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bulk-head that divides this room, which is about thirty feet long, pantry by the captain's servants. Some of the work of the ship is from the messes outside. Above the mess table of the gun- performed on the poop, and there the signal men take their staroom the tiller traverses : and this is moved to the right or left to tions; the middle part is generally occupied by coops of poultry regulate the ship's steerage, by ropes passing through pulleys and for sea stock, and a chest of arms ready for use is always kept on attached to the barrel of a wheel under the poop.

this deck. Formerly it was the practice to carry guns on the poop, The sides of the lower deck are generally painted of a light | but from their exposed situation they were of little use in action, yellow or straw colour, and the arrangement of the mess tables and besides that great weight in this position tended to strain the ship. utensils on shelves between the guns, give to the whole a very The reader will understand that the guns upon the different decks comfortable appearance.

are not placed immediately above each other, for such an arrangeAbove the lower is the main deck, which has also an unbroken ment Would weaken the ship, by the openings called port-holes battery of fifteen guns on each side ; these, although sometimes of being perpendicular, The main-deck port-holes are in the the same calibre, are always lighter than the guns below. On the over-space between the guns of the lower-deck, and the quarterfore part of this deck the sick-bay or hospital is placed, next to that deck in like manner between the main, so as to checker these is the galley, or kitchen, a well arranged plan of boilers, ovens, &c., openings and preserve a greater degree of unbroken substance in besides une large range in front and stoves suspended around. the frame. The sides being painted in yellow streaks of about The sides of this deck are clear as far as the wardroom bulkhead, three feet wide, and the ports blacked, present to the view the but the middle is generally occupied by the live stock, such as appearance of a dotted checkered board.* sheep, pigs, &c. in pens. Next to the stern is the wardroom, Having thus described generally the interior of a seventy-four already alluded to as the mess place of the officers, a room about gun ship, we shall now proceed to enumerate the varivus articles 30 feet by 16, having a long table in the middle, and around it are, which make up the weight of material, and the area of canvas beginning on the right-hand side from the stern, (called the star

opposed to the wind for moving this mighty mass, and show the board side,) the cabins of the 1st Lieutenant, 2d Lieutenant, and proportions of the principal stores, &c. which are carried to sea. Captain's Steward—the last communicating by means of a stair For this enumeration we are, for the most part, indebted to the with the cabin above-on the left, or larboard side, the Master, very excellent work of Mr. Edye, on the " Equipment and Captain of Marines, and Wardroom Steward—the third and fourth Displacement of Ships and Vessels of War.”+ Lieutenants' cabins being outside of the wardroom door. These

A seventy-four gun ship, fitted for foreign service: cabins are about nine feet square, each inclosing a gun, and

Tons, furnished at the expense of the occupants; they are aired and Iron ballast and tanks

196 lighted by the port-hole.

Water

260 9 The deck above this is only partly covered over by the poop, Coal and wood

Provisions, spirits, and slops (seamen's clothes) 214 18

52 0 0 which roofs the Captain's cabin ; and the divisions are distin- Men and their effects

65 0 0 guished as quarter-deck, waist, and forecastle.

Lower masts and bowsprit

36 14 The quarter-deck extends from the cabin door to about the centre Topmasts, top-gallant masts, yards, and caps 27 11

12 of the ship, when it is terminated by the waist, a space in the Spare topmasts, yards, and booms middle of which is stowed the spare masts, yards, and spars, and Sails and spare sails

Rigging and blocks

9 14 3 upon these the larger boats: a passage of eight feet wide on each side Anchors, and cables (hempen and iron)

71 6 of the waist connects the quarter-deck and forecastle, and much of Boats and their gear

9 14 . 3 the work of bracing about the yards, setting and taking in the sails, Gunner's stores, breechens, tackles, &c.

Boatswain's and carpenter's stores, rope, &c. 48

22 2 &c. is performed on the latter platform, which is besides armed Guns

178 7 with a couple of light guns.

