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112}", and he had to perform Divine service twice, he experi- who lives on credit at the next public-house six months of the enced less inconvenience from the heat than he had often done year, often gains during the other six from 50 to 200 francs in a crowded church in Scotland. This is owing to the extreme
a day. dryness of the atmosphere, which always enables a person to The labourers who work the mines have no fixed pay; at the endure a greater degree either of heat or cold, than when it is end of their twelve hours' labour they are permitted to carry away charged with moisture. In the humid atmosphere of England, a capacho full of the ore which is heaped up at the mouth of the such a degree of heat as that alluded to, would have been most mine, about thirty pounds weight. When the mine is in its or. oppressive, if not intolerable ; and hence arises our exceeding dinary state, that is producing eight or ten marcs of silver per liability to cold and cough, and consumption, which, in an exposure carom (fifty quintals of ore), the workman may reckon on from to all ‘weathers, and even to those sleeping uncovered on the three to five reals (from half-a-crown to three shillings.) But ground, are unknown in Australia.
if the veins that are worked become richer, the capacho will “ Being situated at the opposite extremity of the globe, its yield him from ten to forty dollars, and this custom has the force seasons are nearly the reverse of ours. Our December, January, of law. The proprietor of the mine could not, if he would, pay the and February, is summer there, when the atmosphere, however workmen regular wages. They will have their capacho of ore, heated, only displays its power in spreading luxuriance over the whether it turn out mere stones or pure silver. This mode of face of nature, without producing any of its debilitating effects payment has given rise to a species of exchange of which I have upon the human frame. The heat only requires to be endured never met any other example. Every retail shopkeeper is also a for a few hours during the day, to be amply compensated for by manufacturer of silver ingots. The Indian or the creole, at the the refreshment of the cooling breeze that sets in in the evening. end of his twelve hours' work, brings his apron full of stones to When it is winter there, it is our June, July, and August, which the public-house. There he drinks brandy, chica, eats a chupé, is rather a season of rain than of snow, with some slight symptoms chews coca, smokes his cigar, and pays for all with bits of stone. of frost, which speedily disappear before the rays of the rising sun. In like manuer he gets all he wants, clothing, firing, &c. Every Its being situated so much further east than England, equally shopkeeper, male or female, is consequently obliged to obtain affects the relations of time with regard to day and night, as to some knowledge of silver ores, which it takes time and a prac. summer and winter. The sun rises ten hours later here than it tised eye to acquire. Nothing is more common than to see a does there ; accordingly, when it is six o'clock in the morning fish-woman, seated at the door of her shop, and while superinhere, it is four o'clock in the afternoon with the Australians. tending the sale of her merchandise, pound up some ore into Although this is a real difference, it comes upon the emigrant so powder, knead it up with mercury, wash it, melt it, and finally gradually during the voyage, that its very existence is unper- reduce it to the state of a silver ingot. ceived, and it leads to no practical tendency in its influence upon The population of the Serro of Pasco, varies from 10 to 15,000 the business of life.
souls, according to the increase or decrease of the boia, a term “ The salubrity of the seasons is evidenced by the health of the used to express the productiveness of the veins of silver. When it inhabitants. They are liable to few diseases; and those which do | is known in the country that the mines of the Serro are in boia, occur, are represented as in every three instances out of four, the population increases by a third. Creoles, Indians, runaway the result of moral causes. Excess in the use of animal food, sailors, bankrupts, knavish pedlers, assassins, all crowd to have and of ardent spirits, are there, as everywhere else, the great | their share of the stream of silver, soine to labour, and others to gate-way opened by the hand of man for the entrance of disease prey upon those who work. Every one is at liberty to assume and death. Temperance, both in eating and drinking, will be the heavy hammer and the chisel of the miner. All distinction found by the emigrant the most effectual means for the preserva- of caste ceases at the beginning of the first gallery : the white tion of health; while excessive indulgence, especially in the latter, who despises the creole, the creole who robs and beats the Indian, is more likely than even at home to undermine the constitu- the Indian himself, that poor llama of the white men, all become tion, and to blast the prospects with more fearful and fatal equal and companions. For twelve hours they are occupied in a rapidity.”
stooping posture at the bottom of the pits, the galleries of which Such may be termed a general description of the great island are not more than three or four feet high : here they work with of Australia. But as general descriptions convey, after all, very their legs plunged in mud, formed by the softened gypsum of little information of a specific or particular kind, we shall follow the rocks. When they have with difficulty worked a hole about this up by giving some information respecting the colonies of six inches deep, they fill it with powder and spring the mine. Western and Southern Australia.
