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the reach of private vengeance; but now they were again returning

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS OF to their favourite hunting-ground north of the Mohawk, and around the sources of the Hudson. Some even had ventured into Albany

THE METROPOLIS. to dispose of their packs and skins, and carry back a supply of powder and other necessaries of the hunter of the wilderness. It

LONDON INSTITUTION. was two of these that the orphan youth dogged from the settlements, on their way through the northern forests, to the spot where

This establishment can scarcely be termed a public institution, his oath of vengeance had been recorded. The sequel may best

as admittance to the library and reading-rooms is given only to be told in the words of an old hunter, under whose guidance i proprietors, and those who are furnished with a proprietor's made my first and only visit to the Dead Clearing.

ticket. But it is of such a magnitude, and possesses such a *** It was about two o'clock of a hot August afternoon, that valuable collection of books, as to deserve public attention. It Ben, after thus following up their trail for three days, came upon originated with the merchants and bankers of the City, who held the two Injuns jist where the moose-runway makes an opening their first meeting at the London Tavern, 232 May, 1805. The in the forest, and lets the light down upon yon willow that still flourishes beside the old hemlock. The Injuns were sitting beneath original subscription of proprietors was fixed at seventy-five the willow, thinking themselves sheltered by the rocky bank guineas, and of life-subscribers at twenty guineas. The list was opposite, and a mass of underwood which had shot up round the quickly filled up, and by the 18th January, 1806, the institution top of an oak, which had been twisted off in a tornado on some was opened in a large mansion on the eastern side of the Old former day, and then lay imbedded in weeds beneath the knoll. Jewry, nearly opposite to Frederick's-place ; erected by Sir Robert But, a few yards from this bank, in that thicket round the roots Clayton for keeping his shrievalty in 1671, and mentioned by of yon mossy old beech, Ben found a shelter, from which, at any Evelyn in his Diary. The library at this time amounted to ten moment, he could creep up and cover either with his fire from thousand volumes, The institution was subsequently removed to Dehind the knoll. But, as he had only a one-barrel piece, it re- premises in King's-Arms yard, and from thence was removed quired full as cool a hand as his to wait and take both the creeturs to the fine building erected for the purpose in Moorfields, and now at one shot. Bloody Ben, though, was jist the chap to do it. forming a very conspicuous object on the north side of Finsbury Like enough he waited there or manæuvred round for an hour to Circus. The front is 102 feet 6 inches wide, exclusive of the side get his chance, which did come at last, howsumdever. The Injuns, doors, which are 15 feet each ; the height is nearly 60 feet to the who, in their own way, are mighty talkers, you must know,--that apex of the pediment. The house comprises a basement story is, when they have really something to talk about,-got into some

within a sunken area, a ground floor, and two stories above, argerment, wherein figures, about which they know mighty little, consisting of the library and gallery. The exterior of the building were concerned. One took out his scalping-knife to make marks is embellished by a very beautiful double portico, the upper por. upon the earth to help him : while the other trying to make tion supported on Corinthian columns, resting on the ground floor matters clearer by the aid of his fingers, their heads came near portico, which consists of two solid piers and as many Doric each other, jist as you may have seen those of white people when columns. The proportions of the various parts forming the they get parroiching right in earnest. So they argufied and they façade are so true and exact, as to present a whole in which mag. counted, getting nearer and nearer as they became more eager, til nificence and elegance are admirably combined. There are few their skulls, almost touching, came within the exact range of Ben's buildings in London which display better taste in the design, and rifle : and then Ben, he ups and sends the ball so clean through perhaps none are so well situated, for the facility with which they both, that it buried itself in a sapling behind them. And that, I

can be advantageously contemplated. The inside fully corresponds think, was pretty well for the first shot of a lad of eighteen ; and with the elegance of the exterior. The hall, supported by two Bloody Ben himself never confessed to making a better one after

rows of fluted Doric columns, appears the realization of a Roman wards.'

atrium : on each side, doors lead to the pamphlet-room, news“ The Tourist, who should now seek the scene of this adventure, room, committee-room, and private apartments. Immediately would, perhaps, look in vain for the graceful exotic that once facing the entrance are glass doors leading to the staircase, which marked the spot. The weeping willow, which was only a thrifty is exceedingly beautiful. It is double, and leads to a wide stone sapling when the Indians met their death beneath its fatal shade, platform, or landing-place, from which the library is entered by was changed into an old decayed trunk, with but one living branch the outer door; the gallery by two side staircases, concealed when I beheld it; and a ponderous vine was rapidly strangling the within the walls. The library is a very noble room; it occupies life from this decrepit limb. The hardy growth of the native the whole of the first floor. It is 97 feet in length by 42 in width, forest had nearly obliterated the improvements of the pioneer. and 28 in height. The interior area is in shape an octagonal The wild animals, in drinking from the spring hard by, had dis- parallelogram, with four small apartments at the angles; the sides lodged the flat stones from its brink ; tall weeds waved amid the are divided by piers, faced with pilasters, into recesses elevated two spreading pool; and the fox had made his den in the rocky knoll steps above the floor, containing double bookcases. The piers upon whose side once stood the settler's cabin of The Dead also support a light but substantial gallery, extending completely CLEARING."