Gunpowder

20 16 2 A row of seven short pieces called carronades, extends on each

Shot (cannon-balls) of every sort

79 17 side from the extremity of the waist to the stern, along the quarter- Total weight received on board

1359 11 0 deck, and two of these on each side are inclosed in the captain's

1616 Weight of the ship's hull

0 cabin, which is divided into two compartments, the front appropriated as his dining-room ; the whole being about thirty feet in Total weight of the ship, complete for foreign ? 2676 6 0 length. This cabin is handsomely fitted up, principally at the service captain's expense, well aired and lighted from the stern windows, and as the two divisions extend over the whole breadth of the ship,

As the reader may be curious for more minute particulars, we they form very capacious rooms; sometimes they are divided into add the individual weight, size, and cost, of some of the principal three, at the option of the captain.

articles. The quarter-deck is the grand parade of the ship. Here the

The length of the mainmast is 30 yards ; diameter, 3 feet. It officer of the watch takes his post, and every person who appears is formed of pieces, scarfed or jointed scientifically, of 12 tons thereon salutes him by raising his hat. In this part of the ship 18 cwt. of pine, bound together with 27 cwt. 3 qrs. and 20 lb. of the principal officers are stationed in action, and from hence all iron; weighs 14 tons 6 cwt., and its value is 4001. orders are issued during the performance of evolutions. It is here The largest sail is the main course, or mainsail, which has 918 also that the officers repair for promenading ; the weather side at yards of canvas; being 86 feet wide at the head (or upper part sea, (that is, the side from whence the wind blows,) or the star

attached to the mainyard), 90 et 6 in. at the foot (or lower part), board side at anchor, being appropriated to the captain and * Liners were first painted checker-sided by Lord Nelson, to distinguish wardroom officers, the other side to the “gentlemen."

his ships from those of the combined fleets of France and Spain, in 1995; The poop is a light deck extending over the captain's cabin, and

prior to that, vessels were either all black, or relieved by a single white, red,

or yellow streak. The painting still depends entirely on the taste of the beyond it is a space outside his cabin door, which covers the wheel captain, but most adopt the checkered side. by which the vessel is steered; there are small cabins on each side

† The importance of this book may be estimated from the fact, that it has

been translated by order of the Sovereigns of France, Russia, and Egypt, for of this space, one occupied as an office by the clerk, the other as a

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48 feet 9 in, in depth, with an area of 4300 feet. Its weight, in- rolled up (furled) in a very short space of time, particularly after cluding the rope which surrounds it (called the bolt-rope), is the men have been drilled for a few months; and this operation, about 15 cwt. ; its value, 1501. The largest anchors are 70 cwt., as well as making or shortening sail suddenly, has a very striking and the value of each 2101. The kempen cables are 120 fathoms effect,the ship in one minute being clothed with canvas at every long, and 22 inches in circumference; the chain cables are 70 point, and her masts hid; or entirely stripped, and every portion fathoms long, weight about 135 cwt., and value 3761.

of sail placed out of view, and rolled up to the yards so neatly as The rope used in the whole of the rigging, of different sizes, scarcely to increase their size or destroy the symmetry of their from three-fourths to eighteen inches in circumference, measures lines. 27,152 fathoms, or 54,304 yards.*

The boats in use up to this time have been lent for the harbour There are 11,130 yards of canvas in the sails ;+ and, when all service, whilst the others were fitting and painting, being reserved plain sail is set, (that is, every sail that can catch the breeze,) the until the ship was ready for sea. They are now received, and area presented to the wind is 25,000 feet.

they consist of a launch, barge, pinnace, two cutters, jolly-boat, The provisions enumerated are sufficient for sixteen weeks' and gig. We shall describe them more particularly afterwards. consumption, and the water about ten weeks'; giving an allowance it is usual to hoist up the boats at sunset, except one or two that of one gallon to each of the crew per day, and also sufficient for may be wanted later at night, when a ship is ready for sea. washing.

We shall now describe the manner in which the watches are The guns, &c. will be minutely described hereafter, when divided. The seamen and marines we will suppose to be at watch delineating their various properties, in an article on armament. and watch,- that is, in two watches subdivided into parts, relievThe powder carried to sea is 335 barrels of 90 lb. each, and eight ing each other alternately (although it is usual in some ships to cases of 120 lbs. i total, 31,110 lbs. ; value, 10371., at 8d. per lb. place them in three watches) ; only a portion of each watch is,