The thick and sulphurous smoke has no other issue than the
narrow entrance of the gallery some hundreds of paces off ; and THE SERRO OF PASCO OR, SILVER MINES
it often remains condensed and almost immoveable for hours, OF PERU.*
before it slowly rolls away. The fragments of ore are carried
away on the back in the capacho, the bearers being often The Serro of Pasco is a vast plain stretching a league and a obliged to creep upon their hands and knees. Every twelve half in width, throughout which, wherever you dig, silver is found hours the workmen are changed and fresh inen go into the mine. almost close to the surface. The face of the country presents a
The difference of night and day is not known there ; when the cold and melancholy aspect. Small hills divided from each other grease in the little lamp, which each miner carries in his cap, by frozen lakes, or little plains scantily covered by yellow-green begins to fail, the hour of repose is known to be near. grass, compose the scene. On the highest and largest of these This population, who have laboured side by side all the week, hills, 4397 metres above the level of the sea, a cluster of houses, yet without meeting, these two relays of men find themselves constructed of wool and stone, are grouped irregularly around united, on Sunday, in the churches and public-houses. Not one the mines, whose principal entrance is frequently in the very fails attendance at mass ; but this duty of habit and fear accommiddle of the street. Around the mouths of the shafts, stakes plished, they scatter themselves among the different cafés and and planks are fixed to prevent the earth from falling in. The public-houses of the town, and give themselves up to gaming ore is carried from the mine into the court-yard of some neigh- and debauchery, with all the eagerness of men of strong pasbouring house, through the crowds of passengers and long files sions and gross and vulgar minds possessed of riches. They are of niules and llamas, who carry to the Serro everything that is rich, for who would refuse wine and cards to the man wlio, consumed there—wood, charcoal, bread, even straw for the although without money to-day, is certain to have whole bags beasts of burden. This necessity for bringing every article of full of dollars as soon as the mine shall be in boia ? and this may supply from the coast or the interior, gives a very animated and happen at any moment, and then all their debts are honourably extraordinary appearance to the streets. Every house is a shop, paid. where French and English cloth, Spanish and Swedish iron, These orgies are frequently interrupted or followed by quarsilks from India, China, and Lyons, the wines of Madeira and rels, in which the knife is unsparingly used, and here they never Bordeaux, strong rum and brandy, English and Chinese earthen- use to strike twice ; they fear revenge ; the murdered man is ware, porcelain from Limoges, ironmongery from North America, thrown into one of the mines, always open to receive both dead accordions, musical snuff-boxes ; in short everything necessary and living. The abandoned galleries alone are left open, for the for civilised life in this icy climate, and all which can tempt the mines which are worked are closed every Sunday morning. caprices of rich and vulgar parvenus, are to be found. In this Profiting by the absence of the miners, who all, both old and town of gamblers, every one is rich in his turn ; the poor creole young, spend Sunday night in drinking or gaming, the huaylla
ripas introduce themselves into the mine. These are robbers of * Translated from the French,
metal, the staple of Peru. The creoles follow this trade, which
is very profitable when the mines are in boia. Being themselves, quimbo, Isley, and Callao, and the machines were deposited upon workmen, they well know the richest veins. Saturday evening, the quays, where they remained, since it was found impossible to towards the end of the hours of labour, they select the blocks of convey them into the interior, on the backs of mules. ore they intend to carry away at night, and begin to loosen them The companies, who had bought very poor or worn-out mines, with the chisel, without separating them entirely. Frequently at a very high price, persisted in working them according to the one of them conceals himself under a heap of rubbish, and at a European system ; the engineers grew disgusted ; the companies later hour opens the door for his companions. The activity of would make no more advances, without receiving any returns ; these huayllaripas is so great, that they have frequently each complaints of deception were heard on all sides, and froin that carried off a caron, weighing fifty quintals, in one night.
time the mines of Peru have fallen into complete discredit in The Indians are rarely dangerous huayllaripas ; for this trade Europe. This opinion is ill founded, since an ordinary mine well a greater energy is needed, which is only possessed by the worked yields 50 for 100. The richer mines return even 200 whites or creoles. Once entered, if the doors are closed upon and 300 for 100. The Serro of Pasco sends about three millions them, if the proprietors get information and arrive with their of dollars to be coined at Lima every year, without reckoning people, the robbers are pursued and hunted from gallery to gal- the silver sold in ingots and smuggled out of the country, which lery. If every means of escape are cut off, a terrible fight may be estimated at one million of dollars. The capital in cir. ensues ; the galleries are so low and narrow that they can only culation is two millions of dollars, effective value, and one million fight one to one, and upon their knees. There is no mercy there; in mercantile bills. Thus a capital of three millions produces an the most skilful or most fortunate plunges his knife in the breast annual return of four millions. of his opponent, and this duel is ended, only to begin another.