round the apartment, and lined with bookcases. The books contained in the whole room amounted, in 1835, when the classed catalogue was prepared, to upwards of twenty-six thousand, and

since then there has been a very considerable addition. The process of education of the Russian poor is perhaps melan- Around the reading room six large tables are arranged, at one choly to relate, and difficult to believe, but it is efficacious. The of which the librarian is seated; and at the western extremity there cane and the whip perform the miracle in most instances. A is a raised desk, at which the sub-librarian has his post. Immemaster will say to his slave, “ You must be a musician;

diately below his seat stands a magnificent sarcophagus of polished another, “ You must be a tailor.” If either murmurs, he is beat; appropriated to the reception of a splendid work on Egypt, which

oak, presented by Sir Thonias Baring, bart., the president, and and this method is continued, till the one produces a tolerable accompanied the gift. coat, or the other sings a national air in good tune, or can join in This reading-room is one of the most agreeable places of study a chorus. It is with these crude materials that the Russians have that exists. There is hardly any disturbance from external found the secret of organising their great military force. The sounds, so that you can scarcely conceive you are in the heart of peasant, before he is completely formed to the profession of a

the City. A small part only of the Circus is paved, and, though soldier, undergoes privations and sufferings innumerable; but, this the rolling of the distant omnibuses may be faintly heard, the passordeal once passed, he acquires a constitution of iron. Like the annoyance. The books in the room are open to all the visitors,

of the few carriages that wander into the Circus gives but little cement which becomes more hard from exposure to the open air, and access to them is rendered easy by their arrangement, which the Russian soldier is hardy, indefatigable, proof against the incle- | is very fully described in the catalogue ; it is constructed on so mencies of the seasons, enduring hunger and thirst with patience, excellent a plan as to deserve to be the model in all libraries. By and fearing more the cane of his officer than the cannon of the a reference to it, you can at once discover what books the library enemy. The impassibility of the Muscovite under fire is almost contains on any subject, and in what part of the room the book proverbial; and if passive mechanical courage is the essence of a you happen to want is to be found. If the book be in the gallery good soldier, it is certainly to be found in the Russian ranks.- or cannot be readily discovered, the librarians are always ready to British and Foreign Review for Jan. 1839,

rive prompt attention, and both are particularly polite in pointing

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EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN POOR.

to

season.

out the best or most advisable book to consult on any point to

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES which you are directing your inquiries. The little apartments in the corners are snug retreats, where the occasional murmur of a whispered conversation may be avoided, if it should annoy the

JOHN LEDYARD. student. The only thing to be found fault with is, that these little closets ar not lighted at night; and, if a work be then required

John LEDYARD was a remarkable instance of the power possessed from them, it must be obtained by the aid of the librarian's by a mind confidently relying on its own resources, of attaining the lantern.

object determined upon. When he had fixed his mind upon a The collection has been very judiciously selected, and in every thing, nothing turned him from his purpose ; and we shall find class is well provided, and in some, particularly English Anti- him, when disappointed of promised assistance, setting out with an quities, and Topography, and Philology, including Literary History and Criticism, the productions of Miscellaneous Latin

axe, two dogs, and a tobacco-pipe, as his sole companions in Authors, and Grammars and Dictionaries, it is rich ; and as new

exploring the wilds of America. It is not our intention to hold his books of interest and information appear, they are constantly added character up as an object of unlimited admiration ; for, not to to the stores already collected. It is also rich in parliamentary speak of other failings,-such as his inc patience of control or history, and this department is constantly increasing by the addi- reproof, and his unsettled habits,—the very excess of the quality tion of all the Parliamentary Reports. The pamphlet-room and by which he attained such surprising results, his self-confidence, news-room are amply supplied and are very constantly attended, frequently led him to act with a wilfulness and want of caution but the library is not much resorted to. It is rare to than twenty persons in the room at one time, except occasionally which did him much injury. Confident in himself, he took too in the evening, when many gentlemen look in to spend an hour or

little heed of the morrow, and thus was often obliged to encounter two in turning over the newer publications; but the number of difficulties which the exercise of a little prudence might have prestudents, or literary men, who make use of this tine library is vented. The result of these failings will be seen in the short small.

narrative we are about to enter upon ; they are to be lamented and One peculiar feature of this institution is its Soirées, or Evening avoided. But his determined perseverance, which enabled him to Conversazioni, which are held once a week during the Spring triumph over obstacles which would have daunted and disheartened