We have already observed that, as the crew enlist, they are however, required to be awake on deck at night. But the officers placed in watches ; besides this, a station, at different evolutions, are in three watches, and therefore expected to be always on the is also assigned to every seaman and marine, and a complete set of alert. The division of time is so arranged that two watches may watch, station, and quarter bills are prepared, under the first have eight hours below and four on deck, and four below and eight lieutenant's directions, as soon as he has had an opportunity of on deck, on alternate nights; whilst the officers in three watches testing the men's abilities, This cannot be completed until the have the first, the middle, or the morning watch, on successive ship proceeds to sea : it is necessary, however, to make arrange- nights. ments provisionally, and to divide the crew into portions, deno- The arrangement is thus :—Beginning with the forenoon watch minated quarter-masters, gunner's crew, boatswain's mates, of four hours, from eight to twelve at noon; next, the afternoon forecastle men, fore, main, and mizen top-men, after-guard, watch of the same length, ending at four, afternoon; followed by the waisters, and idlers; all of whom have especial duties to perform, first dog-watch, from four to six. Next, the second dog-watch, from according to the nature of the work. The mates render the first six to eight ; the first watch, from eight to midnight; the middle lieutenant assistance in these arrangements, which are made as watch, from midnight till four ; and the morning watch, from four soon as possible, because it is necessary to loose the sails to dry, till eight o'clock. By these alternations, and the intervention of furl them again, and various other matters, although the ship is in the dog-watches of two hours each, the changes are equally brought harbour.

about, and the time is measured by the sentinel at the cabin-door A ship of war is readily distinguished from a trading vessel by turning a sand-glass at the end of every half-hour, when a bell is ner neat appearance, but, above all things, by the squareness of struck from one to eight times, which completes the watch of four her yards, and precision of the rigging and ropes, being tightly hours. At noon each day, the true time is adjusted by an obserdistended, and not hanging in loops, when at anchor. The vation of the sun at sea, or by a timepiece in port. boatswain has the care of squaring the yards,—that is, placing Supposing the ship now prepared for leaving harbour, and the them parallel to each other at right angles across the masts ; wind and tide to serve, a blue-peter is hoisted, which denotes that and for this purpose he repairs every morning in a boat to the ship is about to leave the port. This is a blue flag, having a a short distance from the ship, and, having brought the three square patch of white in the centre, displayed at the fore topmasts in a line, he proceeds to direct any alteration that may be gallant-mast head ; and, if the parties summoned are slow in required, and to correct any defect that strikes his practised eye. obeying the signal, attention is called to it by firing a gun. It is He makes known his wishes by means of his pipe, or call, to one also a warning to those persons who have anything to put on board of his mates, who is stationed to watch his signals; and men that the last moment for doing so has arrived. being placed where required, the matter is effected, and precision The master attendant has charge of the ship in moving from one attained, in a short time, amidst a flourish of whistling, which the position to another in harbour, but now a pilot is necessary; and, boatswain takes more than ordinary delight in on this especial should he not make his appearance at the time appointed, the occasion, he being the principal performer; whereas on board heunion-jack is hoisted at the fore, being, in all cases, and under all uses his call for purposes directed by the commanding officer. circumstances, the signal that a vessel requires a pilot.

Besides getting up and down top-gallant yards, the sails are As the ship is fastened to moorings, these are slipped (that is, loosed to dry two or three times a-week; and this is done by a disconnected) when the sails are set, and the course is shaped for signal from the admiral's ship, or by watching the motions of the the harbour's mouth.* When just outside, the adntiral's flag is "fag.” The sails are loosened (let fall) from the yards, or saluted with fifteen guns ; and this mark of respect is acknow

ledged by the flag-ship firing nine guns in return.t * In every rope there is a particular yarn, called the “rogue's yarn," which denotes it to belong to the Crown ; and all rope is manufactured in the dockyards, principally at Chatham, where there is a large ropemaking * A steam-vessel is generally employed to tow ships out of harbour when establishment.

the wind is adverse, and this greatly expedites the service. + Canvas is generally purchased by contract. As soon as received, every † The number of guns in a salute is regulated according to the rank of cloth is marked by a waving blue line, in order to facilitate detection, if the parties :--The royal salute is 21 guns, and to this the different members stolen. All other articles belonging to the Crown are marked, even to the of the Royal Family are entitled, the Lord High Admiral, 19 guns ; smallest nail, principally with the well-known broad arrow.

