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for it a large flask of spirits. I was now left like many of them- | the incense-tree, yielding the delicious perfume of the pastilla. selves, naked from the waist upwards, and for this night I found it From the manguasi is produced gum elastic, from which matches impossible to sleep."
are made ; and the trees, plants, and shrubs of medicinal properMr. Robertson was removed to a separate room on the next ties are rich and various. There is one especially worthy of morning, and he was furnished with clothes by a friend; but eight notice : it is called the palo de vivora, or serpent's tree, and the days elapsed before he was liberated in consequence of the repre-juice of its rind, produced by mastication, is an infallible cure for sentations of Captain Percy (who had been informed of his capture the poisonous bite of the great original enemy of the human race. by Manuel) to Artigas, who affected great indignation at the Rhubarb and sarsaparilla grow wild all over Paraguay. The conduct of his subordinates, and ordered the restoration of the cordage of the vessels is there made from a plant which furnishes ship and property. The ship and property were rendered up, fibres of so strong and irresistible a texture, as water has not much with the exception of about 12001. This amount was pilfered power to rot, nor the sun much to destroy. The cotton-plant by the gentlemen in office and their subordinates. Mr. R.'s ward-grows in the greatest luxuriance. Tobacco, coffee, sugar, Indian robe, the arms, the Dictator's finery (as Candioti called it), the the yucca-root, melons, rice, and especially the pine-apple, clothing for the troops, with such other things as struck the parti- are all abundant." cular fancy of the governor, the captain of the port, serjeants, and But the staple article of Paraguayan produce is the yerba, or others, were detained without scruple. Having despatched the Paraguay tea-an infusion of which, known as maté, forms the ship on her route to Paraguay, bearing letters to his brother and favourite beverage of the inhabitants of South America. The tree the Dictator, with a full account of bis mishap, Mr. Robertson grows wild in the forests; and, with an account of the mode in returned to Buenos Ayres, for the purpose of taking measures for which it is gathered and prepared, we shall take our leave of · obtaining compensation for his losses from Artigas. Armed with Paraguay. a British protection, he visited this semi-barbarous chief, at his " I was invited,” says Mr. R., " by one of the great master head-quarters at Purificacion, and was received with great polite: yerba manufacturers, to sail with him in his smack to Villa Real, ness; but he totally failed in the object of his journey. " You and to accompany him by land from thence to the scene of his opesee,
," said the general, with great candour and nonchalance, rations in the woods. Before I describe this, I will give you some “how we live here ; and it is as much as we can do, in these hard account of the men--masters and labourers-<by whom the traffic times, to compass beef, aguardiente, and cigars. To pay you 6000 was carried on. It was one of so arduous a nature, that, though dollars just now, is as much beyond my power as it would be to very lucrative, it was generally conducted either by young beginpay you 60,000 or 600,000. Look here," said he, (and so saying, ners in the world or by low men, who, like miners, having got he lifted up the lid of an old military chest, and pointed to a entangled in a system of gambling, alternately made and lost canvas bag at the bottom of it.) “There," he continued, “is my fortunes, were always poor, and finally died in the yerbalés. whole stock of cash; it amounts to 300 dollars; and where the Exceptions to this rule there were, but very few. Like their next supply is to come from, I am as little aware as you.” This masters, the peons were almost invariably gamblers too : they were, was unanswerable, and Mr. Robertson, finding there was no hope of therefore, no sooner out of the woods than they were obliged to dollars, took leave of the general, and prepared for his return to return to them. Paraguay.
“So impenetrable and overrun with brushwood are these forests Meantime, the letter written by Alvear to Francia had been in many places, and so tenanted in all by reptiles and insects of published by Artigas, with some comments of his own, in which the most tormenting and often venomous description, that the only he asserted that Mr. Robertson had acted as Francia's commis animals capable of being driven through them are bulls, which are sioner, in a plan for selling the Paraguayans to Alvear, and de- necessary for the maintenance of the colony of yerba makers, and nouncing this treacherous conduct in the most stinging terms. This mules, which are not less necessary for the conveyance out of the paper, which was very widely distributed, enraged the Dictator to a woods of the tea, after it is manufactured and packed. With furious pitch: he instantly sent to Mr. W. P. Robertson, and, Miguel Carbonell, then, (a very coarse catalán,) who had spent a refusing to listen to any justification of his brother, he banished long life alternately on the river and in the woods, I sailed from both ; allowing Mr. W. P. Robertson two months, to wind up the Assumption still farther up the stream ; and we arrived at Villa affairs of his house, but prohibiting Mr. J. P. Robertson from Real, in latitude 23° 20' S., on the tenth day of our mosquito returning to Assumption. Messrs. Robertson accordingly removed martyrdom on the Paraguay. We were now on the borders of a to Corrientes, where, and subsequently at Buenos Ayres, they territory inhabited by the Mbaya and Guaycurú Indians. The continued to trade successfully, freed from the tyranny and caprice latter is the fiercest of all the unsubdued tribes in that quarter. In of Francia.