At such times, models, works of art, objects of natural history, &c. are occasionally exhibited for the entertainment of the almost any other man, is to be admired, and to be regarded as a visitors, and, in the course of the evening, a short lecture is deli-worthy object of our imitation. vered in the theatre. On such occasions the library may be seen

John Ledyard was born at Groton, a small village in Connecti. filled with well-dressed ladies, who are accustomed to make a tour cut: he was the eldest of four children, who, by the death of their de promenade around library, before and after the lecture, father, were early thrown upon the sole care of their mother, who a process rather annoying to those who are occupied with their was left in very straitened circumstances. She was a woman books. The theatre of the institution is a separate building entered by all, eminent for piety and the religious virtues. Her early instruc

possessing excellent qualities and a well-informed mind, and, above a door at the foot of the stairs. It is particularly excellent in its construction and arrangement, and the laboratory and apparatus tions were never forgotten by her son John, who was tenderly attached, are distinguished for their completeness. Here lectures attached to her. Some years after his father's death, Joho on various subjects are delivered during the season, to which pro-Ledyard was taken charge of by his grandfather, who sent him to prietors and subscribers to the course are admitted, but the holder the grammar-school at Hartford, and subsequently placed him in a of a proprietor's transferable ticket has no right of entrance. No lawyer's office. This situation by no means suited Joha Ledgard, subscription or separate tickets are issued for the lectures delivered who, after a few months' trial, gave up the law. His fondness for at the soirées ; but every proprietor has, besides his own admission, the privilege of personally introducing a visitor, though he wandering and adventure was probably the cause of the choice he cannot introduce any person by his transferable ticket.

now made of a pursuit. A college had shortly before been estaSuch is a brief outline of this valuable institution. It is, per

blished at Hanover, then almost a wilderness, for the education of haps, to be regretted that the proprietors do not extend the facility Indians and of young men designed as Indian missionaries. The of admission, and permit the entrance of annual subscribers, but it principal, Dr. Wheelock, offered to receive Ledyard, who accordis probable that they are deterred by the additional risk which their ingly repaired to Dartmouth College, where, however, he continued property would be exposed to, and which could not be obviated scarcely a year. Three months of this time were occupied in a except by an additional outlay for extra librarians, &c. and a total ramble' among the Indians, which he undertook unaccompanied, change of the present system, under which the visitor feels almost as if he were sitting in his own private library, with a few friends and of which we possess no particulars, further than that the time in his company. They may also consider that among 910

was spent in wandering through the forests, sometimes alone, and proprietors, almost all residents in London or its immediate neigh- , sometimes in company with the various tribes with whom he fell bourhood, it cannot be very difficult to discover one, willing to in, and that his excursions extended as far as Canada. lend his ticket (a handsome bronze medal, by the way) to a student The routine of the college duties was irksome to one for whom who is desirous of using the stores of the library.

the forest had such charms; and, though he could study the Greek The institution is supported by the proceeds of its capital, and Testament in his solitary canoe, on the brink of a cataract, yet he an annual subscription of two guineas paid by each proprietor. It could but ill brook the confinement of a class-room. is opened at ten o'clock in the morning; the library closes at ten in the evening, but the pamphlet and news-rooms are kept open

His conduct, though strictly moral, was in other respects so till eleven, except on Saturdays, when all the doors are shut at irregular as to call down reproof, which Ledyard could not endure. three o'clock.

He determined to leave college, and he effected his purpose in a manner the most characteristic. He felled a large tree on the banks of the Connecticut, and, with the aid of his companions,

shaped it into a canoe, fifty feet long and three broad, in which he “ I RECKON our folks don't want none of them fixings," said an embarked, with a good stock of provisions, a bearskin, a paddle, a Obio housewife to a Connecticut pedlar, who produced a pair of Greek Testament, and an Ovid, and trusted himself upon a river beaded mocassins, a shooting pouch, and other hunting parapher- interrupted by rapids and falls, with which he was totally unacDalia from his pack : “ the boys have plenty of such trash of their quainted. Fourteen years afterwards, he told Mr. Jefferson that own providing.". The patient pedestrian offered next some pret- he was deeply engaged in reading when his canoe approached tily woven basket-ware, and carved wooden bowls, to tempt a pur. Bellows's Falls, where he was suddenly roused by the noise of the chase from the settler's wife." No! nor them nother!" cried waters rushing among the rocks through the narrow passage. the virago; "the Miami Injuns do our basketing, and the Buck. The danger was imminent, as no boat could go down that Fall eyes make better bowls than you can carve from your Yankee without being instantly dashed in pieces; and it was with difficulty poplars. What does the fool mean by trying to sell us things we that he gained the shore. He procured oxen, and having correfed can make better nor him! Throw open your pack, my manny, his canoe overland past the Falls, and continuing his solitary voyage and let me choose for myself among your knicknacks !"-Hoffman's without accident, surprised his friends at Hartford with his very Wild Scenes

unexpected appearance.