M. K. the prefect of the Serro de Pasco, told me that every Monday morning ten or twelve corpses were taken out of the
TOMB OF THE EMPEROR MAXIMILIAN AT INNSPRUCK. mines, or the little lakes about the town, and nobody could be
This majestic tomb is placed in the middle of the centre aisle, found to bear witness against the assassins ; for almost all the
on a platform approached by two or three steps of red marble. On miners have been murderers, or will be so to-morrow. If a mur
the top of a marble roof, raised over it, kneels a colossal figure, in derer has been taken in the fact, and condemned to death, yet he bronze, of Maximilian, surrounded by four smaller allegorical will escape from justice if he can take refuge in a mine, where he figures of the same metal. The sides of the tomb are divided into cannot be seized, the authority of the magistrate having no power twenty-four compartments, of the finest Carrara marble, (carefully there. This right of asylum is one of the numerous fueros covered from the light of day, and only opened to the curious on granted to the miners as encouragements to labour, at the time the payment of a fee,) on which are represented the most when the king of Spain claimed the quinto, or fifth part of the interesting events of the emperor's warlike and most prosperous net produce of thc gold and silver mines. Thus, whilst he was
The exquisite workmanship of these tablets, though cer. lamenting the disorders of the police in his department, M. K. tainly less in the style of Michael Angelo than of an artist in silver said he was quite unable to remedy it. In the midst of such an or ivory, is most admirable ; and, taken together with the lofty assemblage of people of all nations, it is naturally impossible for deeds and royal alliances they record, appear to me the most social society to exist. The minds of all are too much bent on princely decoration for a tomb that I have seen or heard of. The one idea to permit the entrance of any other. The excitation celebrated monument raised to the memory of the first wife of this of wine and play can alone combat the silver-fever which tor illustrious prince, Mary of Burgundy, who, with her father, Charles ments them night and day. This atmosphere is so infectious the Bold, lies buried in St. Mary's Church at Bruges, greatly as that I have seen French and English merchants, whom I have the twin tombs are admired, is, compared to this, a toy and a elsewhere found honest and pacific persons, here so bitten trifle. and possessed by this tarantula of silver, that they had not
Each tablet contributing to the splendid biography which the an idea, an exclamation, a smile for aught but silver, silver, sculptures exhibit, is in size about two feet four inches, by one foot silver!
eight; and every object contained in them is in the most perfect The different mines, to the number of nine hundred and fifty- proportion, and for the most part in excellent perspective, while eight, which have been worked, belong to companies, or rather the finish of the heads and draperies in the foreground requires a te associations formed of three, five, or ten individuals who have magnifying-glass to do it justice. united their capitals and their industry for the purpose of work
But, marvellous as is the elaborate beauty of this work, it is far ing such or such a point of the mountain of Pasco. They are, from being the most remarkable feature of this imperial mausoleum. for the most part, Spanish Americans, Peruviaus, Chilians, and Ranged in two long lines, as if to guard it, stand twenty-eight Buenos Ayrians. A few foreigners, French, English, and North colossal statues in bronze, of whom twenty are kings, and dukes, Americans, who are engaged in those works, enter into societies and noble princes, alliances of the house of Hapsburg, and eight, as mechanics, carpenters, or coopers, but are seldom among their stately dames, Anything more impressive than the appear: the inanagers. As all who are interested in the concern are ance of these tall dark guardians of the tomb, some clad in regal on the spot, conducting the works themselves, purchasing their robes, some cased in armour, and all finished with the greatest quicksilver and workmen's tools ; repairing accidental fallings skill, it would be difficult to imagine. But to enjoy it to perfecin; cutting canals when a spring rises in the bottom of the tion, the church must be empty. When we first entered it, a mine ; in a word, superintending all the necessary operations capuchin monk was preaching to a very crowded audience; and with the activity and foresight of principals, they gain from though these sable giants reared themselves above the crowd in such ten to fifty per cent, and they laugh at the discredit thrown, a style that it would require a preacher of no common eloquence to in Europe, on the mines of Peru, as they laughed at the exag- divide attention with them, yet it was only afterwards, when we gerated hopes of fortune entertained respecting these very mines had the church to ourselves, for the purpose of having the tomb about ten years ago. In 1824, when free trade was proclaimed uncovered for us, that they produced their full effect upon the eye and strangers were received in the country, European specu- and the imagination. lators, especially English, indulged the most chimerical ideas : I am conscious that it is a sign of great mental weakness to have they saw that under the Spaniards, and with their antiquated a fancy so easily wrought upon; but I declare to you that I almost method, the mines of Peru yielded annually five or six millions trembled as I stood before them. Each with most portrait-like of dollars, and they concluded that the progress of chemistry individuality of attitude and expression ; each solemn, mournful, and mechanics would enable them, if the mines were in their dignisied, and graceful; and all seeming to dilate before your eyes hands, to command a return three or four times as large. They into more than human dimensions, as if framed with miraculous formed numerous companies, the Pasco-Peruvian, the Chiliar, skill to scare intruders, and to be stationed there by some power and Peruvian, and many others, which ran their course in the more than mortal, to keep fitting watch and ward around the mighty London share market.