Admiral of the Fleet, 17 ditto; Admiral, 15 ditto; Vice-Admiral, 13 ditto;

Saluting has a very pretty effect, particularly when performed by the speaker had arrived with an empty purse, and had been com. a whole flect at the same time, and the wind is not strong enough pelled to wait till money had been sent down from London, this to blow the smoke away too quickly. The guds are always fired also raised a fresh discussion on the awkwardness of wanting

money in a strange place; and again the young man blushed so alternately from either side, and the time between each discharge deeply, and appeared so distressed, that we were glad to leave is marked by the gunner, who gives the word.

him alone for a time, his companion exerting her powers of con. On arriving at Spithead, the ship is anchored and the sails versation (which were considerable) to restore him to his equani. furled. As soon as the tide serves, she is moored; an operation mity. Now, this advertisement revealed how unlucky and mal

apropos were some of the remarks in our conversation! The which consists in so arranging two anchors as that the cables young man had foolishly gone off-of his own accord, we were attached to each may bear an equal strain when the wind blows going to say, but some of our fair readers will be apt to hint that, from the most exposed part of the roadstead.

as the lady was his superior both in age and in intelligence, she The captain seldom takes up his residence on board until the matter, he was come to years of discretion ; and she did not

must have been a moving party in the movement. It makes no ship is on the point of sailing, and the time which now elapses carry him off by force, whatever she might have done by blandish. before the orders arrive to proceed to sea is occupied by the first ment. At all events, they were a very modest affable couple, and lieutenant in getting the ship into trim, preparatory to that event.

seemed very much attached to each other; and we sincerely At the first convenient opportunity the powder is brought on

trusted, not only that the young man was married, but that he

was restored to his friends, and that they received him kindly, board, and, when all is reported ready, a day is fixed for paying without keeping up that frowning kind of recollection of the two months' wages to the crew, called the advance ; which is over affair, which often tends to unsettle a previously steady character. and above any sum they may have become indebted to the purser advertisements similar to the one we have been speaking about.

Every day in the week one may see in the London newspapers for bed, blankets, or slops (clothes), all which is charged against A. B. is earnestly intreated to return to his disconsolate wife. their accruing wages.

F. G. is informed that nobody knows of his absence, and that if In the mean time, we will suppose that a court-martial has been he returns in time all will be arranged. P. Q. is intreated to ordered upon an officer of the fleet, and that the captain's presence These advertisements are mostly all of a painful character, indi,

communicate with his friends, who are in a state of great distress. is required as a member of the court. In our next article, we

cative of some folly, or some breach of trust, which has induced shall describe the forms pertaining to this solemn and interesting the individual to run away from a circle of relatives and friends. ceremony.

We saw one not long ago, in which C. G. was informed, that a marriage was necessary to her restoration to her family and

friends. Ah! poor girl!” thought we, “you have friends RUNAWAY PEOPLE.

then, who seem to take some interest in you. Hare you formed One day in the autumn of last year, we were seated on the

an attachment, a headstrong attachment, for a young man, and top of a coach, going from Rugby to Denbigh Hall

, a short time and the melting tenderness of a mother's prayers ?

have you forsaken, for him, the seriousness of a father's counsels, before the Birmingham Railway was opened throughout the entire brothers who loved you, but now almost hate you ; or sisters who

Have you line. We were seated beside a young couple, and of course soon fell into familiar conversation with them. The young man was a

feel themselves dishonoured in you? Or is your case one which very nice genteel-looking young fellow, possessed of considerable Burns has so touchingly deprecated ? intelligence, and modest and affable in his demeanour.

• Is there in human form, that bears a heart

A wretch ! a villain ! lost to love and truth! might be about twenty-one. The lady was much hiş superior,

That can with studied, sly, ensnaring art, however, both in age and in intelligence, though, comparatively,

Betray sweet Jenny's unsuspecting youth? her personal attractions were inferior. That they were a loving

Curse on his perjured arts! dissembling smooth! couple was evident, not from any offensive intrusion of its exhi.

Are honour, virtue, conscience, all exiled ? bition, but from little attentions which quickly catch the observa

Is there no pity, no relenting ruth, tion of the uninterested. We could not make out whether they

Points to the parents fondling o'er their child,' were married or not, nor did we think it was any particular busi- Then paints the ruin'd maid, and her distraction wild !"" ness of ours to inquire ; it was enough that their conversation Sometimes, though very rarely, these advertisements, calling was pleasing, and their conduct quiet, yet attractive. After a on absentees to return, have a comic touch in them, though in rather pleasant day spent in their company, we lost them among such cases, if the advertised bas really left his friends in a state the crowd that stepped out of the carriages on the train which of distress, it is hard to see how they can joke on the matter. brought us on the railway from Denbigh Hall to London.