A YANKEE PEDLAR.

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Having totally abandoned the idea of the Indian mission, he on this subject, which have since been appreciated, although the now desired to devote himself to the ministry, in which he was projector met nothing but discouragement. (not very judiciously) encouraged by some of his friends, and seve- Ledyard returned to England with the expedition, and contiral ministers to whom he applied. Their good-nature made them nued upwards of two years in the service, but, the American war unwilling to discourage him in a pursnit in which his talents were having now broken out, he for some time declined engaging against fully equal to the labour, but for which his peculiar character ren- his countrymen. He, however, at length embarked on board a dered him very unfit. Some time, though not a long period, was vessel destined for America, but he took the earliest opportunity spent in study, and he sought to obtain his object-immediate to desert. After visiting his friends, and suffering sufficient time admission to the ministry-with his accustomed energy ; but he to elapse to prevent the probability of a seizure from the English was fojled in his efforts, and at length abandoned his design. He powers, he bent all the energies of his mind, and they were great, now fell in with an old friend of his father, a Captain Deshon, the to the accomplishment of the scheme he had formed, of establish master of a merchantinan; and on board his ship, about to sail | ing a trade with the North-west of America. Everything he profrom New London, bound to Gibraltar, the Barbary coast, and posed has been since shown to be well founded, but the difficulties home by way of the West Indies, he entered as a common sailor, he encountered prevented him and his country from reaping the although he was treated by the captain rather as a friend and reward. Upwards of two years were consumed in attempts to associate, than according to the rank he held on board the vessel. effect this object. The scheme was repeatedly taken up and abanThis was not an unnatural step on the part of an ardent young man doned by different merchants. Ledyard's exertions were extreme. disappointed in the schemes which he had wished to realise, and New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and New London, were again whose adventurous disposition made the sight of foreign lands and again visited ; and repeatedly the cup of hope was raised to desirable, even in the humble station of a common sailor. Nothing | his lips, but to be dashed away. very remarkable occurred during the voyage, save at Gibraltar, At length, finding all hope of support in America, vain, he where, during a short residence on shore, he took a fancy for resolved to expend the slender stock of money he possessed, the army, and actually enlisted in a British regiment, and was lost derived from the remuneration he received for his lost time, from to his shipmates, until the captain accidentally discovered bim on the merchants who had withdrawn from the enterprise, in visiting parade, going through the exercise with scrupulous accuracy. France, with the intention of engaging some of the merchants of Captain Deshon remonstrated with him, and urged him to return L'Orient in his design. At L'Orient he was detained a whole to the ship. He said he enlisted because he was partial to the year; his scheme was at first entertained, and he appeared to be service, and thought the profession of a soldier well suited to a on the point of realizing all his expectations. But the season was man of honour and enterprise. Eventually he was released, and unpropitious, and after delays most vexatious to his ardent mind, returned to America with Captain Deshon.

it was abandoned. Yet undaunted, he proceeded to Paris ; he When once more in America, he found himself wholly without knew he was right, and that the timidity which made his supporters, occupation, and saw no opening for pushing his fortune. The one after another, draw back, was unreasonable. • In Paris, wandering mania appears to have already seized him, as, in a letter thought he, I shall surely find some who will duly value the plans he wrote from Gibraltar, he told his friends that he had allotted to I propose. himself a further seven years' wandering. He had heard from his Mr. Jefferson, who was at this time minister from the United grandfather that he had relations in England who were rich, and in States to the Court of France, at once perceived the advantages that the hope of discovering these, and by their means obtaining assist would flow from such a voyage as Ledyard proposed, and approved ance in prosecuting his favourite schemes of travel, he worked his highly of his design; but he took no steps in promoting it at prepassage to Plymouth, and literally begged his way to London, sent, although the expedition under Lewis and Clarke, which he indulging all the time bright dreams of the future. He succeeded projected twenty years afterwards, had its origin in the views sugin discovering his relations, but, his claims being at first doubted, gested by Ledyard. he indignantly left the house ; and, although assistance was after- He had not been many days in Paris when he met the celebrated Wards tendered, he refused to accept it.

adventurer, Paul Jones, at that time acting under a commission Captain Cook was now preparing to set out on the voyage from from the United States, and who had come to Paris for the purwhich he was never to return, and Ledyard determined to make pose of recovering the value of several prizes he had taken and sent one of the expedition. With this view he enlisted in the marines, into French ports. Jones's ardent spirit eagerly caught at the and then, contriving to obtain an interview with Captain Cook, schemes proposed by Ledyard. He joined heartily in forwarding found no difficulty in persuading him to take him as one of the them ; proposed to engage two vessels, store them with a fitting complement. Cook promoted him to the rank of corporal, and cargo, proceed with Ledyard to the North-west coast, spend six in that capacity he served during the voyage. He kept a journal months in building a fort and stockade, and collecting furs, and during this period ; but, on his return to England, it was, in then, leaving Ledyard in charge of this establishment, proceed with common with all other journals and memoranda made by any one a cargo of fur to China ; barter them for Chinese produce, and on board, taken possession of by the Admiralty, in order to prevent then proceeding, by way of the Cape of Good Hope, either to any mis-statements in the first public account of the expedition. Europe or the United States, sell his cargo, and taking on board