dead. They look, believe me, like an eternal procession of The management of these undertakings was intrusted to mourners, who shall cease not, while earth endures, to gaze on, ingenious engineers, practised in the modes of European mining. mourn over, and protect the
sacred relics of him who was the glory They knew that a flooded mine must be pumped dry by a steam- of their glorious race on earth. engine of so many horse power ; that large furnaces were neces- Twenty-three small bronze statue portraits of saints and sary to melt the ore ; to grind it properly, mills driven by steam, saintesses, all claiming kindred with the Hapsburg-Austrian line, &c. &c. They loaded several vessels with heavy machines which are placed on high in front of the choir; among which I remarked needed such roads as lead to Manchester and Birmingham for Saint Richard, King of England.- Vienna and the Austrians, by their transportation. These vessels arrived at Valparaiso, Co. ' Mrs. Trollope.
THE EYE The giant shadows, sleeping amid the wan yellow light of the December Martin Luther had such a lion-like vivacity of the eye, that all men wers morning, looked like wrecks and scattered ruins of the long, long night.- not able to look directly upon him. It is said that there was one sent, who Omniana.
under the pretence of private conference with him should pistol him; but he
was courteously received by him, and so confounded by the vigour of his CUSTOM-HOUSE AT ZANZIBAR.
eyes that he left him unhurt.-Zuing. Theatr. The custom-house is a low shed, or rather lock-up place, for the ware.
THE GREAT FATHER" OF THE INDIANS. housing of goods; and connected with it is a wooden cage, in which slaves are confined from the time of their arrival from the coast of Africa until they
The Indians of the United States always give the title of great father" are sold. A sale of these poor creatures takes place every day at sunset, in to the President. This, however, is diplomatic. It is well known that they the public square, where they are knocked down to the highest bidder. The have a trick of nick-naming the whites, as they do each other, on more cage is about tiventy feet square, and at one time during our short visit, primitive principles. Thus, a late delegation, in allusion to the sandy there were no less than one hundred and fifty slaves, men, women, and complexion of Mr. Van Buren, have always spoken of him, it is said, as the children, locked up in it! The number imported yearly is estimated at “ Red Fox." The opposition party insist on it they mean more than his from six to seven thousand. There is an import duty levied upon them, beard by this; we cannot, of course, decide, where doctors disagreevarying from a half-dollar to four dollars a head, depending upon the port
Athenaeum. in Africa from which they are brought. Some individuals on the island own
ECONOMY. as many as two thousand, valued at from three to ten dollars each. They Economy is not the “ penny wise and pound foolish” policy which some work for their masters five days in the week, the other two are devoted to suppose it to be. It is the art of calculation joined to the habit of order, the cultivation of a portion of ground allotted to them for their own main- and the power of proportioning our wishes to the means of gratifying them. tenance.-Ruschenberger's Narrative.
HOW TO CONSTRUCT A BRIDGE.
