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“Glancing in another direction, yonder simpering Greek from Moldavia, with the rosary in his fingers, is in treaty with a Kal
THE FUR CLOAK. muck as wild as the horses he was bred amongst. Here comes a Truelman craving payment from his neighbour Ghilan (of Western Persia), and a thoughtless Bucharian is greeting some
It was in the winter of 1805, that I was dining at Mr. Jefferson's, Agriskhan acquaintance (sprung of the mixed blood of Hindoos when, soon after leaving the table, I was seized with an ague, and and Tartars). Nogais are mingling with Kirghisians, and drapers obliged to leave the charming circle that collected in the drawingfrom Paris are bargaining for the shawls of Cashmere with a member of some Asiatic tribe of unpronounceable name. Jews
Mr. Jefferson, with almost paternal kindness, insisted on from Brody are settling accounts with Turks from Trebizond ; wrapping me in his fur clouk, which, while it completely shielded and a costume-painter from Berlin is walking arm-in-arm with
me from the night air, had the more powerful effect of conquering the player from St. Petersburg who is to perform Hamlet in the my shiverings, by exciting my imagination. evening.
• Strange !” thought I, “that I, an obscure individual in “ In short, cotton merchants from Manchester, jewellers from America, should be wrapped in the same mantle that once enveAugsburg, watchmakers from Neufchâtel, wino-merchants from loped the Czar of Russia--that was afterwards long worn by the Frankfort, leech-buyers from Hamburghi, grocers from Königs- patriot hero of Poland, and now belongs to one of the greatest men borg, amber dealers from Memel, pipe-makers from Dresden, and alive! I wish the cloak could sper k and tell me something of each farriers from Warsaw, help to make up a crowd the most motley of its possessors; of the insane despot, to whom it originally and most singular that the wonder-working genius of commerce belonged, it could tell me of no act of his life half so good as the ever drew together.”
one by which the cloak was transferred to the good Kosciusko.”' “The spot on which the fair is held is undoubtedly the fittest to
This brave man, inspired by an inherent and inextinguishable be found in Europe for such a purpose. The two rivers at whose love of liberty, had, when a mere youth, forsaken his native junction it stands not only rank among the largest in our division country—the luxuries of wealth, and the allurements of pleasure, of the globe, but are both of them navigable to a great distance, to enlist and fight in our cause. Many were the privations he enand one, in particular, is of importance in a commercial point of dured and the dangers he encountered for the sake of that righteous view, from its being now, by canals, in communication both with
cause to which his whole life was devoted. To a courage the most the north of Europe and with some of the finest provinces of Asia. unshrinking and a spirit the most daring, he added a tenderness Great as is the quantity of goods transported by land, it bears no
and delicacy of feeling, almost feminive, and a refinement of taste proportion to the cargoes conveyed by the countless armament, which led him, amidst the ruggedness and hardships of a camp, to already alluded to, floating on every side ; most of them hullis, cultivate the gentle arts of peace. The daring soldier in the field averaging from forty to one hundred tons burden, besides the of battle, was the tender and sentimental companion of virtuous steam-boats and ships of greater size on the Volga. Compared women; the ornament of the drawing-room, and the favourite of with all this, the extent of shipping was most tritling when the the domestic circle. fair was first planted here. But of the many proofs that can be
Even in garrison, the pursuits of a simple and refined taste were brought in favour of the new site, none is more striking than that not neglected. At the fort of West Point, where his regiment was furnished by the great increase in the business of the fair. Not long beleaguered by the British forces, we are still led to a spot many years ago the sales at Makarieff did not exceed the value amidst the rocks, called Kosciusko's Garden. There, on the high of fifty millions of roubles ; now, as we have seen, even by the and rocky banks of the Hudson, he amused his leisure moments in official valuation, it is much more than double. The sales, even cultivating flowers. Nature had supplied no soil for their growth, in 1832, an unfavourable year, were valued at 12:3,000,000 but, with indefatigable toil and inexhaustible patience, he supplied of which 89,500,000 were for goods belonging to European the deficiency of Nature. The spot he had chosen was inaccessible Russia, 16,700,000 for Asiatic goods, and 17,000,000 for foreign to vehicles of any kind, and he carried the soil himself in baskets articles."
and deposited it in the recesses of the rocks. One word more on the state of Russian manufactures, and we
There, morning and evening, leaving the coarse merriment and take our leave of Mr. Bremner.