Ledyard subsequently published an account of the voyage, in articles fit for the Indian market, return to the fort.* Jones was
America ; but as this, although curious in some respects, espe- so earnest in the business, that he advanced money to Ledyard for
cially as regards the circumstances of Captain Cook's death, relates the purchase of cargo for the outfit; but just at this crisis he was
to matters already well known, we shall not advert to it, except in called away to L'Orient, where he was detained some months.
one affair in which he was personally engaged, and which much Either unexpected obstacles occurred, or his ardour cooled, for he
affected his future course of life. After exploring Nootka Sound, abandoned the scheme he had been so earnest in, and Ledyard
where Ledyard made many observations on the advantages to be once more had the mortification to see his dearest hopes blighted
obtained from a trade in furs with the natives, the vessels arrived at the very moment when his prospects seemed to be brightest.
at the island of Onalaska, where they were much surprised at Ledyard next endeavoured to organise a company in Paris for the
meeting with many signs of European intercourse among the purpose of carrying out his darling scheme, and in the plan he
natives. This made Captain Cook very desirous of exploring the proposed to them he designed to return himself over-land to the
island, but he was in doubt as to the best means of accomplishing United States, after despatching a vessel to China. After months
his object. Ledyard volunteered his services, which were gladly of unavailing efforts this scheme proved abortive, and Ledyard
accepted by Cook, who appreciated his character. He set out, found himself once more cast loose on the world.
entirely unarmed, under the guidance of the natives, who, after a Nothing daunted, he now proposed to apply to the Empress of
tedious journey on foot across the island, conducted him to a Russia for permission to travel across her dominions to Bebring's
settlement made by the Russians, who had there established a Straits. Mr. Jefferson approved his plan, and introduced him to
station in communication with their establishment in Kamtschatka, Baron Grimm, the confidential agent of the Empress, by whom the
for the purpose of carrying on the fur-trade. Ledyard succeeded application was forwarded, to Petersburgh; but five months elapsed
in his mission, and an interview took place between Captain Cook without bringing an answer, during which time Ledyard subsisted
and some of the Russians, who accompanied Ledyard back to the on supplies levied on “vice.consuls, consuls, ministers, and pleni.
vessels. The observations he made here confirmed him in his potentiaries.” At length, just when he was thinking of setting off
views of the practicability of establishing a very profitable trade in without the permission of the Empress, a proceeding from which
furs; and which was still further strengthened when he became
aware of the very high price that might be obtained for them in * This was precisely the plan proposed by Mr. Astor, when he established
China. He made, and carefully recorded, very minute inquiries his settlement at Colombia River.

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his friends dissuaded him, he received a letter from Sir James

A VISIT TO BARCLAY, PERKINS, AND CO. Hall, who had seen and befriended him at Paris, which induced him to go to London. He there found an English ship in complete On the southern banks of the Thames, between Southwark and readiness to sail for the Pacific Ocean. Sir James Hall introduced London bridges, lies the hugest brewery in the world—the chief him to the owners, who immediately offered him a free passage in of those establishments which have made this great city the head. the vessel, with the promise that he should be set on shore at any quarters of malt liquor as well as civilisation. Ask any of the place on the North-west co st which he might choose. The merchants, no doubt, hoped to profit somewhat by his knowledge and

fellowship porters" the way to BARCLAY, PERKINS, AND Co.'s, experience. One of Cook's officers was also going out in the same and there, from any one of these unaffected lovers of “heavy wet," vessel. The day before he was to go on board, he thus wrote to you will get a direct direction. “There, Sir, right down afore Mr. Jefferson :-“ Sir James Hall presented me with twenty ye!" and truly it would be difficult to miss a sight of the brewery, guineas, pro bono publico : 1 bought two great dogs, an Indian pipe, the buildings of which cover eleven acres of ground. But how and a hatchet. My want of time, as well as of money, will prevent to find out the entrance is the puzzle ; you must thread your way my going any otherwise than indifferently equipped for such an enterprise ; but it is certain that I shall be much more in want through narrow lanes, thronged with drays, while a rambling before I see Virginia."

sound reminds one of barrels and hogsheads, and the olfactory Here we must leave this enterprising traveller. The remainder organs testify that a brewery is not only near, but round aboutof bis adventures shall be given in another Number.

for communication between the buildings is maintained by suspension bridges over the lanes. At last we arrive at the gateway;

don't you see the ANCHO'R, Sir, the symbol of Barclay, Perkins, THE BLESSING OF THE WATERS.

and Co.? All brewers have their sign-their symbol—their On the 18th inst. (Jan.), which is the Russian Twelfth-day, a emblem ; and the anchor of Barclay, Perkins, and Co., is stamped, religious ceremony takes place on the Neva, which I believe has twisted, and interwoven on or in everything appertaining to the no parallel in any other country, unless we adduce the now obso- brewery—the very lamp-posts are propped up by the anchor. lete custom at Venice of the Doge espousing the sea.