We remember one, which intreated * the Old Ram" Next day, on turning over the newspapers which had accumu- home; upon which the Examiner remarked, that the Old Ram lated during a brief absence, our attention was caught by an must be a very interesting lost sheep! advertisement, which was addressed to a young man, who was Taking up, quite casually, a couple of Times newspapers, supposed to have gone off with a female (describing her) by the which happen to be lying on our table, a day or two old, we Birmingham Railway, intreating him to return to his family and remark no less than five such absentee advertisements." The friends. The description perfectly answered the young couple. friends of H. H. are in the most distressing state of anxiety, and “Ah,” thought we, many little lurns in our pleasant conversa- earnestly intreat him either to return home immediately, or to tion are now explained ! For instance, the foolishness of youth let them hear from him by letter.” What has H. H. done, that formed a topic-how often we do many headstrong, foolish he should thus absent himself from home, and reduce his friends actions when we are young, the very recollection of which suffuses to this state of distress? Had he a confidential situation, and a blush on the cheek years afterwards, though everybody has did he make use of money that was not his own? Were his completely forgotten the circumstances, except the individual affairs embarrassed? Or did he merely become tired of his situa. himself. The young man had blushed himself at this remark- tion, and, with something of the boyish feeling still remaining, his naturally florid complexion became of a distressing scarlet, scamper off, just to annoy his friends ? and the topic was instantly changed. Passing a village where If this should meet the eye of A. S., who left her home on

Sunday afternoon, she is requested to return bome to her disconRear-Admiral, or Commodore of the first class, 11 ditto; Commodore of the solate parents, by whom she will be kindly received." We thank second class, Captain or Commanding Officer of any Ship-of-War, 9 ditto; ye, O parents, for these words! Yes, receive her kindly! Let The above are called military salutes. Besides these, civilians are entitled not the quality of mercy be strained! Let not a blight come to this mark of distinction, as follows:- Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 19 over the loving-kindness of the fireside! For we are poor frail guns; an Ambassador, a Duke, or Governor of a Colony being a Peer, 15 ditto; other peers, the first Lord of the Admiralty, an Envoy extraordinary,

foolish creatures, and forgiving kindness is the great alembic. or a Governor not being a Peer, 13 ditto; Chargé d'Affaires, or other

"If L. P., who left her home on Saturday evening last, will minister under rank of Envoy extraordinary, 11 ditto; to a Consul-general, communicate with her disconsolate friends, or let them know or to a British Factory, 9 ditto; to a Consul, 7 ditto. The Board of Admi- where she may be heard of, or written to, she need not fear of ralty represent the Lord High Admiral, and when they embark are saluted receiving the kindest welcome from those she has left.with 19 guns.

Madness must be in the heart of the young women, surely, if

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that home could not be a very uncomfortable home, when friends DAVY RAMSAY AND THE DIVINING ROD. thus call out to the absentee to return ! Was she dissatisfied

The belief in the power of the Divining Rod, when held in the because she was not maintained in state, and supplied with dress, hands of the initiated, was long prevalent, and even yet may to flourish as a gay young lady? Vanity, vanity, is too often the linger in the minds of some who delight in mysteries ; but that rock on which female character is wrecked. And only consider such virtue is, or ever has been, possessed by insensate wood, what a city London must be, when one can so effectually hide no reasonable being can credit. There appears, however, to be themselves that an advertisement is the only means of opening a ground for believing that some persons have existed, who poscommunication !

sessed nerves of such peculiar delicacy as to be affected by the “ The young man who left his employment in the neighbour- presence of water, and thus to have actually pointed out spots hood of is requested to return immediately, or write to where springs existed, but where there were no indications some part of his family, stating if anything can be done for his to be found. A remarkable instance occurred in France in the advantage."

last century, in the case of a peasant boy, and several more could Young man, why did you leave your employment? You dis- be mentioned. It is easy to perceive the use which such a power liked it, perhaps ; or you got acquainted with some vicious com- could be turned to in the hands of the designing, and that the rod panions ? What fools some young men are ! And this is the

was assumed merely as a cloak to give a greater shadow of misery, that the experience of one young man is not the experi- mystery; the practice, once begun, wanted not followers, who only ence of another ; but, in spite of all the examples, and all the pretended to a power they did not possess. We give the followcautions, and all the preachings, that can be given them, many ing anecdote from the “Life and Times” of the arch-conjuror will sow their wild oats," and find, too often, to their cost, that William Lily, as a remarkable instance of the extent of the "what they sow, that shall they also reap !" “ They who sow the credulity of the times. wind shall reap the whirlwind."

