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a few remarks must be premised on the nature of the atmosphere
EXTRACTS FROM A SAILOR'S JOURNAL. and on chemical affinity. The air is a mixture of two of those simple substances to which
The following extract from the journal of an officer during the chemists have given the name of elementary, viz., oxygen and
American war, * the war of independence," may per haps interest nitrogen, or azote, with a very small proportion of carbonic acid,
our readers, as the genuine detail of the exultation of a successful and water in the state of vapour; the two latter are not considered fight and the depression of a capture. We must first premise that essential constituents of the atmosphere.
the writer was captain of the Weymouth, a Government packet, “ Chemical affinity, which is sometimes also called chemical
"bound from Falmouth in Cornwall to Madeira ; Senegal on the attraction, is the power by which bodies combine (always in fixed
coast of Guinea ; round to all the British Islands in the West and definite proportions) and form compounds invariably possess
Indies, and from thence back to Falmouth, with his Majesty's ing some properties very different from those of their constituents, mail and dispatches," and now on her return home. and frequently diametrically opposite to them." One substance “ Sunday, 27th July, 1777.--Saw several cruizers, these two may have this power in reference to several other substances, days past, giving us chase, which we imagine to be American prithe degree of its affinity being generally different with each. If vateers : got clear of them all. This day, moderate and hazy such a substance is in combination with a body whose affinity weather; under lower topmast, top-gallant and studding sails, and with it is weak, the application to the compound of a third royals, &c. &c. At eleven A.m. saw a brig, almost ahead of us, substance, having a more powerful affinity with either of the about two leagues off, standing to the northward, under a main and constituents of the compound than they have with each other, fore sail ; and at half-past she wore, set her topsails, and bore causes the dissolution of the combination, one of the ingredients down on us. Took in all our studding and small sails ; got uniting with the third body, leaving the other in its simple state. all bands to quarters ; cleared and barricadoed the ship. At noon,
Let us now apply these facts to the elucidation of the pheno- latitude observed, 45° 17' N., longitude 33° 33' W.; the longitude mena of respiration.
bearing E. by N. & N., distant 388 leagues; and Cows (one of the Carbon is in combination with the blood flowing in the lungs : Western Islards) bearing S. by E. E., distant 114 leagues ; oxygen is mixed, not combined, with nitrogen in the air-cells. hauled our courses up, as the brig was within random shot of us, Carbon and oxygen have a mutual affinity, and, in certain circum- coming up with us very fast, with an English jack hoisted. stances, when brought into contact, immediately unite, forming We hoisted jack, ensign, and pendant, St. George's colours, and carbonic acid gas. This is the phenomenon that takes place in fired a six-pounder shot athwart the brig's forepole; and soon the lungs. Atmospheric air is conveyed into them by every act afterwards she hoisted the thirteen stripes, with a small union in of inspiration : by every act of expiration carbonic acid is evolved the upper corner ; and then, being close alongside of us, within from them. That it is the oxygen of the air which combines less than pistol-shot of us to windward, hailed, and desired us to with the carbon of the blood, is proved by chemical analysis of strike to the honourable the Congress directly, or else they would the air expired, from which a large proportion of oxygen is found board us, and give us no quarter ; which we answered with a to have disappeared, its place being supplied by an equal quantity whole broadside fore and aft, which did great execution, and took of carbonic acid gas, the amount of nitrogen remaining almost the place well, being close alongside of each other. She then gave us same. By this means, the excess of carbon in the blood is hers, with a vast fire of small arms, which tore our sails, &c. a removed from it, to the amount, according to some calculations, good deal; and then attempted to board us in the waist, which I of upwards of ten ounces in every twenty-four hours. It is prevented by sheering our ship to starboard, and giving her another supposed, that a small quantity of oxygen and azote is absorbed broadside, which did them a great deal of damage: and so contiinto the blood and retained in the system, thus compensating for nued engaging each other very warmly for about an hour, in the loss of carbon.
which time she attempted to board us again twice, which we preA portion of oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the blood, vented as before ; but she in this time shot away our ensign forming water, which is expelled from the lungs in the form of halyard, by which the ensign fell into the water ; but we soon got vapour.
him on board and hoisted again, and soon after shot away the Venous blood being thus freed from its noxious ingredients, enemy's ensign-staff, which fell overboard, and hoisted no more resumes the sensible qualities and essential properties of arterial ensigns during the engagement. She now began to work one blood. It becomes of a bright scarlet hue, and is again capable pump continually, and at three-quarters past one P.m. she was of nourishing the body. From the capillaries of the pulmonary obliged to keep both pumps going, when she began to slack in the artery it passes into the capillaries of the pulmonary veins ; these, i fire of her great guns, but kept a continual heavy fire of spall four in number, two to each lung, return the renovated blood to arms, and began to haul off, and we close after her on the quarter, the left auricle of the heart, whence it passes into the left ventricle, as well as we could, being much impeded in our sailing by our to be again circulated all over the body.