The Persian Princes, when in England, were taken to a military show on SIR THOMAS MORE, being Lord Chancellor of England at the same time that the Medway, to witness the operation of throwing pontoon-bridges, and the his father was a judge of the King's Bench, would always, at his going to crossing of a body of troops with remarkable rapidity. “Ham-een usti con Westminster, go first to the King's Bench and ask his blessing before he che cheezee ust Y-Is this all ? is this what it amounts to ?" was the remark went to sit as Chancellor.- Baker's Chron.
of the elder, when the novement was completed. * * " Eh! cheezee poock
ust, -it is a paltry affair," echoed Timour; “ we can do at least as well as DESIRE OF IMPORTANCE.
that in Persia."_" Can you ?" said I; “as how, prince?"_" Why," replied The desire to appear important in the eyes of another is an almost he, “when we have to cross a river with an army, all we do is to kill a universal passion. The great struggle ought to be to direct this desire of thousand sheep or goats, blow up their skins, form them into rafts, covered importance to proper objects, to found the claim to distinction on supe- with branches of trees and carth, and, Bismillah ! over we go." riority which is of genuine dignity or use. And what so high as literary fame, where it is well deserved ?-Sir E. Brydges.
was a mad roaring timo, full of extravagance; and no wonder it was so, WARINESS OF THE GULL.
when the men of affairs were almost perpetually drunk.-Burnet. “I have thought it remarkable," says Audubon, “ how keenly and aptly
THUNDER. Gulls generally discover at once the intentions towards them of individuals of our own species. To the peaceable and industrious fisherinan they scarcely
The rolling of thunder is produced by the reverberation among the clouds pay any regard, whether he drags his heary net along the shore, or patiently
Arago and others, when making some experiments on the vclocity of sound, waits until his well-baited hook is gulped below the dancing yet well
observed that the explosion of their guns produced a single and sharp sund anchored bark, over the side of which he leans in constant and anxious
when the sky was perfectly clear; but when encumbered with clouds, they expectation. At such a time, indeed, if the fisher has had much success,
were attended with a long continued roll that inimicked thunder.-" The
Earth." and his boat displays a good store, gulls will almost assail him like so many beagars, and perhaps receive from him a trifling yet dainty morsel. But, on
DELIGHTS OF ROYALTY. the opposite side of the bay, see how carefully and suspiciously the samo
Of all the descendants of Antigonus, Philip was the only prince who put birds are watching every step of the man who, with a long gun held in a
his son to death, whereas, in the families of other kings, nothing is more trailing position, tries to approach the flock of sleeping widgeons! Why,
common than the murders of sons, and mothers, and wives. As for the not one of the gulls will go within three times the range of his murderous
killing of brothers like a postulate in geometry, it was considered as indis engine: and, as if to assure him of their knowledge of his designs, they
putably necessary to the safety of the reigning prince.-Plutarch merely laugh at him from their secure station."
NEWCASTLE SATIRE ON A CONCEITED COLLIER.
My nyem it's Billy Oliver,
Iv Ben well town aw dwell ;
An:aw's a cliver chep, aw's shure; conversation in the legal circles. He was a great stickler for what he called
Tho' aw de say't mysel'. “forensic propriety,'” and always felt extremely flattered that the Government considered him to be the fittest man to try malefactors. He presided
Sic an a cliver chep am aw, am aw, am aw, at the trials of Thurtell, Fauntleroy, Corder, and Greenacre. The fact is
Sic an a cliver chep am aw. that he was a pains-taking man, and summed up a case with such extra
There's not a lad iv a'wur wark ordinary prolixity, as to lead to the conclusion that he considered the jury
Can put or hew wi' me ; mere idiots. From his peculiarities we extract the following:-At Chelmsford
Nor not a lad iv Benwell toon Assizes, the under-sheriff thought fit to indulge in a buff-coloured waistcoat.
Can coax the lasses see. His Lordship eyed him for some time with an angry scowl; at length he
Sic an a cliver chep am aw. could not abstain from “ forensic propriety." "Really, sir, I must beg of
When aw gans tiv Newcassel toon, you to take off that straw-coloured waistcoat. I cannot sit here, sir, and
Aw myeks mysel' sae fine ; behold that waistcoat any longer." The sub-sheriff, of course, did as he was
Wur neybors stand and stare at me, bidden. Upon one occasion, a prosecutor appeared before him, to give
An' say, “Eh! what a shine!" evidence, who had mustachios. " What are you, sir?" said the judge.