sensual pleasures of the camp, he tended his flowers; or giving "Where are these boasted manufactures of Russia? We tra- himself up to the stillness of solitude, would sit on some projecting versed it from north to south in search of them ; but our search rock and watch the majestic stream that flowed at his feet, or the was fruitless. There are, undeniably, many establishments of clouds that floated over his head. industry, but they are on the most limited scale. Those in the Who that could then have looked on the slight and tender youtlı, large cities are not fit to supply the wants of half the population the pretty boy, for so small and delicate were his form and features, around them ; and even those in the smaller towns do not suffice that he seemed little more; who that looked on him, hanging with for the demands of the neighbourhood. The highest of their delight over a bed of flowers, would have recognized in him the cloth manufactories, for instance, produces only coarse stuffs, commander of armies, the hero of his nation? How lovely is the worn by none but the poorer classes, who have never made use union of greatness and goodness! It was the blending of these of English goods, and who therefore, let them wear what they qualities that made Kosciusko as beloved as he was admired, and may, can never be reckoned among our lost customers.
kindled in other bosoms a portion of that enthusiasm which glowed “ The only tenure which England has of the Russians, or of in his own. Yes, even l, then a young and thoughtless girl, felt other foreign nations, as purchasers of her manufactures, lies in the power of that enthusiasm, which inspired a nation of freemen, the superiority of the goods she produces. Not one of these and collected thousands round the standard of this patriot soldier. nations will buy a single web from us—nor do we see why they For days and weeks have I sat, with increasing delight, beside should—after the day when they can procure as good and as his couch, and listened to the stories of his battles and hair-breadth cheap an article at home. That the Russian mannfacturer, how- escapes, of his successes and defeats, his triumpli and his captivity, ever, is not likely to be soon in a condition to drive us even from one day a conqueror, the next a prisoner. his own market, far less from that of any other state, the slightest Though more than thirty years have since passed, I can still see acquaintance with that country will very satisfactorily show. In hlm, as I saw bim then, pale, emaciated, wounded ; his almost frano part of it did we see many articles of native manufacture that gile form reclined upon a couch, supported by pillows, with a little would be worn by any person above the lowest rank. Even the table drawn dose beside him, on which he leaned his elbow, supfinest of the goods which we saw at Nishnei—the best place that porting his head on his hand; that wounded head around which he a stranger can visit in order to know what Russian manufacturers wore a bandage of black riband, instead of the laurel wreath he liad can produce--were rude and clumsy. Those which we after- so nobly won. But the indelible scar, which that bandage covered, wards saw at Toula must be described in the same terms; and, was the seal of glory. lastly, all that we have now seen produced by the higlı-sounding The little table was covered with books, pens, pencils; with "manufactories' of Odessa are, if possible, of still meaner charac- letters from numerous friends, and tributary verses from every ier. In short, all that we saw of the products of Russian looms, European nation. With what delight did I avail myself of his confirmed us in the belief, that England has no more reason to permission to examine all these things, and how kindly did he fear that she will be driven from the market by them, than she indulge my youthful curiosity in reading to me many of these effu. has to fear that the cotton spinners of Manchester, and the cloth- sions of friendship, admiration, and love ; ses, love, for I remember weavers of Huddersfield, are to be ruined by the formidable well, that one of the letters was from a lady, who had loved him rivalry of the linsey-wolsey of the thrifty housewives of the Scot- when a volunteer in our army. It began thus : tish Highlands, and the honest homespun of Cumberland.” “ By what title shall I address thee, oh being still too dear and
too well remembered! shall I call thee the defender of thy | in which be was made prisoner, and his feelings on the occasion, country? oh, no, it is too awful. Hero of liberty? it is too high. are so interesting, that I can scarcely omit them. But these are Noble Pole? oh! that speaks of another and far distant country ; | matters of history. what then shall I call thee, that will bring to recollection the days “I expected,” said he, "on my arrival at St. Petersburg, to of past years ? I will call thee Kosciusko! other names may need be thrown into a dungeon, and loaded with chains ; but no such titles, but this is itself the highest title. This, indelibly engraven thing. Catharine, though an embittered, was not a cruel enemy. on my heart, will brightly shine in the pages of history. Wel. I bad fought only for the liberty of my country, and, although she come, then Kosciusko, welcome to the country that reveres, and to wished to destroy that liberty, she respected its defender. the heart that adores you !"