maintop-sail tie and all our braces being shot away, with a great There are thus two circulations of the blood in the human deal of our running and standing rigging, &c. &c. "Notwithstand. body, one from the left ventricle, throughout every part of the ing, we galled her very much, and kept within less than musketframe, and terminating in the right auricle, to which the designa- shot of her until a quarter past six, when she began to gain on us tion systemic, or greater circulation, is given : the other, begin. very fast, on account of our being obliged to sheer often very much, ping at the right ventricle, through the lungs, and ending in the to bring our guns to bear on her, on account of our ports being left auricle, is called the pulmonic
. The latter is subsidiary to too small. At half past two, she put before the wind, when she the former, being necessary for the purpose of bringing the vitiated' began to get from us very fast; and at three got so far off, that all blood in contact with the vital agent, the air, by which it is firing ceased, though we made all the sail we could after her until purified.
nine o'clock at night, when we lost sight of her, and kept on our The processes which renovate the venous blood complete the preparation of the fresh nutriment, which, having been inti- “She was a 'Mudian-built, long brig, about two hundred tons mately mixed with the blood in the right side of the heart, is, burden, carrying sixteen guns in the waist, and two close aft, all along with it, exposed in the lungs to the action of the air, from six-pounders, which appeared by the shot that came on board of which it receives those vital qualities that render it capable of us: full of men and swivels. She must have sustained a great deal supporting life.
of damage in the engagement, as the decks seemed to be greatly We have thus briefly described the more important processes thinned before she parted from us; and we observed her main and of organic life-digestion, circulation, nutrition, and respiration, fore rigging much cut, and flapping to the masts, and the water by which blood is formed, distributed, and maintained in a state pumping from her in great streams continually, quite clear. We of purity. In the next chapter we shall complete the account of received a good deal of damage in our sails and rigging, and had the organs whose functions relate to the blood, and of the organic nine people wounded ; amongst which number was Captain life generally.
William Judd, late commander of his Majesty's ship Antelope, and Robert Holden, esq., of Jamaica. Our ship's company, in
general, on this occasion did their duty manfully, coolly, and be A MOMENTARY triumph, of which the satisfaction dies at once,
haved very well. and is succeeded by remorse ; whereas forgiveness, which is the ment, since our landing in America, we find the brig to be the
“N. B. By the different accounts we have had of this engagenoblest of all revenges, entails a perpetual pleasure. It was well Washington, belonging to Salem, one Rogers captain. They raid boy a Roman Emperor, that he wished to put an end to all his acknowledge eighteen men killed and thirty-five mortally wounded, enemies by converting them into friends.—Tin T'rumpet. and the brig cut all to pieces.
Monday, 28th July, 1777.—Moderate and fair weather ; | London, and belonging to the state of Connecticut. She had been under all our sails. Wind about W.N.W. ; steering E. People out six weeks, and took two other prizes, and sent them for employed repairing our rigging, and cleaning our guns and repair- America. I, and my doctor, and most of my people, were carried ing our gun-carriages and breechings,-all which was damaged in on board the Cromwell, and the passengers left on board the yesterday's engagement. At noon, (latitude observed 45° 52' N., Weymouth. Found in the Cromwell above two-thirds of the longitude 30° 28' W., the longitude bearing E. by N. N., dis- ship’s company English, Scotch, and Irish. She came out with tant 341 leagues,) the man at the mast-head saw a sail in the 175 men, and all the people they took since entered on board of northern quarter, bearing down on us. At one P.M. saw her from her. the decks, plain, coming up fast with us, though we had top- “This journal, from Jamaica to this day, examined, approved, gallant, studding sails and royals, &c. set: steering our course. and signed by all the passengers,—viz. William Judd, esq., late Made her out to be a large ship, but, from her situation, and as captain of his Majesty's ship Antelope, under Admiral Gayton ; the wind then was, found it impossible to take any advantage of Robert Yealden, esq., of Kingston, Jamaica; Edward Manby, her, by steering any other course.
esq., of ditto ; Mr. Thomas Storrow, of ditto ; Mr. Daniel Sulli. “Ditto. Sent all hands to dinner, and gave the ship's company van, of ditto ; Mr. Thomas Kirwan, of ditto. a pint of grog each.-At four P.M., the ship coming up with us ** Tuesday, 29th July, 1777.—A fresh gale westerly. On board very fast, cleared and barricadoed the ship, and got everything to the Oliver Cromwell, a prisoner, very ill with a nervous fever and rights and in good order by six o'clock. At eight, she being dry gripes, and very weak, and not able to take any nourishment within gunshot of us, hauled down all our studding sails, and of any kind. handed top-gallant sails, &c., and made a speech to the people, to Sunday, 3d August, 1777.—This morning departed this life, encourage them all I could to do their duty,—stand close and firm on board the Weymouth, (supposed by a fright he took in the to their guns and quarters.