two days after our arrival we left Villa Real, and never was I more The soil of Paraguay is rich and productive : in fact, it appears thankful than when we did ; for, if the pains and penalties of to possess more natural advantages, except the possession of purgatory be at all equal to those of that place, there certainly minerals, than any other known part of South America. The cannot be much to fear beyond it. The heat, the effluvia, the filth, wood ranks decidedly the first in importance. The lapacho is a the mosquitoes, the lizards, the serpents, the toads, the centipedes, magnificent tree; its grain is so close, that neither worm nor rot the binchucas, the bats, the naked inhabitants, the wretched huts, can assail it. English oak,” says Mr. J. P. Robertson, “is the squalid poverty,—all rendered my residence there, for two very firm, but never to be compared to lapacho. From the solid days, not only painful, but loathsome in the highest degree. Our trunk of one of these trees, a Portuguese scooped out, at Villa cavalcade, as we departed, was rather a grotesque one : mounted Real, a canoe, which brought down to Assumption a hundred bales upon forty mules, rode by as many peons, with no covering but a of yerba, (that is, 22,500 lbs. of Paraguay tea,) several hides shirt, a pair of drawers, a girdle round their waist, and a red cap made up into bails and filled with molasses, a load of deals, on their head. Some of the mules were saddled, some not. seventy packages of tobacco, and eight Paraguay sailors, to Before us went a dozen sumpter mules, laden with barrels of manage the three masts and sails of the large but yet elegantly spirits, tobacco, and other merchandise. Half-a-dozen of the scooped-out trunk of the lapacho tree. Of this tree are con- peons, a little way a-head, drove upwards of a hundred bulls, structed vessels which, when fifty years old, may still be called bellowing under the smart inflicted by stinging insects; while the young. Their frame is not shaken, nor is their constitution catalán, a capataz (or overseer), and myself, brought up the rear. debilitated by all the bumps they have on the sand-banks of the Our legs were cased in raw hide, to defend us at once from the Paraná, por by the scorching rays of a tropical sun, nor by the thorns of the underwood and from the bites of the mosquitoes. even-down pours' (as the Scotch have it) of tropical rains. Our faces, with the same object, were vizored in tanned sheepskin, Besides the lapacho, there are the urandig-pitá, the urandig- and our hands were fitted with gloves of the same material. The irai ; of which, the latter is equal in durability to rose-wood, and peons, it appeared to me, had their own hides so tanned and excels it in beauty. Then there is the timbo, the tatayiba (or hardened as to require no better protection from the insects.” wild mulberry), the lancewood, the orange-tree, the carandig, On the fifth day they reached a yerbal, or forest of the yerbathe palm-tree, the tataré, and 'sheraro ; all at once useful and tree, and active preparations were immediately made for a sixornamental. The cebil and curupai furnish excellent park for the months' settlement. purpose of tanning ; while many of the shrubs and plants afford " At dawn of day the peons were at work. IIere, one little dyes of the richest hue. There is one tree, of which the trunk is band was constructing for our habitation a long line of wigwams, composed of several stems twisted round one another, yet so and overlaying them with the broad leaves of the palm-tree and of compactly as to form the appearance of one solid trunk. There the banana. There, other sets were making preparations for the is the palo santo, or holy wood, producing odoriferous gum; and manufacturing and storing of the yerba. These preparations con
sisted, first, in the construction of the tataçúa. This was a small “When I returned to the colony, I found the peons coming by space of ground, about six feet square, of which the soil was two and two, from every part of the valley, all laden in the same beaten down by heavy mallets, till it became a hard and consistent way. There were twenty latacúas, twenty barbacías, and twenty foundation. At the four corners of this space, and at right angles, piles of the yerba cut and ready for manufacture. Two days after were driven in four very strong stakes, while upon the surface of that, the whole colony was in a blaze. Tatacúas and barbacías it were laid large logs of wood. This was the place at which the were enveloped in smoke; on the third day, all was stowed away leaves and small sprigs of the yerba tree, when brought from the in the shed ; and on the fourth, the peons again went out to prowoods, were first scorched, fire being set to the logs of wood cure more of the boughs and leaves. During the eight days that within it. By the side of the tatacúa was spread an ample square I witnessed these operations, I was profoundly struck_with the of hide-work; of which, after the scorched leaves were laid upon patient and laborious perseverance of the workmen. Then, for it, a peon gathered up the four corners, and proceeded with his their abstemiousness, it was, if possible, still more striking. Beef burthen on his shoulder to the second place constructed, -viz. the dried in the sun, and a few water-melons, constituted their whole barbacúa. This was an arch of considerable span, and of which fare, with, at the close of day, a cigar and a glass of spirits. the support consisted of three strong trestles. The centre trestle Neither the perpendicular rays of the sun, nor the everlasting formed the highest part of the arch. Over this superstructure attacks of insects and reptiles, had the power of producing an were laid cross bars, strongly nailed to stakes on either side of the intermission of labour, or of damping merriment after the toils of central supports, and so formed the roof of the arch. The leaves the day were brought to a close." being separated, after the tatacúa process, from the grosser boughs of the yerba tree, were laid on this roof, under which a
PRESENT STATE OF THE SLAVE TRADE. large fire was kindled. Of this fire the flames ascended, and still further scorched the leaves of the yerba. The two peons beneath
“ It is melancholy to reflect, that the efforts which we bare so the arch, with long poles, took care, as far as they could, that po
long and so perseveringly made for the abolition of the Slave-trade, ignition should take place; and, in order to extinguish this when
should not only have been attended with complete failure, but with it did occur, another peon was stationed at the top of the arch.