“In the year 1634, Davy Ramsay, his Majesty's clock-maker, "The clergyman who left 's hotel is earnestly requested to had been informed that there was a great quantity of treasure communicate the place of his retreat to his friend, who has under- buried in the cloister of Westminster Abbey ; he acquaints Dean taken to arrange the business to the satisfaction of all parties.”

Williams therewith, who was also then Bishop of Lincoln ; the What! a clergyman amongst the absentees! What was the Dean gave him liberty to search after it, with this proviso, that if

business," one is curious to know, which could have led him any was discovered, his church should have a share of it. Davy to beat a retreat ? Why, what business is that to us? It is a Ramsay finds out one John Scott, who pretended the use of the good thing that there are friends who undertake to arrange such Mosaical rods, to assist him herein. I was desired to join with affairs.

him, unto which I consented. One winter's night, Davy RamSuch is a specimen of five bona fide advertisements, two of say, with several gentlemen, myself, and Scott, entered the them appearing in the same day's paper, and all of them of very cloisters; we played the hazel rod round about the cloister ; recent date. If one were to take the trouble of overhauling the upon the west side of the cloisters the rods moved one over file of last year, what a number could be picked out !-though we another, an argument that the treasure was there. The labourers fear that in the number there would be no great variety. The digged at least six feet deep, and there we met with a cofin; but greater number are addressed to young men ; occasionally one in regard it was not heavy, we did not open, which we afterwards appears from a wife, appealing to all that is honourable in the much repented. From the cloisters we went into the Abbey human breast, and intreating the absentee husband not to leave church, where, upon a sudden (there being no wind when we her to bear the misery alone ; and sometimes, though still more began), so fierce, so high, so blustering and loud a wind did rise, rarely, the absentees are middle-aged men, who have abandoned that we verily believed the west end of the church would have a family, and perhaps an entangled business, which they had not fallen upon us. Our rods would not move at all; the candles courage to attempt to unravel.

and torches, all but one, were extinguished, or burned very dimly. The causes of absenteeism are probably, on the whole, few and John Scott, my partner, was amazed, looked pale, knew not simple. A young man bas formed an improper attachment, or what to think or do, until I gave directions and command to home is perhaps regulated on severe and formal principles, and dismiss the demons; which, when done, all was quiet again, and age does not choose to bend a little to the waywardness of youth. / each man returned to his lodging late, about twelve o'clock at Or there may be a step-mother at home, and the young man's night. I could never since be induced to join with any in such sense of self-importance is annoyed. Or, worse than all, he has like actions (Davy Ramsay brought a half. quartern sack to put got introduced to a gaming-table, is plunged in debt, and his the treasure in). dream of short-lived extravagance is disturbed by that greatest “The true miscarriage of the business was by reason of so many of all wants, a want of money. As to the husband forsaking the people being present at the operation, for there were about thirty: wife, we hold that to be the blackest feature in absenteeism. I some laughing, others deriding us; so that if we had not dismissed Rest assured, he has not done his duty, whatever the wife may the demons, I believe most part of the Abbey church had been have done ; and whatever disadvantages there may be in a large blown down. Secrecy and intelligent operators, with a strong family, the couple who support each other's exertions never need confidence and knowledge of what they are doing, are best for spend their five shillings in advertising each other. As to the this work." middle-aged absentee, poor man, his case is generally a bad one. A young man may recover being “

VIRTUES AND VICES OF THE ROMANS. put in the paper," but with a middle-aged man there are many chances that, even if he returns,

The austere frugality of the ancient Republicans, their carelesshe sinks into carelessness or drunkenness. And this being “put ness about the possession and the pleasures of wealth, the strict in the paper,” reminds us of an advertisement which appeared regard for law among the people, its universal stedfast loyalty some time ago, informing a young man that if he did not return, during the happy centuries when the Constitution, after the pretenhe would be advertised.

sions of the aristocracy had been curbed, was flourishing in its full This kind of absenteeism requires a sound moral education to perfection. The sound feeling which never amid internal discord cure it. There will aways be occasional instances of it amongst allowed an appeal to foreign interference, the absolute empire of youth, for the period of youth is a period of transition and the laws and customs, and the steadiness with which, nevertheless, ebullition : but surely the cases might be reduced much in num

whatever in them was no longer expedient was amended, the ber, if parents would better fulfil their duties. Fathers and wisdom of the constitution and of the laws,--the ideal perfectiort mothers are too apt to forget what they were themselves when of fortitude realized in the citizens and in the state ;-all these quathey were young ; and they too often exact an obedience not lities unquestionably excite a feeling of reverence which cavnot be proportioned to the age of their children, but to what their own equally awakened by the contemplation of any other people. Yet, calmer discretion and experience dictate. A more generous sym- after all, if we bring those times vividly before our minds, something pathy with youth would often suppress many of their errors in of lionour will still mingle with our admiration ; for those virtues, the bud—errors which sometimes haunt them, like ghosts, through from the earliest times, were leagued and compromised with the all their subsequent lives.