Sic an a cliver chep an aw “ A schoolmaster, my lord,” was the reply. “A schoolmaster, sir! How
An' then aw walks wi' sic an air, dare you come before me with those hairy appendages ? Stand down, sir ;
That, if the folks hev eyes, I shall not allow you your expenses." Upon another occasion a dog barked
They a'wis think it's sum great man, in court. “Mr. Under Sheriff, pray, turn that dog out; it is monstrous for
That's cum in i' disguise. a dog to be barking at his Majesty's Judge of Assize." The under sheriff
Sic an a cliver chep am aw. commenced serving an ejectment upon what he considered the canine sinner. “Oh, dear no, sir," said the Learned Judge! “I did not mean to turn out
THE EMPEROR SEVERUS. that dog, sir: I have noticed that dog for the last three hours, and it is quite impossible for any dog to behave better: 'tis not that dog, sir." At the
The Emperor Severus, after many wars, growing old, and upon the point Winchester assizes, when Mr. Commissioner Williams was at the bar, that
of death, called for an urn, in which (after the ancient manner) the ashes gentleman was leader for the plaintiff in an important case of trespass: le
of their burnt bodies were to be bestowed ; and, after he had long looked rose to open a very well-digested speech, but was stopped in the very
upon it, and held it in his hands, he uttered these words : “ Thou," said he, threshold of his exordium by the worthy Judge, who said "I really cannot
shalt contain that man whom all the world was too narrow to confine." permit it, Brother Williams; I must maintain the forensic dignity of the
“* Mors sola fatetur bar,” The advocate looked unutterable things at his Lordship, and said
Quantula sint hominum corpuscula.” “ I do not understand you, my Lord.” “Oh, yes, you do ; you have a most
“ 'Tis only death that tells extraordinary uig on; a very extraordinary wig indeed-really I can't permit
How small he is that swells." it. You must change your wig. Such a wig as that is no part of the costume of this bar, as recognised by the jurisprudence of this highly-favoured London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. country,"
Dublin: CURRY & Co.—Printed by Bradbury & Erans, Whitefriars,
HIGHGATE AND HORNSEY.
WALKS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF LONDON.
-a large new structure, which skirts the road,--the ground begins to ascend, and by and by we are at the foot of Highgate-hill,
where two roads claim our notice. “ Before the geud folk of this kingdom be undone,
Norden, a topographical writer, whose account of Middlesex Shall Highgate Hill stand in the middle of Lundun."
was published in 1593, (it was dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, and Old Prophecy.
the title-page sets forth that the book was accomplished "by the The neighbourhood of London does not afford scenery of a travaile and view of John Norden,”) tells us how Highgate remarkable character. We have neither mountains nor minerals ; received its name. The old road to Barnet, he says, passed the craggy rocks, deep dells, narrow ravines, and tumbling tor
hill on the east ; but being “refused of wayfaring men and carrents ;" the country around is not kept in a volcanic-looking state riers, by reason of the deepnes and dirtie passage in the winter by the smelting of iron ore, neither is the smoke of London pro
season, it was agreed between the country and the Bishop of duced from coal raised in its vicinity. Our highest country London that “a newe waie should be layde forthe through the attractions—scenes that may be visited in occasional short excur
sayde bishop's park," over the hill. And over this hill lay the sions from the metropolis-are no more than “gently-rising hills road for several centuries. A sore tug i: must have been for and bending vales.” But some of these are very pleasant, and coaches, waggons, and carts ; for, though the hills of Middlesex much of quiet enjoyment is to be obtained from a ramble now and
are not very high, Highgate-hill is one of the highest, being abont then amongst them. There is much, too, of extrinsic interest 450 feet above the level of the Thames, the road from Holloway attached to places, from their vicinity to London and connexion
over it rose in half a mile 240 feet. But the publicans of the with the memories of celebrated men. A few papers, therefore, olden time, whose houses fronted the main street of Highgate, employed in pointing out, in an unpretending manner, the more were thankful for the hill : horses had to be breathed after their obvious of such things as might interest a pedestrian in occasional toilsome ascent, and coachmen and waggoners were nothing loath walks, may not be without their use.
to rest their horses and refresh themselves. In 1809-fifty years We shall select at present Highgate and Hornsey. Hampstead, after various plans had been suggested to get rid of the hill in which might be associated with Highgate, must be visited again.
