaceful times, but is accents, implored the forgiveness of the mother of his enemy; necessarily stayed-nay, prevented, thrown back, by war. These offering to replace the loss she had sustained, and in every respect feelings make us look with very anxious eyes upon Russia, which to become her son, promising the most dutiful and filial affection. is a country so different in the constitution of its society from Notwithstanding her arms clung to the dead body of her murdered any other European state, as to render it difficult to form a child, she was moved by the speech of the murderer; and, after a

correct judgment of its real power. Hence any authentic inforstruggle of maternal affection and pity for the young man, the latter fate of Europe to be again plunged into general war, a rupture

mation regarding it is of great value, for if it be the unhappy Å gained the ascendancy, and she not only forgave the homicide, but between England and Russia will in all probability be the com

adopted him as a son. But the magistrate of the city was a rigid mencement of a terrible strife, the result of which, however it executor of justice, and though he admired the eloquence of the may be terminated, must necessarily check the course of moral youth, and the compassion of the mother, he ordered the cul. culture which is now so beneficially going forward throughout the prit to be imprisoned, and executed the following day; nor could world, and penetrates even to its remotest parts. the reasons of Livia, who represented herself as the person Mr. Bremner travelled from Petersburg to Odessa, making a most deeply injured, and who conjured him not to deprive her of long detour for the purpose of visiting the fair at Nishneian adopted son, who would console her for the one she had lost, Novgorod, the great annual mart for the interchange of European move him from bis resolution. Prospero Colonna, the lord of the and Asiatic merchandise. In the course of this journey, and in city, was fortunately present, to whom she represented her case, and his sojourn in St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Odessa, he had very prevailed. The young man was pardoned, and for many years, ample opportunity of gaining the information which he has comunder the adopted name of Scipio, consoled the afflicted Livia by municated to his countrymen in two very pleasant and instructive the most assiduous filial affection. Upon her death-bed she took volumes. His description of the personal character of the the most tender leave of him, and left him all her property. Her Emperor will be read with interest. In the peculiarly constituted memory was honoured by a monument, upon which was recorded society of Russia, wbere the people are divided into two classes, her noble treatment of the homicide, and bis filial regret at her nobles and slaves, and wanting all the moral energy which can departure.

only exist in union with a third class, the court takes a prominent

part, and leads the way, either to vice or virtue, as it may be. THE BLIND SECRETARY OF THE GLOUCESTER SABBATH “ Nicholas is the third son of the unfortunate Paul, and succeeded

to the throne on the death of Alexander, in consequence of some "I Arrived in Gloucester in time to breakfast with a friend arrangement made by that Emperor for the exclusion of his who kindly undertook to obtain the assistance of some active per- been much blamed for sanctioning

an arrangement directly sub

second brother Constantine, who was still alive. Alexander has fon who would be likely to forward my purpose of addressing the children ; and he accordingly sent for a young man, who, although made so many sacrifices throughout his long reign ; but in

versive of those very principles of legitimacy for which he had blind, was nevertheless a very efficient secretary of the Sabbath Russia it was no new thing to pass over the direct heir, in favour schools, and highly respected.

** This interesting young man soon arrived : he appeared to be of one better able to govern: for the greatest Emperor who evei about twenty-eight

years of age; his eyes were beautifully black, reigned over it, Peter the Great himself, was called to the throne and so clear, that I could not have supposed they wanted the fa: in the same way ; Fædor having named hin his successor, to culty of vision : but it was so—he had

been deprived of sight for the exclusion of Ivan, the rightful heir, who, from weakness of nine years. Notwithstanding this disability, he undertook his intellect, was deemed incapable of governing. In both cases task with promptitude ; and, taking me by the arm, directed me to

demonstrations were n'ade in favour of the disinherited. Ivan was lead him down the main street, where, with surprising accuracy,

for some time regarded as sovereign by one party, but soon gave me to the house of one of the superintendants. After way to his more energetic brother; and Constantine was prowards, in like manner, having instructed me to conduct him to

claimed at Warsaw, as well as supported by a revolt of a portion various parts of the town, he made all the arrangements for a ge

of the guard, and by the populace of St. Petersburg. The neral meeting of schools on the following Sabbath, and for lectures energy displayed by Nicholas in subduing the rebellion las con

tinued to characterise the whole of his conduct ever since. 1-2 was, at first

, so careful of my blind guide, that I walked There is nothing, however, either in the attainments or measures słowly; but he begged that I would push boldly forward, as we had of the Tzar, to justify his admirers in holding him up as a man much work before us; at the same time assuring me, that all the of extraordinary, nay, almost superhuman talent. That he posrequired was care, lest he should be jostled by some inadvertent in a monarch may not unnaturally be mistaken for genius-- no

sesses restless activity of mind and body—and in a degree, which passenger. I inquired how he inanaged to do the duties of secrethrough routine,