an increase of Neyro mortality. Millions of money and multitudes Along both sides of this there were two deal planks; and, with a
of lives have been sacrificed; and in return for all, we have only long stick in his hand, the peon ran along these planks, and the afflicting conviction that the Slave-trade is as far as ever from instantly extinguished any incipient sparks of fire that appeared.
being suppressed. Nay, I am afraid the fact is not to be disputed, When the yerba was thoroughly scorched, the fire was swept from
that while we have thus been endeavouring to extinguish the traffic, under the barbacúa or arch; the ground was then swept, and it has actually doubled in amount. pounded with heavy mallets, into the hardest and smoothest sub
“ Twice as many human beings are now its victims as when stance. The scorched leaves and very small twigs were then
Wilberforce and Clarkson entered upon their noble task; and each thrown down from the roof of the arch, and, by means of a rude individual of the increased number, in addition to the horrors wooden mill, ground to powder. The yerba, or tea, was now
which were endured in former times, has to suffer from being ready for use ; and being conveyed to a large shed, previously cribbed up in a narrower space, and on board a vessel where erected for the purpose, was there received, weighed, and stored by accommodation is sacrificed to speed. Painful as this is, it the overseer. The peons worked in couples, except that they becomes still more distressing if it shall appear that our present hired a third peon, and paid him accordingly, to aid them in system has not failed by mischance, from want of energy, or from superintending the operations of the barbacúa. These two peons
want of expenditure, but that the system itself is erroneous, and got a receipt for every portion of tea which they delivered to the
must necessarily be attended with disappointment. overseer ; and they were paid for it at the end of their stipulated
“ Hitherto we have effected no other change than a change in the
It was stated by our sojourn in the woods, at the rate of two rials, or a shilling, for the flag under which the trade is carried on. arrobe of twenty-five pounds. The next and last process, and the
Ambassador at Paris, to the French Minister, in 1824, (I speak most laborious of all, was that of packing the tea.
This was done from memory.) that the French flag covered the villains of all na. by first sewing together, in a square form, the half of a bull's hide,
lions. For some years afterwards the Spanish flag was generally which, being still damp, was fastened by two of its corners to two
used. Now, Portugal sells her flag, and the greater part of the strong trestles driven far into the ground. The packer, then, trade is carried on under it. Her governors openly sell, at a fixed with an enormous stick made of the heaviest wood, and having a
price, the use of Portuguese papers and flag." huge block at one end, and a pyramidal piece, to give it a greater
It has been proposed to declare the trade piracy : but even if all impulse, at the other, pressed, by repeated effort, the yerba into nations were to accede to such a declaration, Mr. Buxton declares the hide-sack, till he got it full to the brim. It then contained it must fail. from two hundred to two hundred and twenty pounds, and being
“ But now I will make a supposition still more Utopian than any sewed up, and left to tighten over the contents as the hide dried,
of the preceding. All nations shall have acceded to the Spanish at the end of a couple of days, by exposure to the sun, a substance Treaty, and that treaty shall be rendered more effective. They as hard as a stone, and almost as weighty and impervious too.
shall have linked to it the article of piracy; the whole shall have
been clenched by the cordial concurrence of the authorities at home “ After all the preparations which I have detailed were completed
and the populace in the colonies. With all this, we shall be once (and it required only three days to finish them), the peons sallied
more defeated and baffled by contraband trade. forth from the yerba colony by couples. I accompanied two of the
“ The power which will overcome our efforts is the extraordinary stoutest and best of them. They had with them no other weapon
profit of the slave-trader. It is, I believe, an axiom at the Customthan a small axe; no other clothing than a girdle round their
house, that no illicit trade can be suppressed, where the profits waist, and a red cap on their head; no other provision than a
exceed 30 per cent. cigar, and a cow's horn filled with water ; and they were animated
“ I will prove that the profits of the slave-trader are nearly five
times that amount. by no other hope or desire, that I could perceive, than those of
“Of the enormous profits of the Slave-trade," soon discovering a part of the wood thickly studded with the
says Commissioner Macleay, “the most correct idea will be yerba tree. They also desired to find it as near as possible to the
formed by taking an example. The last vessel condemned by the colonial encampment, in order that the labour of carrying the
Mixed Commission was the • Firm.'" He gives the cost of rough branches to the scene of operations might be as much as possible diminished. We had scarcely skirted for a quarter of a
28,000 mile the woods which shut in the valley where we were bivouacked, Provisions, ammunition, wear and tear, &c. 10,600 when we came upon numerous clumps of the yerba tree. It was of
13,400 all sizes, from that of the shrub to that of the full grown orangetree; the leaves of it were very like those of that beautiful produc
52,000 tion. The smaller the plant, the better is the tea which is taken
. 145,000 from it considered to be. To work with their hatchets went the “There was a clear profit on the human cargo of this vessel of peons; and in less than a couple of hours they had gathered a 18,6401., or just 180 per cent. ; and will any one who knows the mountain of branches, and piled them up in the form of a hay- state of Cuba and Brazil pretend that this is not enough to shut the stack. Both of them then filled their large ponchos with the mouth of the informer, to arrest the arm of the police, to blind the coveted article of commerce in its raw state ; and they marched off eyes of the magistrates, and to open the doors of the prison:”. with their respective loads.