the road,--a project was submitted to Parliament for that purpose, The main road to Highgate from London is the “ great north but it was rejected, owing to a successful opposition. In 1810, road,” passing through Islington. Forty years ago, the Rev. however, a bill was passed for making a tunnel through the hill. Daniel Lysons, in his “Environs of London," wrote—“ Islington After the work had proceeded some time, the tunnel fell in on the is situated about a mile to the north of London, on the road to morning of the 31st of October, 1812: the project was then conBarnet." If by London we understand the “ City," then we still
verted into an open cutting, the bridge or arch thrown over it say that Islington is a mile north-west from it, or a mile north of serving as a road from Highgate on the top of the hill to Hornsey. Fleet-street. But it is London all the way to Islington, and in a somewhat absurd publication of the year 1812, a Highgate Islington is part of London-one of the many parts that make up publican, who views the innovation with no favourable eye, is made the great whole. The ground on which it lies rises considerably
to exclaim : above the level of the city; and it has been famed from an ancient
« Round Highgate-hill date for its milk and its air. The parish is large, being “ three
An envious vale steals winding to the right:
Thither, in evil hour, with pickaxe, hod, miles one furlong in breadth, ten miles and a half in circumference,
Brick, mortar, trowel, spade, and wheelbarrow, and containing three thousand acres of land.” Its fields are
A gang of sappers grope their miry way!" rapidly filling up with houses, and it has now a population which The new road running under the arch, after clearing the hill, would make a large town anywhere else. But we must not tarry joins the main road again. Besides avoiding the ascent and in Islington, for it would require a longer description than can at descent, it saves about a hundred yards, wbich, to mail and stage present be given.
coaches, running to exact minute-time, is a consideration. The main road keeps right through Islington and Holloway :- A few paces up the old or Highgate-bill road, there is a stone, the latter, in fact, is the name given to the houses on either side of like a large milestone, set up on the edge of the footpath. This, the spacious road from Holloway toll-bar to the foot of Highgate the inscription on it informs us, is “WHITTINGTON's Stone." hill. The road has the appearance of a continuous street up to It records the years when Sir Richard Whittington was sheritf and the toll-bar; but from thence the shops begin to disappear,-the " thrice lord mayor of London,” at the end of the fourteenth and road is more country-like, and many of the houses occupied by early part of the fifteenth centuries. According to the popular people in the middling ranks of life are inscribed as cottages,' story, it was here that, when a youth, and running away from his or at least have the appearance of villas in mi ture. At some employment, he sat down to rest, and perhaps to look back and distance before us the steeple of Highgate church peeps out among reconsider what he was about ; and his better feelings and young trees. Though this is one of the great outlets of the metropolis, ambition were roused by the fancy that the distant chimes of Bow there is no extraordinary bustle; a carriage or a gig, a stage- bells conveyed the sound of " Turn again, Whittington, lord mayor coach or omnibus, may roll past now and then, but they arrest of London!” In the "Gentleman's Magazine" it is mentioned without distracting the attention. Near Upper Holloway church that, from an early period to the year 1795, there was a stone here
surrounded by a pavement ; but that in that year a needy or greedy The new cemetery at Highgate will be noticed along with the other parish officer c:rried off all for his own use. Since then, the pre- London cemeteries. seat stone has been erected.
Highgate, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, was just such Whittington was doubtless one of that class of steady, energetic- an aristocratic village as Wimbledon in Surrey is now. It is minded men, who, other things being favourable, are the archi- reckoned about four miles and a half from St. Paul's; and being a tects of their own fortunes. It is difficult to say how a cat became convenient distance from London, and havirg a considerable repuconnected with him, as the cause of his first success in life. The tation as a healthy place of abode, many of the illustrious men of story is, however, a very old one. Whatever way he acquired his England-men remarkable for their talents, character, and position wealth, though he was comparatively poor and became rich, he in society,- bad houses here. “Upon this bill," says old Norden, was no niggardly soul; his charities were large. Let us step aside is most pleasant dwelling, yet not so pleasant as healthful: for for a little into the Archway Road, to look at the new and beauti. the expert inhabitants there report that divers who have been long ful range of alashouses which perpetuate his memory, and have visited with sicknesse not curable by physicke, hare in a short time been so appropriately placed here.