This cere

Now, entering the gateway, we pass what may be termed the mony is called the blessing of the waters: and the object is, that porter's lodge. An equivocal, or rather a very unequivocal sort the river Neva may, by the prayers of the nation, be rendered of porter's lodge it is : porter-pots give intimation that beer is propitious to the navigation, and all other purposes to which “ drank on the premises,” and though the court were clear of rivers may be applicable in the neighbourhood of a great and dirty barrels and drays, one might have little hesitation in affirming as capital. The whole population of St. Petersburgh and the environs a verity, that we had entered a stronghold of the powerful spirit is collected on the quays to witness this solemn invocation. An of inalt. By the way, what is the etymology of porter ?" A octagon temple, formed of wooden trellis work, adorned with shrewd brewer of the olden time is said to have compounded a pictures, gilded cherubs, and other religious emblems, is erected sort of half-and-half, which became very acceptable to those on the ice opposite to the winter palace. There are four entrances brawny fellows who, as the Dictionary says, carry goods for to this pavilion, which is approached from the shore by a wooden hire ;” and hence porter, a drink for porters, became a drink for communication built on massive piles ; that which faces the the million. But "beer" is the genuine cockney name for "heary palace is decorated with a picture representing the baptism of our wet;" “ Be.ah!” as the pot-boy bawls it, Sunday and Saturday, Saviour in the river Jordan. In the centre of this building is dug at eleren, at one, at eight, and at nine o'clock, in every narrow a large hole in the ice, which, at this season of the year, is gene- street, lane, or alley, where a hard-working and beer-loving popu. rally four or five feet in depth ; as, with some appearance of lation may be found. inconsistency, the nation has singled out this period for blessing Hilloa, stand aside-here is a troop of the rank and ble" the waters, when the climate has rendered them completely invisi- of the Brewery. Shoulder your-brooms; one looks almost ble. Over this aperture is suspended, from the dome above, the instinctively to see whether or not the brooms are shaped in the figure of a dove. In the morning, the emperor, empress, and form of an anchor. These men have just been cleansing out imperial family, with the court, assist at divine service in the some of the huge receptacles - for malt is a cleanly spirit, and will chapel, at which the metropolitan archbishop, with the principal resent as an injury any attempt to brew it in dirty beds. For clergy, preside ; this service lasts from 11 till 12 o'clock. At this purpose a copious supply of water is a grand essential in a that hour the procession issues from the palace; in front appears brewery, Water, did we say? Oh, do not mention the insipid a priest bearing a lantern ; then others with a cross, banners, and word. .Not a soul in all this establishment would admit it into holy images; the court choristers precede the archbishop and his mouth. “Liquor" is the word, Sir;—we dare say, in the clergy, who are arrayed in gorgeous vestments, with flowing rainy months of winter, draymen and broom-men, brewers, tapbeards; then come the pages and subalterns bearing the colours sters, smiths, farriers, and sample" men, will all be heard of the different regiments of guards; last of all the emperor, fol. deploring the continuance of liquorish weather. lowed by the grand-dukes, and escorted by the great officers of But let us proceed to the counting-house, a range of buildings state, his military staff, generals and courtiers, all bareheaded, which fronts us as we enter the gateway. Here are a host of and apparently impressed with the solemnity of the scene. As soon clerks and collectors; we might fancy that we were not in a as the emperor has taken his position at one of the doors of the brewery but a bank. In one of the rooms, looking down upon pavilion, the archimandrite recites the prayers, and the choristers the busy deskmen below, is a bust of as characteristic a head as sing the responses ; the blessing is performed by plunging a silver one might meet in a day's walk. This is the head of an old cross in the waters, of which a vase is presented to his majesty. servant of the firm, who saved his £20,000 while in his employ. A signal rocket announces the conclusion of the ceremony, and ment; and his bust is placed here, as a kind of presiding genius, the cannon from the fortress again announce to the cives the a perpetual remembrancer and exemplar for his brethren of the beatification of proverbially the most unwholesome waters in all quill who shall come after him. A sharp, shrewd old man, he Christendom. The empress and her court are seated at the must have been in his day ; took care of number one, doubtless, windows of the palace; the foreign ministers, &c., view the pro- yet had a corner in his heart for something more than hiniself. cession from those of the Hermitage, which command the quays; He probably eschewed water, dreading the stomach-ache ; and but, as the ceremony itself lasts for nearly twenty-five minutes, it kept his spirit bland and kindly by an occasionai draught of "twomust be a severe trial for the emperor and his suite to remain so year old.” Only think of a servant in a private establishment long uncovered in this piercing climate. As soon as the actors in accumulating his £20,000! An old fellow died the other day, this curious scene have retired, there is a general rush of the leaving upwards of £70,000, accumulated whilst he was a mescommon people towards the temple ;-mothers are seen plunging senger; but he was a messenger of the House of Commons, and their infants into the sacred opening which has been made in the flourished during the “palmy days," when half-crowns and "gomeriver, while various individuals fill their pitchers with the holy thing more were freely given for seats in the gallery. water and carry it home to their families, undaunted by the severe Talking of old folks and old times, do you know to whom this cold which freezes it during their walk. On the same day, at brewery once belonged ?. It was the property of Thrale, the Constantinople, the Greek patriarch performs a like ceremony. friend of Johnson, and whose house at Streatham was a home for He throws the cross into the sea ; and it is asserted that skilful the Doctor during its owner's life. Thrale's beautiful, clerer, divers eagerly await the operation, and generally succeed in seiz. versatile, volatile wife, married a second time, and, under the ing it before it reaches the bottom.-(From The City of the Italian name of Piozzi, is not without her notability Dr. JohaCzar.)