Buxton's African Slave Trade.
THE THREE COLONIES OF AUSTRALIA.
previous to the year 1840, by receiving forty acres for every child
above three years, eighty for every child above six ; up to ten years TAE reader is aware that the large island of Australia is colo- 120, and exceeding that age and upwards 200 acres, for each nised on three portions of its coast :-New South Wales, on the person conveyed to the colony. The terms requisite to obtain eastern side ; Western Avstralia, or the settlement of Swan River, 500,000 acres having been complied with, early in 1829, a number on the western side; and the new experimental colony of South arrive in August, and to locate themselves aloug the banks of the
of settlers left England for Swan River, where they began to Australia, on the southern coast.
Swan and Canning rivers, so that by the end of that year there Of New South Wales it is scarcely necessary to say anything. were in the new colony, residents 850 ; non-residents, 440 ; value It was selected, in 1787, as a place of transportation : the first fleet of property, giving claims to grants of land, 41,5507. ; lands actuwith convicts sailed in that year, and anchored in Port Jackson ou ally allotted, 525,000 acres ; locations actually effected, 39 ;the 25th of January, 1788. The convict settlers endured for number of cattle, 204 ; of horses, 57 ; of sheep, 1096 ; of hogs, some years great privations, from the want of provisions, while 106; and twenty-five ships had arrived at the settlement between their difficulties were aggravated by the bad conduct of the con- the months of June and December. Such was the commencement victs themselves, who, turbulent at all times, were exceedingly of our new colony on the shores of Western Australia. The hard to manage in the infancy of the colony; but at last, after an settlers met at first (as must be expected in all new countries) interval of half a century, in spite of much bad management and with many difficulties, and great hardships had to be surmounted : many obstructions,-in spite of the depraved character of the the land 'near the coast was found poor and sandy, but subse. greater portion of the colonists,—this penal colony has become a quently, on exploring the interior, fine pastoral and agricultural very flourishiog settlement, and will probably continue to advance. tracts were discovered. A portion of the settlers have been But it is not adapted for a dense population. “ The present limits located at King George's Sound (latitude 35° 6' 20" S., longitude of the New South Wales territory extend coastwise from about the 118° 1' E.), near the south-west extremity of Australia.” thirty-second to the thirty-fourth degree of south latitude, with a Lavish grants of land nearly caused the ruin of the colony of breadth not exceeding two hundred miles. The portion within Western Australia. The colonists were dispersed ; land was wbich land might be selected, was fixed, in 1829, at 34,505 square indeed procured in abundance, but labourers to cultivate the land miles, or about 23,000,000 of acres ; of which, Major Mitchell were procured with great difficulty, capital was wasted, and hopes, states, only 4,460,000 acres have been found worth having, whilst which were raised extravagantly high, were crushed ; and for a the owners of this appropriated land have been obliged to send year or two the name of Swan River was a bugbear to emigration. their cattle beyond the limits, for the sake of pasturage. The soil. The colony begins to hold up its head, though still struggling with is good only where trap, limestone, or granite rocks occur ; hut, the difficulties arising out of the original errors and mismanage. unfortunately, sandstone predominates so much as to cover about ment of its settlement. In the “ Colonial Gazette," we remark six-sevenths of the wbole surface of the territory, and there the an extract from a letter dated June 1st, 1838, York, Western soil is merely a barren sand, without turf, and the trees subject to Australia, in which the writer says,—“I am happy to say that our conflagrations, which leave behind them little vegetable matter. prospects generally have been much improved, but we want settlers The want of water and of moisture render the country unfit for and labourers very much : the price of labour now is ruinously agriculture, and, until a well-arranged system of roads can be high. Shepherds particularly are wanted : they are getting as effected, there will be serious impediments in the way of commu- much as 401. a-year, besides provisions.' nication between the isolated spots of a better description.