“The confinement to which she consigned me was rigorous in the Such, or nearly such, were the glowing words of this impassioned extreme; but I was allowed every comfort compatible with the letter; they were so accordant with the girlish romance of my dis- security of my person and prevention of any intercourse with position, that they made an ineffaceable impression on my memory. society. Perhaps-nay, certainly, he ought not to have shown this letter. "My apartment was large and commodious, my table well But, after all, heroes are but men; and he had, alas! too many of spread; and books, materials for writing, drawing, and painting, the weaknesses of poor human nature, and I cannot deny that amply supplied. vanity was one. I recollect, too, some very beautiful verses sent “Could I for one moment bare forgotten my poor, bleeding, him by Miss Porter, the distinguished novelist; but they came and enslaved country, I could have been almost happy. But my not from her heart, and therefore did not reach mine. They were country in chains, and struggling for freedom, was a thonght complimentary verses, in praise of the patriot and hero. Hero! never absent from my mind, and produced a restlessness and ---how different were my ideas of the person of a hero, from that impatience scarcely to be endured. Imagine a mother hearing the of Kosciusko.
cries of a child in agony, forcibly withheld from running to its From my childhood his name had been familiar to my ear, and assistance, and you may then imagine my feelings. I sometimes I had heard of his youthful achievements in defence of our liberty. thought that, in a dark dungeon, and chained to the ground, I At the time of his return to our country, his fame had preceded could have endured confinement with less impatience than in my his arrival. His bold enterprises,-his patient endurance,-his spacious and lightsome apartment, which wore the semblance and invincible courage,-his unyielding firmness, and his ardent patri- breathed the air of liberty, while I was, in fact, as much enchained otism, were the daily theme of private circles and public journals, as if loaded with fetters. I was not indeed fettered with iron and when he landed on our shores he was welcomed with un- chains, but, what was more intolerable, with the eternal presence bounded enthusiasm, and crowds eagerly ran to catch a glimpse of of men,-by men on whose sympathies I might have worked, had one of their earliest defenders.
time allowed me. But this was a contingence, against which my When he arrived in the little town in which I lived, and became sagacious as well as powerful enemy had securely guarded. an inmate of the house of one of my relations, I felt emotions it is “ During the eighteen months I was confined at St. Petersburg, impossible to describe. My young imagination embodied this I never, for two hours successively, saw the same face. The “apostle of liberty" (as he was sometimes called) in a form guard stationed in my apartment was changed every hour. grand, imposing, and venerable; with a figure as commanding as Compute how many hours there are in eighteen months, and that of our own Washington, and a countenance far more expres- you will know how many strange faces I looked upon during the sive. My fancy pictured him forth with noble features, large time of my imprisonment. Never for one moment was I left penetrating eyes, and an air of loftiness and grandeur. When 1 alone! was led up to his couch, and saw a diminutive and feeble old man, · Escape was impossible. After a time this conviction brought with a pale face, turned-up nose, little blue eyes, and thin, light- with it more composure, and I could read, write, and draw : the coloured hair, I could not at first believe that it really was the latter talent was the source of much amusement, and in the crerenowned KoscIUSKO; and for a time my enthusiasm was ations of my pencil I found a substitute for those of nature. Yes, entirely extinguished, for there was nothing about him to counter- the flowers grew under my hand,--the landscape was lit with act the effect produced by his appearance, and I must own I never sunshine and smiled in verdure ; and at times I felt emotions of recovered those feelings which his fame had inspired— feelings pleasure, similar, if not equal, to those which living flowers and excited by moral grandeur. His manners and conversation were real landscapes could give. And sometimes, too, I would recover as little imposing as his person and countenance. I continually the presence of those I loved ;-) would trace their features, endeavoured, by recalling his great actions to mind, to rekindle and draw eyes that seemed to look at me, and lips that seemed to my enthusiasm. I never succeeded :-nothing he said, or looked, speak. assisted the illusion; no, not even when he described the conflicts - Thus did I seek to beguile the weary monotony of my con. in which he had been engaged, could I realise that the pale, finement. But more heavy and more weary was each succeeding feeble, little man, whom I looked upon, was the commander of day, and there were moments when I felt such disgust in life that armies, and the idol of his country. But a tenderer sentiment soon I was tempted to destroy it; yet, loathing life, I lived; for against took the place of this high-wrought enthusiasm ; for, when he hope I hoped. talked of his sufferings, his bosom cares, and anxieties,-his high ** One day, awakening from a sleep into which I had fallen, on hopes and his deep despair, -it was impossible to listen and not to opening my eyes, I saw a stranger sitting on the foot of my couch, feel a deep interest and tender sympathy.
earnestly regarding me. I started up with, I suppose, a look of His mild countenance, soft voice, and gentle manners, were in alarm, for the stranger said to me, 'Be not alarmed; I bring you harmony with such details.
good tidings--your inexorable enemy is dead. Catharine died this In our little town, there were few who thought of approaching morning ;-you are free.' the great man, and he was left in comparative solitude ; at least, *** Free!' I exclaimed, “impossible.' to the quiet of the domestic circle of our family.