; in any of trained the assistance of an amanuensis ; That he kepe possessind qualities that entitle him to be considered as much above

the of the books, and retained the contents in his memory.Pilking- * Excursions in the Interior of Russia, by Robert BREMNER, Esq., 2 vols.


he brought

on other evenings.

8vo, 1839. Colburn, London.

ton's Adventures.

ordinary average of human character, and certainly none that moment (Jan. 1839), amounts toʻsixteen ships of the line, which can entitle him to be pronounced, as he has sometimes been, the it is said will be further strengthened in the course of the ensuing greatest genius, the master spirit of our agr. His most prominent summer, by the addition of other ships now building. It being qualities, we should say, are decision and firmness ; quickness in customary in Russia to begin the training of the crew of a new devising expedients to meet the unforeseen emergency of the ship the moment her keel is laid, the ships last referred to will moment, and steadiness in enforcing them. Next to these, is the be ready for sea as soon as they are launched.

There excess of his passion for reducing everything to military uni- are several vessels of very considerable size on the Caspian, and formity. This propensity degenerates almost to a weakness : it more are in rapid progress at the building yards recently estabis his great aim to give the whole empire the appearance of an lished at very favourable points. The last item to be added is encampment. This passion is so well known that the very her steamboats, which, in such seas as Russia will have to fight children in the streets are made to affect the air military, strut- upon, will be of the utmost service to her in case of a war. Inting about in a white cap with a red band à-l'empereur. Oncluding those on the Caspian and the sea of Azoff, she has now entering a school, the boys and girls rise in files, to salute you at least sixty steamboats of one kind or other." after the military fashion, and march out as if wheeling to the Turn we now from these warlike details to the more pleasing sound of fife and drum. In the very prisons a dash of the prospect of industrious commerce. We will fly with our author corporal's discipline is visible ; and even in the hospitals, you to the great fair of Nishnei-Novgorod ; and after plunging through would say the old nurses ape the imperial guard. The emperor's the deep sloughs into which the turf roads are cut by the multiprivate habits and general style of living are extremely simple, tude of passengers (for beyond Moscow there are no made roads and the delight which he takes in the society of bis children is whatever) we reach the city, which stands on a fine triangular height boundless. Those who have seen the imperial family in their at the junction of the Okka and Volga, in 56° 19' 40" north latitude, private moments, wlien free from the constraint of pomp and and 61° 40' 34" east longitude. The fair is not held in the town, ceremony to which princes are slaves before the world, speak but “across the Okka, on a low almost inundated flat, exposed to of them in terms of rapture. An English gentleman who was the waters of both these rivers, lies a scene of bustle and activity honoured with many opportunities of entering the august circle, unparalleled in Europe. A vast town of shops, laid out in regular says that more happiness, more affection, more simplicity, it streets, with churches, hospitals, barracks, and theatres, now would be impossible to conceive. The unconstrained and inno- tenanted by more than a hundred thousand souls, but in a few cent amusement of their evenings, contrasted delightfully with weeks to be as dead and silent as the forests we have been surthe notions usually formed of imperial family scenes. In short, veying: for when the fair is over, not a creature will be seen out from all that he beheld, it appeared that a kinder husband or ☆ of the town, on the spot which is now swarming with human better father than Nicholas, does not exist." “ In person the beings. Yet these shops are not the frail structures of canvas Emperor is tall and well made. Few men of his height (six feet and rope with which the idea of a fair is associated in other two inches), display such grace and freedom of carriage. In countries. They are regular houses, built of the most substantial fact his appearance is so superior, that many have bestowed upon materials, and are generally one story high, with large shops in him the wise and not easily disputed compliment of being the the front part, and sleeping-rooms for the merchant and his