Another letter, dated Swan River, August 28th, 1838, states, “The unproductiveness, upon the whole, of the present colony that “ The colony is in a satisfactory condition, and steadily induces Major Mitchell to recommend its extension, together with advancing; stock is increasing, money plentiful, and, though the formation of additional lines of communication. He proposes wages are high, and we happen to be short of supplies just now, that New South Wales should thus be made to reach northward to confidence in the future success of the colony never was so high the tropic of Capricorn, westward to the 15th degree of east lon- as at present. All we want is a moderate influx of new settlers, gitude; the southern portion having for boundaries the Darling, especially agricultural labourers, to bring out the capital which the Murray, and the sea-coast. Even, however, of this extended remains unemployed in the colony." territory, one fourth part only is stated to be available for pasturage A new plan of colonisation was proposed by Mr. E. G. Wakeor cultivation; one third consisting of desert plains, and the field, in a book called England and America," a very clever remainder of rocky mountains and impassable tracts."
book, but not to be depended on in all its statements and opinions, "It had long been wished,” says Mr. Butler, in bis “ Hand- which are exaggerated, and strained at times to meet the writer's book for Australian Emigrants, " that the western coast of views. Ilis book, however, made a very great impression on the Australia should be occupied by Great Britain : the fine colony we public mind; and a society was formed, to get up a colony, to had succeeded in establishing on the eastern coast, under the most be managed on the principle laid down in “ England and Ameadverse circumstances, was a stimulus to the undertaking; and rica,” which was held to be the great secret of colonisation. the favourable report of Captain Stirling, R.N., who explored the This principle consists in the just combination and proportion of coast in H.M.S. Success, led, in 1829, to a proposition, on the capital and labour. It was contended that where land was easily part of Thomas Peel, esq., Sir Francis Vincent, E. W. Schenley, procured, there was a natural tendency in man to appropriate as T. P. Macqueen, esqrs., and other gentlemen, to promote the much of it as he could ; thus a vast extent of country might be views of government in founding a colony, to aid the mother in the hands of individuals who were too few in number to culticountry. These gentlemen offered to provide shipping to carry vate it themselves, and were without the means of procuring ten thousand British subjects (within four years) from the United labourers to render their possessions productive—that is, to render Kingdom to the Swan River,--to furnish provisions and every them worth the keeping. Moreover, wherever people were scat. other necessary,--and to have three small vessels running to and tered over large tracts, there was no market for labour--no from Sydney, as occasion might require. They estimated the cost productive energy-nothing of that combination and concentraof conveying these emigrants at 301. each, making a total of tion which, by stimulating industry, render it re-productive. 300,0001. ; and they required, in return, that an equivalent should An act of parliament was passed in 1834, erecting a certain be granted them in land equal to that amount, and at the rate of portion of South Australia into a province, to be colonised on the 1s.6d. per acre, making four million acres; out of which they new principle. No land was to be given away; it was all to be engaged to provide every male emigrant with no less than two bought and paid for, at a price which was to be sufficient, and, in hundred acres of land, free of all rent.
order to provide labour to cultivate this land, the purchase money "This arrangement was not carried into effect, and a project for was to be appropriated to carrying out emigrants, who, being the formation of the new colony (without making it a penal settle. unable to procure land themselves, would be obliged to work for ment) was issued from the Colonial Office in 18:29.
The following are the avowed principles on which the • By this project, his Majesty's government did not intend to colony is established and managed :incur any expense in conveying settlers to the new colony on the “1. The characteristic feature of the plan of colonisation laid Swan River, nor to supply them with provisions or other neces- down by the act of parliament is a certain means for securing a saries, after arrival there.
sufficient supply of free labour. "Captain Stirling was appointed lieutenant-gorernor of the “II. This is accomplished by requiring every applicant for intended settlement, with a grant of 100,000 acres ; and Mr. Peel colonial land, in order to entitle himself to a grant, tų pay a was to receive 250,000 acres, on condition of taking out 400 emi. certain sum per acre to a general fund to be employed in carrying grants, with liberty to extend the grant to one million acres, out labourers.
“III. The emigration fund thus raised is placed under the
A CURE FOR DYSPEPSIA. management of the commissioners ; whose duty it is to regulate the rate of payment, so as to obtain neither too large nor too
There are few beings in the world that are not united by some small a number of labourers ; and by the selection of young, bonds of relationship; if they have neither brothers, sisters, or healthy persons, of good character and of both sexes, in equal still nearer ties, they have generally a great uncle, or a far off numbers, to render the fund as efficient for the purposes of the cousin, that occasionally sends them an inquiring letter. Such, colony as possible.