most fearful vices; insatiable ambition, unprincipled contempt for the rights of foreigners, unfeeling indifference for their sufferings, rapine, even while avarice was yet a stranger to them, and as a con

sequence of the severance of ranks, inhuman hard-heartedness, not In natural history, God's freedom is shown in the law of neces. only toward slaves, or foreigners, but even towards fellow-citizens. sity ; in moral history, God's necessity, or providence, is shown in Those very virtues prepared the way for all these vices to get the man's freedom.-Coleridge's Table-Talk.

mastery, and so were themselves swallowed up.-Niebuhr.

PROVIDENCE.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

permission, and to get out of the army as soon as I could. So that this matter was, at once, settled as firmly as if written in the book

of fate. WILLIAM COBBETT.

At the end of about six months, my regiment, and I along

with it, were removed to Fredericton, a distance of a hundred WILLIAM Cobbetr, certainly one of the most remarkable men

miles up the river of St. John; and, which was worse, the artillery of a remarkable age, was the son of a small farmer and publican, were expected to go off to England a year or two before our regiand was born at Farnham, in Surrey, about the year 1762. More

ment. The artillery went, and she along with them ; and now it than thirty years after, when in the commencement of his literary was that I acted a part becoming a real and sensible lover. I was career, and elated with the noise which he had created in the United States, he writes to his father in the following manner :

aware, that, when she got to that gay place, Woolwich, the house of

Per father and mother, necessarily visited by numerous persons, not * Dear Father :-When you used to set me off to work in the morning, the most select, might become unpleasant to her, and I also did not dressed in my blue smoek-frock and woollen spatterdashes, with my bag of like besides that she should continue to work hard. I had saved a bread and cheese, and bottle of small-beer, swung over my shoulder on the hundred and fifiy guineas, the earnings of my early hours, in writing little crock that my old godfather, Boxall, gave me, little did you imagine for the paymaster, the quarter master, and others, in addition to that I should one day become so great a man as to have my picture stuck in the windows, and have four whole books publish oil about me in the

the savings of my own pay. I sent her all my money before she course of one week-Thus begins a letter which I wrote to my father yes

sailed ; and wrote to her, to beg that if she found her home uncomterday morning, and which, if it reaches him, will make the old man drink fortable, to hire a lodging with respectable people ; and, at any an extraordinary pot of ale to my health. Heaven bless him! I think I rate, not to spare the money by any means, but to buy berself Bea him now, by his old-fashioned fireside, reading the letter to his neigh- good clothes, and to live without hard work, until I arrived in bours, Ay, ay,' says he, · Will will stand his ground wherever he goes.' England; and I, in order to induce her to lay out the money, told And so I will, father."

her that I should get plenty more before I came home. Nothing but Cobbett's own energy and force of character could “ We were kept abroad two years longer than our time, have enabled him to overcome the early obstructions he encoun- Mr. Pitt (England not being so tame then as she is now) having tered in acquiring education. His whole life, too, is an illustration knocked up a dust with Spain about Nootka Sound. Oh, how I of the evils as well as the advantages of self-instruction. If a cursed Nootka Sound, and poor bawling Pitt too, I am afraid ! self-taught man is of a timid and hesitating nature, and he has At the end of four years, however, home I came; landed at risen from a lower to a higher position in life, he will too often Portsmouth, and got my discharge from the army by the great contract a querulous disposition-conscious of his own merits and kindness of poor Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who was then the Major claims, he is, while reluctant to obtrude them, jealous and captious of my regiment. I found my little girl a servant of ail-work (and if they are not gratuitously recognised, and conceded as a matter hard work it was) at five pounds a year, in the house of a Captain of course. On the other hand, if his temper is bold, buoyant, and Brisac ; and without hardly saying a word about the matter, she forward, he is ever thrusting himself forward, becomes frequently put into my hands the whole of my hundred and fifty guineas una loud-talking and boastful egotist, and his real merits are too broken!" often obscured under a cloud of conceit.