engagement of the 27th,) George Mathews, one of the Weymouth's “At ten, she ranged up on our starboard side, and hailed us, people. Heard Captain Judd was very ill." and we her; when I found her to be the Oliver Cromwell frigate- A tedious detention of several months was the result of this of-war, belonging to the state of Connecticut, Seth Harding, capture, but the Captain effected an exchange in March 1778,
and captain, fitted out from New London. After talking to each other continued in the service of his country to the day of his death many for about half an hour, she dropped a good way astern; on which,
years after. I went down again into the waist amongst the people, to encourage them to do their duty, and keep close and quiet, without any noise : but soon found there was an opinion propagated among
LES HIRONDELLES.* them, by some bad man or other, that the Oliver Cromwell had
(THE SWALLOWS.) fifteen ports of a side, and was a thirty-six or forty gun ship,
Captive on the Moorish strand, which I denied, and reasoned with them all in my power to consince them of the contrary. I then called the master and principal
A warrior groaned beneath his chain ; officers on the quarter-deck, and told them of my determined
Swallows from his father-land resolution to defend the ship, mail, and despatches, to the very
He saw come flying o'er the main. last extremity; and that I hoped and recommended them to do the
“ Tell me, ye birds of hope!” he cried, same, in case of any accident happening to me; and at the same
" Who hither from stern winter flee : time begged they would stay with the people, and keep them strict
Ye saw my France in summer's pride,to their duty and quarters, and have everything clear and ready for
Looks she still fair ?-sweet birds, come tell to me. engaging. And as she was then a good way astern, I took the opportunity of going down to the cabin, to Captain Judd and the
“Three years—three sad years, alas ! rest of the passengers, (who were all there, and mostly ill, occa
I've linger'd here, a weary slave ! sioned by the fatigue they had yesterday,) to consult with them,
Denizens of air ! ye pass and acquaint them of my determined resolution to defend the ship,
Unrestrained o'er earth and wave! &c. to the very last extremity, within the bounds of reason and
There stood a cot, with flowers gay, prudence. But, as they seemed to intimate that she was a very large ship and an over-match for us, I told them that I was fixed
Where the young stream winds thro' the vale, in my opinion to engage her, and made no doubt but we should be
'Twas there my eyes first met the day ! able to give a good account of her. Still, notwithstanding, if,
Is it unchanged ? Ah, tell the welcome tale ! after we were engaged, I found her an over-match and too heavy
" 'Neath that roof there hung a nest, for me, and that I had no chance to get clear, rather than sacrifice
Perchance it held your callow young : my people, I would yield to a superior force; which they in general approved of. Then, finding the Cromwell was coming up with
But, whilst cherish'd by your breast, us, went directly on deck, when, to my great surprise, I heard
My mother's plaints around them rung; somebody calling out to haul the colours down ; on which, I
Yet still she hoped each day would bring jumped on the quarter-deck, called Mr. Jenkins (the master) to
Homeward her son-a stranger there. me, and desired him to see all hands at their quarters, to mind
She breathed my name, expiring ;my orders, and that there should be no noise ; and if I heard
Oh! tell me of her love, children of air ! any person (be they who they may) mention a word about hauling the colours down or striking, I would that instant blow
“Saw ye, not the jocund throng his brains out.
Flock from the church in concourse gay, " By this time the enemy ranged close on our starboard side,
Chorussing th' hymeneal song, and hailed us to strike, or else they would sink us; which I refused,
To grace my sister's nuptial day? and ordered my people to fire away and engage, which some did
Saw ye not my comrades crowding, with five guns only; and, on the enemy's giving us her broadside of great guns and small arms, all my ship's company, except about
Vaunting their deeds by land and sea ; five, and the three principal officers, most ingloriously Aed from
But my name in sorrow shrouding, their quarters down between decks, to my great mortification ;
They still, sweet birds !--they still remember me? which obliged me, after receiving three or four of her broadsides,
“But I dream !--my foe commands to go down into the waist, where the mail and despatches were
Where none but Frenchmen should bear sway; ready slung, and throw them overboard, and then, as I had no person to manage a gun, ordered the colours to be pulled down.