however, is not my case; I stand alone in the world. How I came “IV. This arrangement secures many very important advan- to be so is no part of my present narrative; the wounds that time tages. First: having provided a sufficient supply of free labour, has closed, I have no desire to tear open. I have heard wise the act of parliament declares that no convicts shall be sent to the people say, the blessings of life are equalized ; perhaps they would settlement, and thus the colonists are protected from the enormous have pointed to my lot as an exemplification : they might have evils which result from the immorality and profiigacy unavoidable said, . Look at his plantation, his negroes, his immense crops, his in a penal settlement. Secondly: As the labourers will he carried groves of orange trees.' •Go into the city; see his bouse with out at the common cost of the landowners by means of the emi | its verandas, his luxuriant garden, his stud of horses! but after gration fund, and as they will be sufficiently numerous, it is not all, poor man, he is to be pitied, he is alone in the world, he has necessary that they should be indentured to any one. Both no health to enjoy anything.' Such was the superficial survey. employers and labourers will be perfectly free to enter into any
Alas! they knew not, like me, the weary wasting regrets that? arrangements which may be mutually agreed upon, a state of pressed on my heart, the recollections that neither religion nor things which experience has shown to be much more conducive philosophy could banish. All that was fair and beautiful added to to contentment and prosperity than any other. Thirdly: The the keenness of my sensations, and I found solitude and silence contribution to the emigration fund being a necessary preliminary most conducive to my comfort. No one broke in upon my retire. to the acquisition of land, labourers taken out cost free, before ment. It is an easy art to live alone. For years I scarcely spoke becoming landowners, and thus ceasing to work for others, will to a human being ; my slaves learnt to communicate with me by furnish the means of carrying out other labourers to supply their signs, and the little negroes, for I am not hard-hearted, minded places. This arrangement, the fairness of which must be obvious my presence no more than they did one of my palmettos. My ill to every one, is really beneficial, not only to those who are land- health daily increased ; my nights were sleepless ; I consulted owners in the first instance, but to those also who may become physicians : some said my complaints were pulmonary, others that such by a course of industry and frugality ; for, while it diminishes they were dyspeptic; all prescribed, but none benefited. the injurious facility with which, in most new colonies, a person
I was one evening sitting in my veranda and anticipating the with scarcely any capital can become a petty landowner or coltier miserable nights I was to pass as one succeeded another, when one —a temptation which few have sufficient strength of mind to of my servants entered and said, “Here is a little girl want very resist, notwithstanding the state is one of incessant care and toil much to see Masser.' I felt some sensation of surprise, but said, --it holds out a prospect of real independence and comfort to
• Let her come.' A girl approached, about fourteen years old; she those who will patiently wait the very few years which are neces
held in her hand a little basket of flowers, and seemed doubtful sary to enable any one, with colonial wages, to acquire sufficient whether to come nearer or not. At length I said, 'Do you want capital to purchase land and become a master. "Fourthly: As anything?' I have brought the gentleman some flowers,' said those who will cultivate their land, and thus require many she, 'if he will take them.' There was an expression in the child's labourers, will contribute no more to the emigration fund than countenance, that bordered on compassion ; her voice, too, was soft those who may leave it waste, the non-cultivation of extensive and sympathetic. I thank you, my dear,' said I, ' put down the appropriated districts one of the chief obstacles to the progress flowers; I will take yours, and you may fill your basket with some of every colony hitberto established—will be greatly discouraged, of mine.' . Won't you keep the basket, Sir ? said she ; “I made it if not altogether preveated.”'
myself.' I took it in my hand and examined it ; it was composed In 1835, the South Australian commissioners advertised land of small crystals, that sparkled in the setting sun, and beautifully for sale in the new colony, at £l per acre: but sales being contrasted with the rich purple and crimson flowers that hung over cffected slowly at this rate, and a company having proposed to it. I took out a piece of money and offered her; she thanked me, take a large quantity, if given to them at 12s. per acre, the price but refused to take it, and said she did not bring her basket for was reduced. When a sufficient quantity was sold at this rate, sale. so as to raise the fund required by the act of parliament, the price
Where do you live, my dear?' said I. “There,' said she, pointwas again raised to £l per acre, at which price it continues to ing to a little narrow building, the upper window of which over. be sold in sections.
looked my garden. You have seen me in my garden ?' said I. The first ship sailed for South Australia on the 24th March, Yes,' replied she, and I heard the gentleman was sick, and ! 1836, carrying out the officers of the surveying staff, and other thought,' —she hesitated and coloured, I might help him.' official persons; and, in May following, the surveyor-general, *Then you are a doctress,' said I, smiling. No, Sir,' replied she, Colonel Light, went out in the brig Rapid, which had been pur- I am not one, but Sook is.' 'Who is Sook ?' said I. She is chased by the commissioners as a surveying vessel.
an Indian woman,
that can cure everything, all'sorts of disorders. The site for the capital having been chosen, the survey for it. She cannot cure mine,' said 1, involuntarily, yes, Sir, she can, was completed early in 1837; and the preliminary arrangements said the girl, • I have got a cure in my basket ; will you please to having been completed, the first court of gaol delivery was held try it?' and she turned over her flowers, and took out a little square at Adelaide on the 13th of May, before the late Sir J. W. Jeff packet
, with some figures wrought in Indian characters. “This is cott; and on the 23rd of the same month the streets and squares it, Sir,' said she. I went to her yesterday and got it on purpose of the new town were named. By this month (May, 1837) for your complaint. But what did you tell her was my.com sixteen vessels had arrived from England, carrying out upwards plaint?". 'I told her,” said she, with an air of confidence, of a thousand individuals, together with supplies of provisions,
that it was an indigestion of the heart.' The girl is right, stores, &c. Altogether, the number of vessels which have sailed thought I; she is more skilful than all the physicians.. Well, from this country for South Australia is as follows, viz.:
what am I to do with your packet ? Swallow it' And I made a For the year 1836 , 15 vessels, about 4,577 tons register.