handsomest man in Europe.' Being one of the best horsemen servants behind. Sewers, and other means of maintaining clean. of the time, he is never seen to more advantage than when liness and health, are provided more extensively even than in the mounted on his favourite steed. Accustomed to command, and regular towns of Russia. to see his commands obeyed with crouching submission, he has “The business of the fair is of such importance that the governor acquired the air and mien of majesty more completely than any of the province, the representative of the emperor himself, takes sovereign of the age. His eye has a singular power : its fierce up his residence in it during the greater part of the autumn. glance can awe the turbulent, and, it is said, has disarmed the There is a large and handsome palace built for him in the centre, assassin. His manners, however, are far from those of the accommodating a train of secretaries and clerks numerous enough despot; nothing can be more winning than his attentions where to manage the revenues of a kingdom. Strong posts of military he wishes to please. No man ever seemed to possess more are planted all round keep down rioting, and the cossack strongly the power of removing, from those who have access to policemen are always on the alert against thieves, who notwithhim, the prejudices which may have been previously entertained standing, continue to reap a good harvest from the unwary. against him. The Russians, it is said, see little of his fascinating “ Immediately on leaving the bridge, the fair-ground begins. powers; towards them he dare not be familiar, without exciting This part is always crowded with labourers looking out for jealousies which would be fatal to the empire. It is on strangers, employment, and cossacks planted among them to maintain passing visitors, that he lavishes his amiability, for with them it order: Then come lines of temporary bootlıs, displaying objects can be done without danger, and he is too anxious to stand well of inferior value for the lower classes, such as beads, trinkets, with the rest of Europe to allow a foreigner to leave him under and some articles of dress, especially caps. Of these last a great an unfavourable impression. Never was even imperial flattery variety is displayed--round turbans of short curly wool from more successful in attaining its aim : the raptures with which Astracan (here called crimmels, because the best is furnished by his condescension, his frankness, his courtesy, are spoken of by the lamb of the large-tailed sheep imported from Crim Tartary) all who come near him, would indicate that it is not merely the -- high black Kirghis bonnets made of wool resembling hair-and emperor but the man who triumphs.” An amusing anecdote is flat gold-figured cowls from Kasan. These booths stand in front related of the conversion of a French liberal and political writer, of coffee, or rather tea-rooms, laid out with little tables, and by the talent of the Emperor, but we have not space to insert it. eating-houses large enough for two or three hundred to dine in

Mr. Bremner is of opinion that Nicholas has long meditated with comfort, and at any price, from two pence to two pounds. and still intends to carry his arms to India, and attack England “ First advances a white-faced flat-nosed merchant from Archin her Eastern possessions : a scheme which he considers imprac- angel, come here with his furs. He is followed by a bronzed ticable, even with the large resources which the emperor can long-eard Chinese, who has got rid of his tea, and is now moving command. But the immense preparations of Russia, both towards the city, to learn something of European life before naval and military, has also excited suspicion that she contem- setting out on his many months' journey home. Next come a plates war, and war against England. Mr. Bremner took pains pair of Tartars from the Five Mountains, followed by a youth to procure accurate information concerning the real force of the whose regular features speak of Circassian blood. Those with Russian Baltic fleet, and he gives the following statement :

muslins on their arms, and bundles on their backs, are Tartar pedlars. Cossacks who have brought hides from the Ukraine,

are gazing in wonder on their brethren who have come with 7 Ships

caviar from the Aklituba. Those who follow, by their flowing 9 Ships

robes and dark hair, must be from Persia; to them the Russians in all thirty heavy line of battle ships (not forty-five, as has been owe their perfumes. The man in difficulty about his passport is erroneously stated). To these, however, must be added,

a Kujur from Astrabad, applying for aid to a Turcoman from

the northern bank of the Gourgan. The wild-looking Bashkir 1 Razee


from the Ural has his thoughts among the hives of his cottage, 3 Frigates

to which he would fain be back ; and the stalwart K’uzzilbash

from Orenburg looks as if he would gladly bear him company, besides corvettes and small craft; the whole manned by a force for he would rather be listening to the scream of his eagle in the of 33,000 men. The Russian fleet in the Black Sea at the present chase than to the roar of this sea of tongues.

• 1 Three-decker

3 Three-deckers

120 guns.

of of of of




18 Ditto


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