And perhaps his hostile bands She dismounted one of our guns, lodged several nine-pounders in
To that calm vale have traced the way; our sides, tore the boat very much, and did us considerable
Trampling down the fields' defenders, damage. Soon after, her boat came on board, with Timothy
Drenching the soil with native gore! Parker, her first lieutenant, &c.; by whom I found I had struck to
Can ye say that France surrenders? the Oliver Cromwell privateer, a rebel frigate of war, of twenty
Unwelcome birds !-away, I'll hear no more !" carriage guns—14 nine and 6 six-pounders, on one deck, with swivels, and 155 men, Seth Harding, captain ; fitted out of New
* From the French of Beranger,
his system, to keep excitement alive ; and he well knew that, ANIMAL MAGNETISM.
by quackery alone, he could command ultimate success in bring
ing animal magnetism into permanent repute. The use of the EARLY PROGRESS OF ANIMAL MAGNETISM, WITH A NOTICE OF baquet was therefore propagated, and led to the results described, Mesmer's DISCIPLES.
which were so disgraceful that even the least rigid, who did not Mesmer, though by nature an empiric, was, nevertheless, assist at these orgies, cried out “Shame!” sincere in his belief, both in the actual existence of animal The abuse of the baquet put Mesmer upon his mettls to discover magnetism, and in the medicinal virtues which he ascribed to it. some other means of magnetic application, which, with equal But, like that venerable dreamer, Hahnemann, of homeopathic effect upon the imagination, should not lead to similar results. celebrity, he had founded the superstructure of his system upon in the course of his experiments, he stumbled upon a fact of the assumption of a fact not true. As the edifice of homoeopathy which, had science been sufficiently advanced, he might have rests upon the allegation that Peruvian bark, which is a specific made a more important use than any of his followers have yet against intermittent fever or ague, produces that disease when done,-he discovered that, by the simple action of the land, taken by persons in health *, so that of Mesmerism, as under- he could command the very effects of the tractors and the baquet, stood by its founders, was raised upon the supposition, that the and with greater certainty ; and that he could further produce, magnetism of the loadstone acted upon and withdrew the morbi- which neither of the other means enabled him to do, a sensible ferous particles from the animal frame, when under the influence action of some unknown kind upon patients who were unconof disease.
scious of being magnetised. Though nothing important has Accordingly, the first applications of the magnetic power to yet resulted from this discovery, it immediately reduced animal the human frame were made by means of metallic tractors, which magnetism to the means of application since used by all modern appear to have been nothing more than common artificial magnetisers. magnets. These applications, under varied circumstances, were
Though without knowledge, Mesmer was what is termed a
“ learned man.” He had pursued the line of study adopted said to relieve or to produce pain, to occasion convulsive twitch by the physicians of that period, and the results of which left the ings in different parts of the body, to cause excitement or depres- medical science in a very unsatisfactory condition. His medical sion, faintness, and even syncope. Some real, and some pre- oracles were, of course, Hippocrates and Galen. He was filled tended cures took place; the first being no doubt effected by faith with the lore of antiquity, and with the ponderous medical reading in the remedy, and its consequent action upon the imagination. of the day; but he was no better, as a practitioner, than the Where the proper degree of faith did not exist, the remedy was
doctors so keenly satirised by Le Sage in Gil Blas ;-the satire of found to be without efficacy.
this author furnishing, in truth, no very exaggerated picture of By limiting the communication of animal magnetism to the the medical science derived, in his day, and even in Mesmer's,
from the differert faculties established throughout Europe. sole agency of metallic tractors, Mesmer could not, after the Human physiology was scarcely known as a science in the time effect of the novelty had subsided, keep alive the first excitement of Mesmer; it had made but little comparative progress since of his fickle-minded patrons in France; he therefore invented the discovery of the circulation of the blood, nearly a century and the baquet, the use of which was attended with certain mystic a half before. The parent of animal magnetism had not therefore forms and ceremonies likely to act upon the imagination. The sufficient science to investigate a fact which accident had revealed baquet was a circular tub with a cover, placed upon a pedestal. tion, he could communicate a much more powerful “ magnetic"
to him, that, by the operation of the hands, accompanied by Foli. In it were bottles full of magnetised water, communicating with sensation than by metallic tractors, or the magnetised water wires projecting from the tub, by means of holes in the cover.