“ "Not impossible,' he answered. 'I am Paul; and I tell you, I was a romantic girl, a young enthusiast, and much indulged. you are free. I soon found a low seat beside his couch, on which I every day “After the first emotions of joy and surprise had subsided, the passed many hours. He loved to talk of himself, and perhaps Emperor told me I was at liberty to leave St. Petersburg, and to perceived no one listened to him with so eager and untiring an go to any country I pleased, Poland excepted. He offered me attention as I did. Who is there insensible to the pleasure of any sum of money I should desire. I declined receiving more exciting strong emotion, deep interest, and tender sympathy? than was sufficient to defray my expenses to London, and from Some there are, and I think he was one, who felt peculiar pleasure thence to America. When he found I would not take the heavy in awakening these emotions in the artless and unsophisticated purse he earnestly pressed on me, he took from his shoulders : mind of youth, where they are blended with strong curiosity and rich fur cloak he wore, and, throwing it over mine-Wear this astonishment.
for my sake,' said the Emperor." My fixed gaze, tearful eyes, and glowing face, so clearly evinced On leaving this country for Europe, Kosciusko left this cloak the interest I took in his conversation, that no doubt it led him with his revered friend, Jefferson. into details he would not otherwise have given. I have forgotten few of these details, and could fill a volume, were I to write all I remember ; but at present will only repeat the account he gave me APPETITE is a relish bestowed upon the poorer classes, that of the manner in which he became possessed of the Fur Clouk, they may like what they eat; while it is seldom enjoyed by the though the incidents connected with his defeat, following the battle rich, because they may eat what they like.-Tin Trumpet.
READING AND BOOKS.
his borrowing a Bible from the convent of St. Swithin, he had to To have the mind vigorous, you must refresh it, and strengthen return it uninjured. If any one gave a book to a convent or a
give a heavy bond, drawn up with great solemnity, that he would it, by a continued contact with the mighty dead who have gone monastery, it conferred everlasting salvation upon him, and he away, but left their imperishable thoughts behind them. We want
offered it upon the altar of God. The convent of Rochester every to have the mind continually expanding, and creating new thoughts, year pronounced an irrevocable damnation on him who should dare or at least feeding itself upon manly thoughts. The food is to the steal or conceal a Latin translation of Aristotle, or even obliterate blood, which circulates through your veins, what reading is to the
a title. When a book was purchased, it was an affair of such conmind; and the mind that does not love to read, may despair of ever
sequence, that persons of distinction were called together as witdoing much in the world of mind which it would affect. You can
Previous to the year 1300, the library of Oxford consisted no more be the “full man” whom Bacon describes, without read only of a few tracts, which were carefully locked up in a small chest, ing, than you can be vigorous and healthy without any new nourish
or else chained, lest they should escape ; and at the commencement ment. It would be no more reasonable to suppose it, in the of the fourteenth century, the royal library of France contained only expressive and beautiful language of Porter, “ than to suppose that four classics, with a few devotional works. So great was the privi. the Mississipi might roll on its flood of waters to the ocean, though lege of owning a book, that one of their books on natural history all its tributary streams were cut off, and it were replenishe only contained a picture, representing the Deity as resting on the by the occasional drops from the clouds.” Some will reac works Sabbath, with a book in his hand, in the act of reading! It was of the imagination, or what is called the light literature of the day, probably no better in earlier times. Knowledge was scattered to while that which embraces solid thought is irksome. The Bishop the four winds, and truth was hidden in a well. Lycurgus and of Winchester (Hoadley) said that he could never look into Butler's Pythagoras were obliged to travel into Egypt, Persia, and India, in Analogy without having his head aehe--a book which Queen order to understand the doctrine of the metempsychosis. Solon Caroline told Mr. Sale, she read every day at breakfast. Young and Plato had to go to Egypt for what they knew. 'Herodotus and people are apt—and to this students are continually tempted-to Strabo were obliged to travel to collect their history, and to conread only for amusement. Pope says, that, from fourteen to
struct their geography as they travelled. Few men pretended to twenty, he read for amusement alone ; from twenty to twenty
own a library, and he was accounted truly favoured who owned half seven, for improvement and instruction ; that in the former period,
a dozen volumes. And yet, with all this scarcity of books, there he wanted only to know, and in the second, endeavoured to judge.
were in those days scholars who greatly surpassed us. We cannot The object of reading may be divided into several branches, write poetry like Homer, nor history like Thucydides. We have The student reads for relaxation from more severe studies ; lie is
not the pen which Aristotle and Plato held, nor the eloquence with thus refreshed, and his spirits are revived. He reads for facts in which Demosthenes thrilled. They surpassed us painting and the history and experience of his species, as they lived and acted in sculpture. Their books were but few. But those were read, as under different circumstances. From these facts he draws conclu- Horace says, ten times—" decies repetita placebunt.”. Their owu sions; his views are enlarged, his judgment corrected, and the
resources were tasked to the utmost, and he who could not draw experience of former ages, and of all times, becomes his own. He from his own fountain, in vain sought for neighbours, from whose reads, chiefly, probably, for information; to store up knowledge weils he could borrow.- Todd's Student's Manual. for future use; and he wishes to classify and arrange it, that it may be ready at his call. He reads for the sake of style,- to learn how
DR. NATHANIEL BOWDITCH. a strong, nervous, or beautiful writer expresses himself. The spirit of a writer to whom the world has bowed in homage, and the
Dr. NATHANIEL Bowditch, of Boston, in the state of dress in which the spirit stands arrayed, is the object at which he Massachusetts, in America, was born at Salem, in the same state, must anxiously look.