sound nearer a laugh than I had done for years. • dear, no, Sir; 1837. 13
you are to hang it round your neck and let it cover your heart; To 26th Nov. 1838 . 36
Sook says you have the cold disorder in the heart, and this will Severaj vessels have sailed during the present spring.
cure it; may I leave it, Sir ?' said she. I could not refuse, indeed
I felt some curiosity to know more about the girl. “You may [To be continued.]
leave it to-night,' said I. She made a low curtsey and left me.
The next day she did not sue for admittance, nor the next
after that; but the third day she came. There was the same An old farmer, who lives by the Hampshire hills, observed gentle, innocent expression of countenance, as she inquired after lately, when talking about the corruption and degeneracy of the the success of her prescription. When I told her I had not tiines, tl:at it was the fine words and the flattery of men to the tried it, her disappointment was too apparent to be feigned, and farmers' wives that had done all the mischief. "For," said he, I said, 'You shall not lose the profit of your prescription,' and “ when it was dame and porridge, 'twas real good times; when I handed her a bill; it was five dollars. "That will do, I suppose,' 'twas mistress and broth, 'twas worse a great deal; but when it said I. She took it and looked at it. 0 Sir,' said she, "Sook came to be ma'am and soup, 'twas very bad.-Newspaper. does not ask anything if it don't cure you, and only a dollar if it
CHANGE OF THE TIMES.
* And what do you charge ' said I, a little scornfully. it was to reflect that the beings I loved best were engaged in Nothing, Sir,' replied she eagerly, 'nothing at all.' * Come, be talking of me! Theodore, thought I, is giving an account of my honest,' said I, • tell me your motive.' The girl did not seem to sufferings, my hardships, and hair-breadth escapes ;' Amie is understand me. When I explained myself, she said, I want listening. Yes, my mind is made up; I will rescue this fair nothing, nothing, Sir; I live with my mother, she is a widow : we flower from an untimely fate; I will bear it back, and cherish and are very happy, so bappy,' added she, that I could not bear to see watch over it; my devoted kindness shall repay her for the years anybody looking so sick and sad as you do, and I told Sook about of secret and heart-consuming tenderness she has lavished upon the gentleman, and she said she could cure him.'
And I actually dropped asleep with those lines of ShaksThis was the beginning of my acquaintance with Amie, for so peare in my head, which need not be repeated; "she never told she was called : I was at length persuaded to try the remedy ; it her love,' &c. certainly did me no harm, and it produced a pungent sensation The next day Amie looked still paler ; I had not the heart to upon the skin that almost amounted to a blister, and possibly let her languish longer in concealment, and I invited her to walk might have done good. I I think, from some cause or other, I grew with me; for in these log-houses every sound is communicated a little better. Amie used to come every day, and often brought from one part to the other. When we reached an old log that me some little delicacy. I had gone the round of suspicion ; at made a convenient seat, I sat down, for I was a little out of first I conceived it was for money she had made my acquaintance; breath, and I motioned her to sit by me. It was, even for me, then I thought, possibly, young as she was, and old as I was, for an agitating moment, I breathed quicker than usual ; she perthere was certainly thirty years' difference in our ages, it might be for ceived a change, and was alarmed ; Let me run back,' said she, love; but after three years' experience, I became convinced she had and get some of your restorative drops. No, no,' said I, no motive under heaven but the desire of serving a fellow-creature. • Amie, you are my restorative, the drop of happiness in my cup.' One day Amie came to me with a sorrowful look. I shall not see She gave me a sweet smile and kissed my hand. “Al, Amie,' you much longer,' said she, “I am going away.' "Where' asked said I, 'I have found out your secret, and it was for your sake Í. "To Alabama,' she replied. “What in the name of heaven alone I have come this long way. Foolish.girl,' said I, drawing carries you to Alabama exclaimed I ; · Are you going to be her towards me, why did you not tell me you were in love, it married?' 'No,' said she, 'but my mother is, and she is going to would have saved us both this long journey.' Her blushes grew Alabama with her new husband.' • And takes you?' • Yes, Sir.' deeper and deeper; I really pitied her, and thought it best to * Poor child!' I involuntarily exclaimed ; do you want to go?' She finish the scene. • Come, confess,' said I. • There is no need of hung her head, and I saw a few tears hastily brushed away. 'It is confessing,' said she, half playfully, half bashfully, 'if you have a wild uncultivated country,' said I. "Yes, Sir, that is the reason found me out.' There was something so bewitching in her my father-in-law is going; he has worn out his land here, and he manner, that I really began to feel 'love's young dream' stealing can purchase a hundred acres there for fifty dollars.' •But it is over me. Well, well,' said I, I will send Theodore to the good for nothing.' 'Indeed, Sir, you are mistaken,' replied she, nearest town for a parson ; we will have the ceremony performed, * it is the best of land; he will have nothing to do but cut down and all return together.' She seemed wholly overpowered. You the trees, build a log house, and plant corn or cotton, just as he are too, too kind,' exclaimed she, how shall I repay such good. pleases, and it will grow of itself.'