of the baquet. He was content to let this fact minister to his The patients of both sexes stood round the baquet, each holding empiricism, with which, however, some crude realities were a wire. To increase the effect, the room was darkened, and much mingled. He had obtained a glimpse of the true light; but it mysterious ceremony observed in introducing the patients. was only a glimpse, and it disappeared ere he could read and
The baquet was eminently successful, and mysterious apart. learn what it might have shown him, had he been qualified to ments were fitted up in many of the hotels + of the nobility, for receive the truth. the application of Mesmerism by means of the baquet. In these Mesmer found, that, by the application of magnetism with the
Among other effects perceived in the course of his practice, apartments, in which members of the highest class of society of hands, he could make particular persons sleep even under acute both sexes assembled, scenes of astounding and inconceivable pain. When this action was found to exist in particular profligacy were of daily occurrence. These at last became so idiosyncrasies, it was taken advantage of to assuage the exacerbanotorious that Mesmer, who certainly did not participate in, tion of painful disease ; and many patients afflicted with inflammaalthough his invention of the magnetic baquet had occasioned tion, chronic rheumatism, gout, and other painful disorders, them, was ashamed of the effect he had unintentionally produced; Such was the state of animal magnetism at the period of Mesmer's
are said to have derived relief from the sleep thus induced. and his renunciation of the baquet, as one of the means of magnetic
death. application, was the consequence. We have already stated that Mesmer was naturally a quack, been for some time declining. It was, however, reserved for one
When this event took place, the influence of Mesmerism had although he had a sincere faith in the efficacy of animal magnetism. of Mesmer's disciples, and, though not a physician, certainly His own usual practice of it was by means of metallic tractors ; Mesmer's successor, to give a new impetus to animal magnetismo but the baquet became necessary, as part of the quackery of by the commencement of a series of absurdities, practised by
fools, fanatics, and impostors, and at last brought to this country, • Dr. Hahnemann's assertion, that Peruvian bark, when taken by persons scientious, learned, and skilful physician, believing in all these
lodged in the North London Hospital, there to exbibit a conin health, produces intermittent fever, is certainly not true. administered this bark in every possible form; we have taken it ourselves; psychological wonders and modern miracles, for the propagation of we have also tried its alkaline products, quinina and cinchonina,
and the which the name of animal magnetism has been prostituted. various salts which they severally form, but have never been able to produce During the life of Mesmer, several of the French nobles bad a case of ague. Like every other stimulating medicine, bark causes dis- been initiated, under his instructions, into the mysteries of turbance of the system ; but it acts in different ways upon different animal magnetism. Among the most enthusiastic of his disidiosyncrasies. In ourselves, and some others, it produced catharsis; in ciples was the Marquis de Puységur, a young nobleman, who had others, costiveness and inflammatory action ; in some, nausea and sickness; just inherited extensive patrimonial possessions. He had assidu, in all, a species of febrile excitement; but in no one instance was the ously followed the instructions of his master, and had acquired
We can further state, that not one among the numerous medical men with whom we are acquainted, has ever found
considerable skill in the use of manual magnetism. After the a case of such disease being produced by the use of bark; and we defy death of Mesmer, the Marquis de Puységur resided on his here. even any homeopathic practitioner to adduce an instance properly ditary domains in the south of France, where he practised animal authenticated.
magnetism upon his own peasantry. Each evening, from spring | Ilotel, in France, sometimes signifies a nobleman's palace.
to autumn, his vassals assembled under a large linden-tree near
result intermittent fever.
the marquis's residence. M. de Puységur, who had been edu- It chanced one day, under the linden-tree, that a girl undergoing cated in the country, was untainted with the profligacy that dis- the influence of magnetic sleep, being excited to talk by the graced his order. He was a kind-hearted, benevolent man, and questions of the noble magnetiser, raved about some imagined his feudal rule was light and paternal. He was therefore much internal disease with which she fancied some one present afflicted, beloved, and every peasant on his estate became eager to afford and suggested what she stated to be the only mode of cure. The him the best opportunities of gratifying his desire. In the course party wbom she represented as having the disease, no symptoms of of time these simple-minded rustics became sincere converts to which had ever before appeared, was so struck with the announcethe Mesmerian faith.
ment, and his superstitious imagination so excited by it, that he The fame of the Marquis de Puységur teaching the Mesmerian soon complained of internal pain, and took to his bed. Of course philosophy under the shade of his linden-tree, brought numerous the remedy suggested by the magnetised sleeper was immediately visitors to the scene; and the whole population of that part of applied, and an immediate cure obtained. Here was nothing but the country would, each fine evening, converge to the linden-tree a very ordinary effect of imagination upon the physical organs, as a centre. There was, thus, no lack of subjects for magnetic which, in some instances, has extended so far as to occasion death. experiment, which was carried to a very great extent, but accom- M. de Puységur viewed it in quite a different light. In this fact, panied with a determined spirit of mysticism and superstition, he saw nothing but a new faculty possessed by magnetised" somwhich marred all true philosophic inquiry. M. de Puységur, nambulists,” of examining the interior of the human body, detectbesides being generally uninformed, was weak-minded and credu- ing disease, and indicating a remedy for it--a faculty wholly lous, and therefore easily induced to confound the natural with spiritual, and unconnected with the universe of matter. The fame the imagined supernatural, and to consider as psychological effects of the detection of this disease and its cure, spread far and wide the mere workings and modifications of organised matter, exposed, through the province ; and, as the views of the marquis on the ferhaps, to some unknown chemical agency.