in 1773. He was removed from school at the age of ten years, to It is obvious, then, that, in attaining any of these ends, except, assist his father in his trade as a cooper, and was indebted for all perhaps, that of amusement, reading should be performed very his subsequent acquisitions, including the Latin and some modern slowly and deliberately. You will usually, and, indeed, almost languages, and a profound knowledge of mathematics and astroinvariably, find that those who read a great multitude of books, have nomy, entirely to his own exertions, unaided by any instruction but little knowledge that is of any value. A large library has whatever. He became afterwards a clerk to a ship-chandler, justly been denominated a learned luxury-not elegance-much less where his taste for astronomy first showed itself, and was suffi. utility. A celebrated French author was laughed at on account of ciently advanced to enable him to master the rules for the calculathe poverty of his library. “Ah," replied he, “when I want a tion of a lunar eclipse; and his subsequent occupation as superbook, I make it !" Rapid readers generally are very desultory; cargo in a merchant-vessel sailing from Salem to the East Indies, and a man may read much, and know but very little. · The led naturally to the further development of his early tastes, by the helluo librorum and the true scholar are two very different charac- active and assiduous study of those departments of that great and ters.” One who has a deep insight into the nature of man, says comprehensive science which are most immediately subservient to that he never felt afraid to meet a man who has a large library. It the purposes of navigation. It was owing to the reputation which is the man who has but few books, and who thinks much, whose he had thus acquired for his great knowledge of nautical astronomy mind is the best furnished for intellectual operations. It will not that he was employed by the booksellers to revise several succesbe pretended, however, that there are not many exceptions to this sive editions of Hamilton Moore's Practical Navigator, which he remark. But, with a student, in the morning of life, there are no afterwards replaced by an original work on the same subject, exceptions. If he would improve by his reading, it must be very remarkable for the clearness and conciseness of its rules, for its deliberate. Can a stomach receive any amount or kind of food, numerous and comprehensive tables, (the greatest part of which he hastily thrown into it, and reduce it, and from it extract nourish had himself re-calculated and re-framed,) and for its perfectly pracment for the body? Not for any length of time. Neither can the tical character as a manual of navigation. This work, which has mind any easier digest that which is rapidly brought before it been republished in this country, has been for many years almost Seneca has the same idea in his own simple, beautiful language- exclusively used in the United States of America. “ Distrahit animum librorum multitudo ;-Fastidientis stomachi Dr. Bowditch, having been early elected a fellow of the Amemulta degustare, quæ ubi varia sunt et diversa, inquinant, non rican Academy of Arts and Sciences at Boston, commenced the alant."
publication of a series of communications in the Memoirs of that It is by no means certain that the ancients had not a great com- Society, which speedily established his reputation as one of the pensation for the fewness of their books, in the thoroughness with first astronomers and mathematicians of America, and attracted which they were compelled to study them. A book must all be likewise the favourable notice of men of science in Europe. copied with the pen, to be owned ; and he who transcribed a book During the last twenty years of his life, Dr. Bowditch was emfor the sake of owning it, would be likely to understand it. Before ployed as the acting president of an Insurance Company at Salem, the art of printing, books were so scarce, that ambassadors were and latterly also as actuary of the Massachusetts Hospital Life sent from France to Ronje, to beg a copy of Cicero de Oratore, and Insurance Company, at Boston : the income which he derived Quintilian's Institutes, &c., because a copy of these works was not from these employments, and from the savings of former years, to be found in all France. Albert, abbot of Gemblours, with incre- enabled him to abandon all other and more absorbing engage. dible labour and expense, collected a library of one hundred and ments, and to devote his leisure hours entirely to scientific pur. fifty volumes, including everything; and this was considered a suits. In 1815 he began his great work, the translation of the wonder indeed. In 1494, the library of the Bishop of Winchester " Mécanique Céleste" of Laplace ; the fourth and last volume of contained parts of seventeen books on various subjects ; and, on which was not quite completed at the time of his death. The