son was one of Thrale's executors. “I could not,” says Boswell,

“but be somewhat diverted by hearing Johnson talk in a pompous goodly tuns; we shall have a drop of genuine "two-year old.” manner of his new office, and particularly of the concerns of the Now, it ever you wish to enjoy a refreshing drop out of a pewterbrewery, which it was at last resolved should be sold. Lord pot, come here ; first get covered with dust, and nearly choked Lucan tells a very good story, which, if not precisely exact, is with it, and then step hither. Hum ! but this is porter- let us certainly characteristical ; that when the sale of Thrale's brewery have a bit of bread and cheese. Another draught ;-why, this is was going forward, Johnson appeared bustling about, with an ink- admirable !-another-it is exquisite ! One begins to feel quite horn and pen in his button-hole, like an exciseman; and on cheerful,-almost hearty; fine, wholesome, stuff that. Any more being asked what he really considered to be the value of the porter, gentlemen ? Oh! certainly, we shall taste it again ;-twoproperty which was to be disposed of, answered, “We are not year old, is it? Let us have another slice of bread and cheese, here to sell a parcel of boilers and vats, but the potentiality of this porter quite gives one an appetite ! growing rich beyond the dreams of avarice!'"

We are now in a fine lively humour for visiting the rest of the The story is very likely an apocryphal one : but Dr. Johnson establishment. Here then are the mashing-tuns, where the grist, or did certainly sell the " potentiality' of becoming rich-very rich, ground malt, is deposited, to undergo the first process in the whole not certainly " beyond the dreams of avarice," but beyond what art of converting it into liquor. Malt, in its conversion into beer, Thrale, at least, could ever have imagined. The brewery was undergoes eight different specific operations ; it is mashed, boiled, sold to Messrs. Barclay, Perkins, and Co., for £135,000 ; the cooled, fermented, racked, or vatted, and fined, or cleansed. These capital now invested in it is stated to be somewhat about a million operations are, in such an establishment as the one we are now and a half.

visiting, carried on in a vast and magnificent style. The mashFrom out of the counting-house issues a gentlemaniy, affable ing-tuns, the coppers, and the fermenting-tuns, are all “ inland” man, uoder whose guidance we propose to walk over the concern. seas ; there you look down on a dark brown ocean,-here you But our friendly guide might himself be unable to thread his way ascend steps to gaze on a surface of milk-white foam. But have a through all the mazes of this amazing manufactory of “liquor; care of your head -- beware of the carbonic acid gas! Our little at least there accompanies us a shrewd old man in a flannel guide in the flannel jacket told us of a French lady who would jacket, whose office it is to act the "Cicerone" for visiting parties. go up the steps to have a third peep ; but her head became giddy; An intelligent, sharp little man he is, not without a spice of she staggered, she slipped ; she would have fallen disastrously, but humour ; and though, of course, he has “expectations” at the he, albeit a John Bull, and therefore by birth and breeding deficonclusion of the visit, there is nothing in his manner indicative cient in the promptitude of politeness, caught her in his arms and that his attention and quiet kind of garrulity are influenced by restored her to herself. “ considerations.” But where shall we go first? Let us begin Marvellously capacious are the vats, whose contents would float with the beginning, though it may not be in the exact order in the biggest man-of-war in the navy. Thrale, when he had the which a visitor may be conducted over the establishment. brewery, thought it was something of a brag to say that he had