subject were no secret, a host of impostors soon appeared, and, by The power of inducing magnetic sleep, discovered by Mesmer, their juggling, the noble disciple of Mesmer was soon convinced was made the principal ground-work of M. de Puységur's experi- of the truth of that which, till then, he had considered only ments. In pursuing these, he found that he could cause sleep in hypothetical: that magnetic sleep imparted to somnambulists the some individuals, whilst his own magnetic efforts upon other power of detecting and even prescribing for diseases which baffled individuals brought sleep upon himself. Hence, he inferred, that medical skill. Thus, though the magnetiser had no such faculty in the interchange of the magnetic principle, now termed the himself, he could impart, by his magnetic touch, to somnambulists “magnetic fluid,” between the magnetiser and the person mag- —who, as already stated, were generally girls-a power of seeing netised, the physically weaker individual was the receiver, and the into the human body, understanding the whole of its anatomical stronger individual the giver ; that the party in whom sleep was action, detecting any defect in the machinery, and pointing out the brought on, possessing naturally less of the magnetic principle means of remedying such defect, or else pronouncing the case than the other, had received a portion which produced that effect. beyond cure. And surely, as the marquis argued to his friends, It therefore followed that, to obtain the proper magnetic result, this could be no natural effect; because if the covering of the body the operator should be the stronger party, otherwise the operation became invisible so that the somnambulist could see beyond it, or would be reversed. The magnetiser, having more of the magnetic else became transparent, why should not all the internal organs do principle than the patient, was therefore considered able to impart the same? But this was not the case, for to be properly seen they to the latter an excess sufficient to cause a pressure upon the must remain opaque and retain their colour; and such was brain adequate for the production of magnetic sleep. These certainly the case, for no part of their action escaped the magnetic inferences, drawn by M. de Puységur and others who co-operated vision of the somnambulist; therefore, this faculty of the somwith him, led, at last, to the following conclusions, which have, nambulist must be wholly spiritual, “ a communication of ever since, been entertained by magnetisers :-1. That the ope- souls." rator should possess not only considerable muscular, but also Full of these notions, and of an imagined discovery fraught with great nervous power ; phlegmatics, even though muscular, being such benefit to the human race, the Marquis de Puységur, attended bad magnetisers. II. That he should be in the most perfect by a couple of somnambulists, proceeded to Paris. In our ensuing bodily health, free from mental excitement, and from all action of Number we shall state the result of his journey. the brain, that might distract his attention, or in any wise interfere with the magnetic volition. III. That he should be of
CLASSICAL EDUCATION. energetic temperament, kept under perfect discipline, and free from any outbreaks that might alarm the patient, towards whom THERE can be no doubt that a classical education has a great the utmost blandness of manner is requisite. IV. That when influence in reconciling the mind to the contemplation of idolatry about to magnetise, he should never expose himself to any loss in the abstract, by investing it with the attractions of classic and of animal heat, as this would impede his power of transmitting poetic association; so that the gods and beroes of antiquity the magnetic principle.