American Academy, over which he presided for many years, at a admiration no less of the perseverance and'assiduity of the author, very early period of the progress of this very extensive and costly than of her genius. Happily these qualities procured her the undertaking, very liberally offered to defray the expense of print, notice and patronage of many persons of rank and character, and ing it; but he preferred to publish it from his own very limited likewise of many scientific men; and, on the completion of the means, and to dedicate it as a splendid and durable monument of first volume,
Mrs. Blackwell was permitted to present a copy of it, his own labours and of the state of science in his own country. He died in March 1838, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, after a in person, to the College of Physicians, who made her a handsome life of singular usefulness and most laborious exertion, in the full present, and gave a testimonial, under the hands of the president enjoyment of every honour which his grateful countrymen in every and council of the institution, characterising her work as “most part of America could pay to so distinguished a fellow-citizen. useful,” and recommending it to the public. By the profits of her
Dr. Bowditch's translation of the great work of Laplace is a labours she was now enabled to release her husband from his conproduction of much labour, and of no ordinary merit. Every finement, besides having supported herself during her employment person who is acquainted with the original must be aware of the great number of steps in the demonstrations which are left unsup
upon the work. plied, in many cases comprehending the entire processes which
Mr. Blackwell resided for some time at Chelsea with his wife; connect the enunciation of the propositions with the conclusions ; after which he was employed by the Duke of Chandos, in superand the constant reference which is made, both tacit and ex. intending some agricultural operations at Cannons. At this time pressed, to results and principles, both analytical and mechanical, he published a work on agriculture, which was productive of great which are coextensive with the entire range of known mathema- benefit to him ; for the Swedish ambassador, having transmitted a tical science : but, in Dr. Bowditch's very elaborate commentary, copy to his court, was directed to engage the author, if possible, to every deficient step is supplied, -every suppressed demonstration is introduced,-every reference explained and illustrated ; and a
go to Stockholm. This engagement Blackwell accepted, leaving work which the labours of an ordinary life could hardly master is his wife and child in England for the present, and was received in rendered accessible to every reader who is acquainted with the the kindest manner at the court of Sweden, lodged in the house of principles of the differential and integral calculus, and in posses- the prime minister, and allowed a pension. The King of Sweden sion of even an elementary knowledge of statistical and dynamical happening soon after to be taken dangerously ill, Blackwell was principles. When we consider the circumstances of Dr. Bowditch's early This caused him to be appointed one of the King's physicians,
permitted to prescribe for him, and fortunately effected a cure. life,--the obstacles which opposed his progress,--the steady per: with the title of doctor, although it does not appear that he ever had severance with which he overcame them,- and the courage with which he ventured to expose the mysterious treasures of that taken a degree in medicine. While thus comfortably situated, he sent sealed book which had hitherto only been approached by those whose his wife several sums of money; and she was on the point of sailway had been cleared for them by a systematic and regular mathe- ing to join him at Stockholm, when his prospects were at once matical education, we shall be fully justified in pronouncing him to ruined, and his life sacrificed. Having been accustomed in have been a most remarkable example of the pursuit of knowledge England to the free utterance of his sentiments, which were warm under difficulties, and well worthy of the enthusiastic respect and in defence of the principles of civil liberty, he was probably not admiration of his countrymen, whose triumphs in the field of practical science have fully equalled, if not surpassed, the noblest sufficiently guarded in his expressions under an arbitrary monarch ; works of the ancient world.–Farewell Address of the Duke of or, perhaps, like all those who have risen rapidly to court favour and Sussex.