Cobbett was discharged from the army in 1791 ; and shortly Cobbett, having been employed in country-work until the afterwards, he brought charges of peculation against four officers autumn of 1782, paid a visit to Portsmouth, and then beheld, for of his late regiment; à court-martial was appointed to try them; the first time, the sea. Next day he made an unsuccessful attempt forty-seven witnesses, named by Cobbett, were brought up from to get employment on board a man-of-war. In the following year Portsmouth to London : but, when all was ready, the prosecutor he suddenly came up to London, and obtained a situation as a copy- bad absconded. The court, thinking that some accident might ing clerk. Tired of this, he, after being in his situation nine months, have happened to him, adjourned to the third day afterwards, and set off for Chatham, and enlisted in a regiment of foot. The search was made for him in all directions—but Cobbett had crossed regiment was ordered for North America, but, before it left over to France! He afterwards attempted to vindicate his conEngland, Cobbett's smartness, activity, and good conduct, obtained duct under some pretence of “oppression," and his being aware for him the rank of corporal ; and, shortly after its arrival in that justice would be thwarted : but his conduct appears without New Brunswick, (where he remained eight years,) he was promoted, excuse. over the heads of other serjeants, to the rank of serjeant-major. Cobbett reached France in 1792, when the troubles of the revoHere he became acquainted with his future wife. He thus nar- lution rendered travelling insecure, and he was frequently annoyed rates the story of his courtship :

by having his papers searched and himself interrogated. He was “When I first saw my wife, she was thirteen years old, and I six months in France, but did not proceed to Paris ; and then was within about a month of twenty-one. She was the daughter sailed, in the fall of the year, to the United States.

After landing of a serjeant of artillery, and I was the serjeant-major of a regi. at Philadelphia, he went to Wilmington on the Delaware, where ment of foot, both stationed in forts near the city of St. John, in he found a considerable number of French emigrants who were the province of New Brunswick. I sat in the same room with her greatly in want of an English teacher ; for this he was very well for about an hour, in company with others, and I made up my qualitied by the elastic activity of his mind, and his short residence mind that she was the very girl for me. That I thought her in France; he accordingly took it up, and earned, it is stated by beautiful is certain, for that, I had always said, should be an in- his family, at the rate of from fuur to five hundred pounds per dispensabie qualification ; but I saw in her what I deemed marks of that sobriety of conduct which has been by far the greatest It was in America that Cobbett began his career as a public blessing of my life. It was now dead of winter, and, of course, writer, when he was about the age of thirty-four. He attacked the snow several feet on the ground, and the weather piercing cold. Dr. Priestley, (then newly arrived in the United Sintes from It was my habit, when I had done my morning's writing, to go out England,) in'a pamphlet under the title of " Observations on the at break of day, to take a walk on a hill at the foot of which our Emigration of a Martyr to the Cause of Liberty," by Peter barracks lay. In about three mornings after I had first seen her, Porcupine. It attracted considerable attention, and from that I had, by an invitation to breakfast with me, got up two young period to the end of his life Cobbett was an indefatigable writer for men to join me in my walk ; and our road lay by the house of her the press. father and mother. It was hardly light, but she was out in the Cobhett's political career was the reverse of that of some other snow, scrubbing out a washing-tub. “That's the girl for me!' eminent men. Instead of commencing as an ardent republican said I, when we had got out of her hearing. One of these young and admirer of liberty, and then gliding gradually into more modemen came to England soon afterwards; and he, who keeps an ion rate views, he commenced his career as a violent anti-democrat, in Yorkshire, came over to Preston at the time of the election, to and became an extreme radical, at least in conduct, if not in all verify whether I were the same man. When he found that I was, his opinions. But Cobbett's political opinions were as much the he appeared surprised; but what was his surprise when I told him result of temperament as of principle, and hence the frequent that those tall young men, whom he saw around me, were the changes of sides, and the innumerable cases in which he laid him: sons of that pretty little girl that he and I saw scrubbing out the self open to self-confutation, by such pamphlets as "Cobbett washiug-tub on the snow in New Brunswick, at daybreak in the against Cobbett.” morning! “ From the day that I first spoke to her, I never had a thought democratical writer, is easily explained. His constitution and

That Cobbett should have commenced public life an antiof her ever being the wife of any other man, more than I had a thought of her being transformed into a chest of drawers ; and I willed, " bread-and-cheese Englishman, with a strong spice of formed my resolution at once to marry her as soon as we could get | that spirit which led, in former days, to a detestation of it brass

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