become the joint objects of a sort of intellectual homage, and a The greatest discovery of all was still to come ; and some years fondness is contracted for the imagery and language of a supersti. elapsed ere an effect of magnetism was brought to light, by which tion not less hideous and baneful, in a moral aspect, than the thousands of wise men have been deluded, and upon which all the worship of Sheva or Hanooman. Its character as a false religion, absurdities of spiritual or psychological magnetism have since been absurd, impious, and demoralizing, is wholly lost in that of a founded, even to the late display at the North London Hospital. beautiful mythology, which, being viewed only as a philosophical
Many of M. de Puységur's assistants in his magnetic experi- fable, serves to screen the gross system of demonology actually ments, who underwent magnetic sleep, were observed to talk during taught and believed in. A delusion, too, is created by the venetheir slumbers, and even to give rational replies to questions asked rable antiquity of these “mythological vanities ;” as if, in that them by the magnetiser. This faculty seeined more common in distant age, heathenism was an allowable—at least a pardonableyoung girls than among any other class of individuals. The dis-creed, a costume of faith (if we may be allowed the expression) covery of this effect produced a new era in the art. Though the proper to the times and country. It is forgotten that the worship Marquis de Puységur has since become an author, he was, as we of Jupiter, and Bacchus, and Priapus, was in part contemporanehave already observed, as ignorant, at that time, as most of the ous with the manifestation of God in the flesh and the preaching young nobles of his day. He was at first embarrassed to find a of the apostles ; and that, in reference to these very gods, St. Paul name for the faculty of talking displayed by magnetised sleepers. declares, that " the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they Having, however, heard sleep-walkers denominated “somnam- sacrifice to devils, and not to God.” Now, if any system or mode bulists,” and as these persons sometimes talk as well as walk, the of idolatry can be regarded as harmless, or even venerable, it is noble marquis thought that the same name would serve for his obvious that a prejudice is created in its favour, which tends to sleep-talkers, who did not walk. Instead therefore of calling them lessen our abhorrence of it under other circumstances. The pleas "somniloquists,” or sleep-talkers, and the faculty they evinced of antiquity, mythological beauty, and alleged harmlessness, will "* somniloquism," or sleep-talking, he termed them “somnambulists” | be admitted in extenuation of systems less graceful, less in accord. or sleep-walkers-although, as we have said, they never walked ance with European notions, than that of the Greek pantheon. during sleep- and their faculty, “somnambulism," or sleep-walking. Or if the enormities of Hindoo demonolatry awaken any indignaIt is rather singular that this name should have been retained by tion or disgust, it will be directed against the modes and accidents all subsequent magnetisers, not one of whom, including even Dr. of the idolatry, and will not proceed from a just estimate of its Elliotson, has found fault with the term, or replaced it by one essential criminality in any form by which the truth of God is more appropriate.
changed into a lie. — Eclectic Review.
this led to a very sad result for Mr. Robertson. ** The Director PARAGUAY:
Alvear," the chief of Buenos Ayres, “being anxious to initiate a ITS SOIL, CLIMATE, AND PRODUCTIONS.
correspondence with Francia, of which the object was to draw recruits from Paraguay, in order to strengthen the legions of the
river Plate, I was invited to an audience at the Fort, (or GovernIn our last notice of this interesting country, on concluding ment House,) for the purpose of being consulted by Alvear as sketch of the detestable character of Francia, we intimated our the probability of Francia's sending men to Buenos Ayres, in purpose of noticing the personal adventures of the Messrs. Roberto return for which, arms and ammunition should be sent to him from son, and giving some account of the soil, climate, and productions thence. I thought the thing very improbable ; but stated how
impossible it was that I, a neutral and a private individual engaged of a country whose natural riches have hitherto been turned to so
in commercial pursuits, should agree, in such troublous times, to little account. We will now endeavour to redeem our pledge.
be charged with such a proposal. At the same time, I suggested Early in the year 1811, Mr. J. P. Robertson, the elder of the two that there could be no objection to the Government making such brothers, and then a young man of twenty, freighted a vessel at a proposal if it thought proper, by letter, which, if put sealed into Buenos Ayres, and sent it up the Parana to Assumption; but as the letter-bag of the vessel that was to convey me to Paraguay, the navigation up the stream is very tedious, two miles an hour should there be delivered to its address. On this suggestion against the current being considered a fair average speed, he pro- Alvear acted ; and a sealed letter, which I never saw, was, with ceeded by land, and in the course of his journey met with the other correspondence, sent from the post-office by order of the Guacho Prince Candioti, who was mentioned in our first notice of Robertson embarked, and pursued his tedious way up the river,
Buenos Ayres Government, for conveyance to Francia.” Mr. Paraguay. On his arrival at Assumption, he established himself which, from its many tortuous bends, renders navigation difficulteren as a merchant, and being subsequently joined by his brother, Mr. when the wind is fair, and compels the voyagers to work their way W. P. Robertson, they carried on a very successful business, and by warping with ropes carried a-head by canoes, and made fast to were treated with unusual favour by Francia, until the circum- the trees on the banks. They, however, pursued their course stances arose which led that self-willed despot to issue a decree for without impediment till they reached Santa Fé, when Mr.
Robertson's old friend, Candioti, insisted on the delivery of all the their banishment.