opulence, he might have malicious enemies, ready to misconstrue
or misinterpret his expressions: as a stranger, a native of another MRS. BLACKWELL;
country, this is the more probable. However it may be, he was apprehended on suspicion of being connected with a plot which
had been formed by one Count Tessin, for overturning the constiAlexander BLACKWELL was a native of Aberdeen : the date tution of the kingdom, and altering the line of succession. The of his birth cannot be positively stated, but may be supposed to application of torture forced from him an acknowledgment of have taken place about the year 1700. Having clandestinely mar- guilt, which, however, it is difficult to believe in: and this instance ried a young woman of his native town, he was obliged to leave the adds another to the numerous cases in which fear, agony, or place, and with his wife came up to London ; where his first em- mental alienation, have overcome respect for truth,-perhaps, ployment was that of corrector of the press to Mr. Wilkins, an prevented the victim from recognising it. At any rate, there eminent printer. He afterwards was enabled to set up as a printer appears to have been no motive for Blackwell's joining in a conon his own account, in a large house in the Strand; but the fact spiracy against his benefactor; and it is scarcely likely that, had of his not having served a regular apprenticeship to his business he been really implicated, he would, just at this moment, have becoming known, an action was brought against him; the unsuc- sent for his wife and child to join him at Stockholm. He was cessful defence of which ruined him, and one of his creditors tried before a royal commission, and sentenced to be beheaded ; threw him into jail. In this emergency, the genius of his wife with other aggravations of his punishment, which were not, howprompted the means of assistance. She happened to possess a ever, inflicted. In the course of his trial, some imputations were taste for drawing flowers, and the acknowledged want of a good thrown upon the King of Great Britain, which, in conjunction with Herbal at that time (1735) suggested to her the means of exerting other circumstances, caused the recal of the British ambassador her talent in a manner advantageous to herself. She hired a from Stockholm. house near the Botanic Garden at Chelsea, in order to be able to Blackwell was executed July 29, 1747. On the scaffold, he procure the necessary flowers and plants in a fresh state, as she protested his innocence, pointing out, as corroborative of his ashad occasion for them; and not only made drawings of the sertions, the want of all motive for engaging in a plot against the flowers, but also engraved them on copper, and coloured the prints government. Happening to lay his head wrong upon the block, he with her own hands. Her husband added the Latin names of the remarked good-humouredly that, as this was the first experiment, plants, with a short account of their principal characters and no wonder that he required a little instruction. uses, chiefly taken, by permission, from Miller's “ Botanicum The date of Mrs. Blackwell's death is not ascertained: her work Officinale." The first volume of the work appeared in 1737, in was afterwards republished on the Continent. large folio, containing 252 plates, each of which is occupied by one distinct flower or plant. The second volume, completing the number of plates to 500, appeared in 1739. The drawings are in
COMMON-PLACE people are content to walk for life in the rut general faithful ; the style of the engravings, though hard, is fully made by their predecessors, long after it has become so deep that on a level with those of the same age; and as a laborious work, they cannot sce to the right or left. This keeps them in ignorance executed in the short space of four years by the unassisted indus- and darkness, but it saves them the trouble of thinking or acting try of one woman, its accomplishment raises our wonder, and our for themselves.- Tin Trumpet.
AN INSTANCE OF FEMALE GENIUS AND INDUSTRY.
EMIGRATION TO AUSTRALIA.
the land in the vicinity of Torres Straits, and named it Australia
of the Holy Spirit; but it afterwards received the name of New The vast island–or rather continent-of Australia, is, in many Holland, from the number of Dutch navigators by whom it was respects, one of the most important of British colonial posses- visited, and whose voyages, if not earlier made, seem either to sions. It stands completely isolated, as it were, both physically have been the earliest recorded, or the most generally made and morally. The owners of the soil are few in number, com- known. The Spanish monarch, at the time, was too much occupared with the extent of surface; few obstacles are presented by pied with the splendid acquisitions made to his foreign dominions them to the spread of colonization, while they afford a fair field by the genius of Columbus, to attend to the progress of eastern for an experiment on aborigines, conducted on Christian and discovery, and additional portions of this region of the globe rational principles. There is no neighbouring power to watch were successively made known by the spirit of commercial enterand control-no mixture of different races of colonists, to create prise, or the good fortune of individuals. The correct and indeapprehensions of an explosion. The entire country seems freely fatigable Dampier was the first English navigator by whom the open to British enterprise and emigration : while, on its eastern, coast of New Holland was visited. He received his naval educawestern, and southern coasts, three distinct experiments of tion among the buccaneers of America, and in a cruise against colonization, conducted on distinct principles, are in progress. the Spaniards, he doubled Cape Horn, from the east stretched Two of them, New South Wales, and Western Australia, have towards the equator, fell in with this continental island, made an manifested their characters by their fruit—Southern Australia is accurate survey of its shores, which, on his return to England, only begun.
he presented to earl Pembroke, and which gained hin the patronWhen emigration to British America and the United States age of William III. was the “rage,” abundance of books of travels and “ Emigrants’ “ But the illustrious Cook was the first who gave the most Guides," appeared ; and now that the tide is setting towards extensive information, and dispelled many illusions, regarding this Australia, there is no lack of works to stimulate emigrating zeal, extensive region, during his first and his third voyages in 1770 or to direct the intending emigrant. We have “South Australia and 1777. Previous to this, the eastern coast was almost entirely in 1837-8,” by Robert Gouger, Esq. ; “Six Months in South unexplored, but by him there was made known the existence of Australia,” by T. H. James, Esq.; the “ Land of Promise," by a vast island, almost equal in extent to the whole continent of “One who is going ;” and a “ Hand-Book for Australian Emi- Europe. Since that time it has engaged much of the attention grants,” by Samuel Butler, Esq., whon, judging from his preface, of the British government and people. Many experiments have we may term “one who has gone.” This is all right enough. “ In been tried, and with varied success, until the tide of public the multitude of counsellors there is safety.” One publication may approval has turned so entirely in its favour, that even the wealth be written in too glowing a style ; another, perhaps by a dis and the comforts of home, the length of the voyage, and the disappointed man, may be cold and depreciating; while a third tance of the scene, are held as nothing when compared with the may be dictated from purely interested motives—an advertise health and the independence of Australia. ment written large. But surely the truth can be elicited by “ Occupying a position considerably nearer to the south of the comparison ; and shame would it be, if in this age of rapid com- equator than England to the north, the climate is consequently munication and abundant publication, any delusion should gain both warmer in summer and milder in winter than with us.