repayred their healthe by that sweetc salutarie aire." He ordly The Mercer's Company (Whittington rae a mercer) are the singles out one person as residing here: “ Cornwalleys, esquire,” patrons of this charity. They have in their possession the origi- (he does not give the Christian name,) who, ļie says, “ hath a verie nal ordinances made by Whittington's executors for founding a faire liouse, from which he may with great delight behold the statelie college and almshouses. Op the first page of these ordinances iş Citie of London, Westminster, Greenwychę, the famous river of an illumination representing Whittington on his deathbed, (a copy Thamys, and the countrie towards the southe, verie farre." of it is in the fourth volume of Malcolm's “ London,”) surrounded Lysons supposes this Cornwallis tọ have been a son of Sir Thomas by his executors, physician, and the “pouere folk," the first in males Cornwallis, a man of eminence in the reigns of Edward VI. and of bis charity. Whittington is represented as almost a skeleton, Mary. The son led a retired life at Highgate during the reign of meagre and attenuated. The college and almsbouses were erected Elizabeth, in the city, in a narrow street which still bears the name of College- Bacon died at Highgate, on the 9th of April, 1626, at the age of hill. The college was suppressed by Edward VI., but the alms, sixty-six. His death took place at the house of the Earl of houses remained; a few years ago the old building in the city | Arundel, whose taste for the fine arts led him to collect what are was removed, and the site occupied by the Mercers' school, and known and kept at Oxford as the Arundelian Marbles. The farthe present buildings were erected here. In order to examine searching spirit of Bacon enabled him to foresee, and to console them, we need not go within the Archway Road toll-gate, as there himself with the reflection, that after-times would do some justice is an intimation on it that “each foot-passenger must pay one to his intellect and general character : but, conscious of that moral penny for each time of passing,” We can enter by this iron gate, obliquity which had led him into judicial uprighteousness, and to way, just outside the toll-bar. Is not the inspection of this ele- stain his hands with bribery, he says, in lis will, “My name and gant range of almshouses worth all the delay? The building forms memory I leave to foreign nations, and to my own countrymen a centre, with two projecting wings; or, it will be better to say, it after some time be passed over.” Affecting as is the connection of constitutes three sides of a quadrangle, open to the road, and his guilt with the history of such a man, it is so far satisfactory to fenced off from it by a handsome iron railing. In the centre is a reflect that he stands a signal example of the danger of polluting little chapel, in the pointed style of architecture. The ground in the judgment-seat in such a country as Britain. front, up to the railing, is tastefully laid out, and planted with Space would fail us if we were to indicate the names and shrubbery; amongst which, in front of the chapel, is a statue of characters of the more remarkable personages who have lived, or Whittington. Altogether, these almshouses have an exceedingly who have died, at Highgate. Among the houses, there is one which sweet and pleasant effect; and we are tempted to exclaim-Here was inhabited by, and still bears the name of, the notorious Duke is a man whose story, however absurd it may be, has afforded of Lauderdale, who was one of the members of the Cabal in the d-light to thousands of youth, and whose bounty has cheered, and reign of Charles II., and the initial letter of whose title is one of will cheer, the old age of hundreds !
the letters of that then-coined word : " A bad statesman and a The embankment of the Archway Road, and the brick-fields in wicked man." It was from Highgate that the unhappy Arabella our neighbourhood, remind us of “ London clay." The substra- Stuart made her escape, in male attire, from the house of tum of Middlesex, and a great portion of some of the adjoining Mr. Conyers, previous to her being again seized, to end her days in counties, is a blue and blackish clay, lying in some places to a great the Tower, a wretched idiot. Not to give a mere list of names, we depth, and covered here and there with red clay and gravel – may mention three individuals remarkably contrasted in their cha. “ This clay varies very considerably in thickness. Thus, one mile racters and history, who resided at Highgate :—the stern, vigilant, east of London it is only 77 feet deep ; at a well in St. James's. able, morose son-in-law of Cromwell, Henry Iréton, who died at street, 233 feet; at Wimbledon, in Surrey, it was not pierced Limerick while he was lord-deputy of Ireland; Sir Richard Baker, through at 531 feet; and at High Beech, 700 feet." In cutting the author of the Chronicle of England,-a lively gossip, the greater the Archway Road, various fossil remains were found embedded— part of whose life was, however, spent in the Fleet prison, or within teeth of fish, shells, &c.
its rules; and Doctor Sacheverell, a man whose name is now Clay is an essential ingredient of good soil, and is frequently known only to the reader of history, though he was once the cause taken to feed light sandy soil ; but, in such a moist country as of setting the nation in a flame. Britain it is apt to be heavy, and requires good under-drainage to Though Highgate is not at all a decayed village, get it has an keep it in profitable working condition. There is an old rhyme, that elderly, grave, and even careless look. It does not seem to rest its " When the sind doth feed the clay,
pretensions to consideration on outward appearance. But servingIt is old England well-14-day! But wlien the clay doth feed the sand,
men, idiing about in stable dress, or passing to and fro in ijvery, Oh, then, hurrah for old England !"
let us know that many of its old brick mansions, if not inhabited Let us now turn out of the Archway Road, and go up the hill, by the Arundels or the Percys, are still tenanted by people we!l to destowing another look on “Whittington's stone” as we pass.- do in the world. And doubtless, too, the bakers and the butchers,