Messrs. Barclay, Perkins, and Co. do not make any malt four vats, each of which held 1,600 harrels, above a thousand for themselves,-they buy it. When the malt arrives, it is hogsheads. There are now one hundred and thirty-six vats, all carried up to the stores by the laborious process of manual | varying in their contents from above 4,000 barrels down to 500. labour. Here the visitor will see the contrast between human There are, on an average, a thousand barrels of beer sent out labour and machinery. The malt, as it arrives, is carried up to daily. One hundred and sixty-two fat sleek horses are employed the stores sack by sack; and at the same moment, and in the in dragging drays to all parts of London. There are a smithy and a same neighbourhood, where this inartificial process is going on, farriery, and a steam-engine, shining like polished silver, and the ground malt is carried from the grinding-mill, at the rate of water-tanks (we beg pardon, “liquor" tanks) pillared high in air, 60 quarters an hour, up an enclosed box or shaft, called a “Jacob's and a railroad for coals, and a world within itself. ladder," and emptied into its proper receptacle. Lift a small Now, kind reader, it were impossible to go out of this lesser door or opening in the shaft—there, you see the little baskets or world into the larger world of London, without stepping into the boxes, full of ground malt, flying up, and, as they revolve, they “ sample aiid tasting a drop of “genuvine good ale. empty themselves, and fill again. Now, why is it that the same How tempting it looks, in those long funnel-shaped glasses ! machinery cannot be made to lift the sacks of malt as they arrive “ Ha! dat ish goot !” “Another glass, sir?" " Aye, to be sure, into the granary, instead of having two or three dozen stout with pleasure !'"There now, that will do-let moderation have the fellows staggering up stairs, and along narrow passages, each with helm in the ship of pleasure.” But we are all in excellent humour a sack on his shoulder? Oh! there is a reason for this ; South with one another. Good bye, gentlemen-hope to have the wark, where the brewery lies, is under the municipal jurisdiction of pleasure of seeing you all again—good bye, good bye !" the “ City," and within these municipal bounds the “ fellowship porters ” have a monopoly, and while sacks continue to be carried on men's shoulders “for hire," they contend that their shoulders should enjoy the privilege. They get two-pence for every sack of The reports of four savages of the Batlapi tribe induced us to malt they carry from below up to the granary ; but Messrs. Bar- halt a day for the purpose of hunting. Leaving the waggons at clay, Perkins, and Co., "argufy" in this way :--These lads have a day-break, attended by these men, we took a north-westerly direcmonopoly, or a privilege, call it what you will ; twopence a sack tion through a park of magnificent camel-thorn trees, many of is no trifle to us, seeing that, on an average, we use (stand aghast, which were groaning under the huge nests of the social grosbeak; Je members of a temperance society) two thousand quarters of whilst others were decorated with green clusters of misletoe, the malt weekly; but then the fellowship porters wo'n't drink a drop bright scarlet berries of which were highly ornamental. We soon of any sort of beer but Barclay, Perkins, and Co.'s, and of that perceived large herds of quaggas and brindled gnus, which contithey consume no inconsiderable quantity: This is, we presume, nued to join each other until the whole plain seemed alive. The what is called “reasoning in a circle, or an argument which clatter of the hoofs was perfectly astounding, and I could compare returns into itself.

it to nothing but to the din of a tremendous charge of cavalry, or Bestowing a passing glance on the huge bins for containing the the rushing of a mighty tempest. I could not estimate the accumalt (there is stowage for 36,000 quarters), we go down to look mulated numbers at less than fifteen thousand; a great extent of at the mill which is crushing the malt, and turning it into “grist.” country being actually chequered black and white with their conWe may here remark the different kinds of malt used (Barclay, gregated masses. As the panic caused by the report of our rifles Perkins, and Co. now brew ale, as well as porter); the pale malt extended, clouds of dust hovered over them; and the long necks for the ale, the brown malt for the porter, and the roasted or of troops of ostriches were also to be seen towering above the heads black malt, which is employed to give the dark colouring. These of their less gigantic neighbours, and sailing past with astonishing different coloured malts are produced by different processes in the rapidity. Groups of purple sassaybys and brilliant red and yellow drying or the making of the malt.

hartebeests likewise lent their aid to complete the picture, which Pshaw! but our pice black coats are becoming odious! Let no must have been seen to be properly understood, and which beggentleman visit this part of the concern in full dress, and no lady gars all attempt at description. The savages kept in our wake, in black silk or satin. What with the dust from the grinding- dexterously despatching the wounded gnus by a touch on the spine mill, and a few “shoulders” from the fellowship porters, as they with the point of an assagai, and instantly covering up the carcase climb the narrow stairs with their twopenny sacks, one is made with bushes, to save them from the voracity of the vultures, which quite a figure. It is dry, choking work, too; one has no heart hung about us like specks in the firmament, and descended with the for conversation ; we listen to all that is told us, but ask few ques- velocity of lightning, as each discharge of our artillery gave token tions. Relief, however, is at hand. Step this way-look at those of prey.-Captain Harris's Expedition into Southern Africa.

room,

AN AFRICAN SCENE.

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