The a general hold on the public mind, or that hundreds of emigrants most remarkable feature, attested by the report of all who havo should quit their native shores, to live and die in misery and visited it, is the great uniformity of the temperature throughout disappointed hope.
almost the whole extent. It is not varied to a high degree even There is one thing which all the Guide-books and Hand-books at different seasons of the year, nor liable to sudden transitions that can be written, cannot do for a man-to decide for him from cold to heat. So much is this the case, that invalids from whether he himself is a fit subject for emigration. We read India are now conveyed there instead of being subjected to a about a fine soil, a mild climate, abundance of land, and capital tedious voyage to Europe, or a laborious over-land journey to prospects; and perhaps, somewhat tired or disgusted by tem- the valleys of the Himmaleh. This peculiarity arises in great porary circumstances, we fancy we should like to “try our measure from the large proportion which sea bears to land in luck” far away from our present annoyances or inconveniences. the southern hemisphere ; on this account the temperature of A man who emigrates in this hap-hazard way may succeed: but places, at the same distance from the different tropics, north he is turning emigration into a kind of lottery. He who emigrates and south, is cooler in the latter than in the former; 350 in the in the right spirit, is one who does not start away, from pique, one having been found by observation to correspond with 37° or impatience, or any temporary annoyance, but who coolly and 38° of the other. For eight months in the year the weather calculates and compares his chances and probabilities. Such a is mild and unbroken. The sky is seldom clouded, and although man thinks for himself, and for his family too ; and if he is refreshing showers frequently fall, it is subject to none of the determined to work as well as think, and is able to work, there periodical rains which deluge the torrid zone. The sun looks is every reasonable ground to think that he will succeed, if down during two-thirds of his annual course in unveiled beauty success is within the range of probability and possibility: from the northern heavens, and for the remainder the frost is so
Mr. Butler has produced a very readable “ Hand-Book for slight as but to require the kindling of a fire for the purposes of Australian Emigrants,” though he has left an opening for an great warmth, morning and evening; while, in Sydney, snow has imputation on his judgment, by the extravagant manner in been so seldom seen as to have endowed it with the name of which he praises the penal colony of New South Wales. His white rain. book commences with the following general description of Aus- While this is the general characteristic, it must only be
understood as the average of the whole, not as liable to no excep“ AUSTRALIA, or New Holland, is situated.in the Pacific Ocean, tion at any precise period, or at any particular place, which would and forms the largest island in the world. Lying between 9 of itself form one of the strangest exceptions to the economy of degrees and 38 degrees of south latitude, and 112 degrees and nature in every other portion of the earth's surface, that has 153 degrees of east longitude, it forms an extent of• land, which, ever been presented to the observation of man. The heat is from its geographical position, and its natural productions, abounds greater in the interior than on the sea-coast during summer, and in interest both to the philosophicalinquirer, and to all who wish to the cold more intense in winter. At Paramatta, the thermometer make it the place of their residence. Ít extends 2000 miles rises 10" higher in summer, and falls the same number lower in from north to south, and about 2,600 from east to west, cut near winter, thau at Sydney. But this is only at noon in summer, its centre by the tropic of Capricorn,—its northern portion is in- when the coolness of morning and evening again restores the cluded in the Torrid zone, but all its southern region enjoys the balance; and in winter, the contrast arises from the more than salubrious climate of the Temperate belt.
European mildness of the one place, rather than from the exces“It has been divided into threc principal parts, discovered at sive cold of the other. different periods, each possessed of a different history, but all of “ These statements are made with more immediate reference them having been employed for the purposes of colonization by to New South Wales, although applicable to the whole island. the over-crowded population of the Old World. It consists of But in South Australia especially, the atmosphere is pure, dry, New South Wales, or Eastern Australia, on the east ; South and elastic ; even when the hot winds blow, which come periodiAustralia, in the centre; and the Swan River settlement, or cally four times every summer, and continue from twenty-four Western Australia, on the west of its extra-tropical range. to thirty-six hours at a time, the lungs play freely, and no diffi
" New Holland was discovered by Don Pedro Fernando de culty is felt in breathing. During their prevalence on one Quiros, a Spanish nobleman, in 1609. He appears to have made occasion, when, according to Dr. Lang, the thermometer stood at