muskets. “ Señor Don Juan,” said he, “self-preservation is the Business at length called Mr. J. P. Robertson to England, and first law of nature, and, in fulfilment of this law, we must here he prepared to depart, leaving the establishment at Assumption detain your muskets. The ornamental finery we will allow to proin the care of his brother. He was entrusted with several commis- ceed to its destination, as well as the sabres, because we have sions by Francia, chiefly for the purchase of arms and regimental plenty of them ; but there, take the value of the muskets and amclothing ; but when he waited on him to have his audience of munition in dollars, and tell his Excellency the Dictator, it is a leave, a most singular office was imposed on him, which was no
good sign of the tranquillity of his republic that he has leisure to other than that of an envoy from the Dictator, not to the Court think so much about music, mathematics, and gold-lace. Here,
you know, we are not in a position, at present, to think of any. of Great Britain, but to the House of Commons, to whom he was
thing but the enemy, and our only means of meeting him successcharged to express the Dictator's desire of entering into friendly fully is by the collection of all the muskets and ball we can possirelations with England ; and in proof of the benefits that country bly procure.” This was but the beginning of misfortune, for might derive from an intercourse with Paraguay, he was directed Mr. Robertson had not proceeded much farther up the river when to deliver certain packages of yerba (Paraguay tea), tobacco, and his vessel was seized one evening, (as, according to custom, it was other merchandise, at the bar of the House. Mr. Robertson did moored to a tree, and he himself and most of his crew were on his best to coneeal his astonishment at this very extraordinary shore enjoying the sport of pheasant-shooting,) by a marauding mission, but as he well knew the impossibility of moving the strange party belonging to the army of Artigas. He was robbed of everyman he had to deal with, he was fain to comply. Francia told him thing, even to his clothes, and his life was saved only by the interhe knew very well it was no good to communicate with ministers, vention of an Indian, one of the band, who afterwards told him he but such a message to the House of Commons, would show all did so only " from the whim of the moment,” and he was thrown England the reality of his intentions, and the advantages he prof- into the common gaol at the Bajada, whither he was carried by his fered to them. The secret of this apparently very strange attempt, captors in his own vessel. On his way to the prison he espied so contrary to all the other parts of his system of isolating his coming down the hill an old and faithful servant called Manuel: country, was in all probability the ambition which was his ruling “ I felt,” says he, “unspeakable relief, as I was hurried past him passion ; and his vanity flattered him with the fond belief that by my guards, in being able to say to him these few words, — Fly England would snatch greedily at the bait, and aid him with arms, to Buenos Ayres, and tell them what you have seen and heard.' and the force of her powerful name, in pursuing further schemes “Onwards I marched, never doubting that I should in the first of aggrandisement, by the subjugation of his neighbours ;--schemes place be taken to the governor. I was mistaken even in this unwhich, without such aid, he could not venture to undertake. enviable supposition. I was marched to the small and wretched Fortune favoured Mr. Robertson so far as to spare him the trouble gaol appropriated to the reception of murderers, robbers, and other of inventing any method of getting rid of bis embarrassing honours, felonious caitiffs of the worst die. There they sat, each upon the by so ordering it, that his voyage was stopped short at Buenos skull of a bullock, in chains, in nakedness, in squalid filth, and Ayres.
yet in bestial dehauch and revelry. There was a fire lit in the After an absence of some continuance, Mr. Robertson prepared middle of the floor, amid a heap of ashes which had been accumufor his return to Paraguay, which he was obliged to effect by the lating apparently for months. Around this fire there were river, the whole country being in such a disturbed state as to render spitted, for the purpose of being roasted, three or four large pieces a land journey impracticable. “The Bandas Oriental,” or east side of black-looking beef, into the parts of which already done, the of the River Plate, united under General Artigas, with the pom- felons, with voracious strife, were cutting with large gleaming pous title of Most Excellent Lord Protector, bade defiance to all knives. • Aguardiente,' or bad rum, was handed round in a law and order. The protection of this doughty chieftain was of bullock's horn; and as the fire cast its flickering glare on the great importance to Mr. Robertson; but, as he was at open war swarthy and horrible countenances of the bacchanals, their chains with Buenos Ayres, it could not be procured: but a sailing license clanking at every motion of their hands or legs, the picture was from the Honourable Captain Jocelyn Percy, then commanding truly startling. Scarcely had I been introduced, when a yell of the British forces in the River Plate, was readily granted, and this horrid welcome was set up by the prisoners. First one and then Mr. Robertson hoped would be sufficient, especially as Artigas had another pulled me towards the fire; they insisted upon my drink. no vessels on the river.
ing out of the bullock's horn; and then demanded, with one “Guessing" that Francia would be much vexed that his mission accord, that I should pay for some more of the same kind of nauto the House of Commons had not been completed, Mr. Robertson seous beverage as they had just finished. I bad not a farthing ! anxiously busied himself with the execution of the other commis- cannot say in my pocket, for pocket I had none). "No matter,' sions of the Supremo, as he was now called (1815). “Cocked hats, said they, the custom is invariable that every new-comer shall sashes, lace, musical instruments, military clothing, swords, treat the older inmates; and, although you should get what we pistols, &c. were all procured and shipped ; and, on application to want by the sale of your skin, have it we must and shall.' Withthe Buenos Ayres Government, no obstacle was offered to the ship out further ceremony, they stripped me of my Artigueño greatment of a few muskets, and of some munitions of war." But all I coat, and, tattered and wretched as it was, procured in exchange