ness! It shall be the occupation of my life to make yours happy! After Amie's departure I remained solitary as usual, nobody and Theodore, too, what will he say ! let me go and tell him this joy
I ought to except a young lad that I had sometimes ful news.' Before I could speak, she was off. I confess I thought, employed in writing; he was an intelligent, well-behaved boy, and considering her previous silence and reserve, she was a little lived near; I transferred, in a degree, my kindness for Amie to forward in communicating the matter ; that it would have been him, for he in some measure supplied her place; but who that has as well to have left it to me; but I made every allowance for the experienced the attentions of a gentle, kind-hearted woman, can intoxication of happiness ; in a few moments I saw them return. feel compensated for their loss, by the awkward attempts of one of ing, arm in arm. I have brought Theodore to thank you for bis own sex.
I grew more and more sick; the spring and summer himself,' said Amie, as they approached. Indeed,' said Theowore heavily away; I thought continually of my last interview dore, modestly looking down, I have no words to do it; how with Amie; of her evident emotion and embarrassment when I | little I imagined what were your intentions; and that it was to asked her if there was nobody she loved as well as her mother. make us happy you were enduring all this hardship ! • And how My first idea returned with redoubled conviction. I cannot doubt hittle,' interrupted Amie, did we suspect that our secret was it, thought I ; strange as it is, she loves me, she has loved me from known!' I was perfectly astonished; my cough became so the first!
violent that I thought I should have strangled : the children At length 1 determined to seek her, and I asked Theodore if were really alarmed. When it ceased, Amie again began to he was willing to go with me on horseback ; he eagerly em- express the overflowing of her heart. • Theodore was the first,' braced the proposal. I pass over all the difficulties and mis- said she, “that told me how much you suffered, and how good givings of my mind, how often I relinquished the plan and then and kind-hearted you were ; how you felt for everybody, and tried resumed it again ; at last, however, Thcodore and myself were on to do everybody good. I went to Sook and told her your case ; our way; we travelled south. Theodore I found a pleasant com- I knew she could cure everything, but I little thought what a panion, he often made me laugh heartily; and, generally speaking, blessing was to come of it!' my health was not worse than when I left home; he was very She might have run on for ever', as she seemed inclined to, for attentive to my accommodation ; and though I had many hardships I was perfectly bewildered. Theodore and I,' continued she, to endure, I was saved from actual suffering by his constant and have loved each other from children; he always made my pens persevering efforts.
for me at school, and proved my sums, but when I came away to After many wanderings, one night, as we proceeded on our the Alabama country, I never expected to see him again. And journey, after travelling all day through forests scarcely marked again she seized hold of my hand, though I really made some by tlie track of wheels, we came to a log-house ; there was all the resistance, and kissed it. But what signifies all this ; egotism is marks of a
new settlement. We dismounted to ask for a detestable. I will only add, that I had the wisdom to keep my night's lodging ; a young woman came to the door, with a white own counsel, and concealed my mistake in the best manner I handkerchief tied over her head, and fastened under her chin. could. By degrees I grew quite reconciled to the change things At one glance I saw it was Ainie! Judge of her astonishment; had taken, and thought it was for the best. I determined to she looked first at me, then at Theodore, and flung herself upon adopt them as children. Amie returned, Mrs. Theodore Grey. a little wooden bench that stood near, half fainting. As I have gave up a useless part of my house, and kept the southern said before, I detest egotism ; I will not therefore dwell on our veranda for myself. Little Henry Grey, who is named from me, is meeting ; Amie had been sick, and she looked pale and languid ; sleeping on the sofa by my side; his father is a fine, intelligent, she said the climate agreed better with them all than with her. manly fellow; and Amie, Amie, is the joy and comfort of my We were comfortably accommodated. Amie was full of wonder, life, and bids fair to be the prop of my old age. As for my and repeatedly asked me where we were going, and how we came dyspepsia, I really don't know what has become of it, or when it there." I put her off, however, and merely told her she should left me; I have not thought of it for months; but I now recolknow all in the morning. It was a luxury to eat my boiled eggs lect that it was to recommend Sook's prescription that I began from a clean table-cloth, and a still greater one to throw myself this narrative; whether it would be as success.nl in all complaints into a clean bed. Long after I closed my eyes I could hear the I cannot take it upon me to determine : I can only say, I have faint whispers of Amie's and Theodore's voices. How soothing found it a complete cure for the dyspepsia.