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of bits of cloth together! Muscular paws holding a needle! Poh! CHARACTERISTICS AND PECULIARITIES OF TRADES.

it is preposterous !

Everybody affects to know a tailor in the street. Not his Each trade may be said to have its own peculiar characteristic speech, but his limbs “ bewray” him. He hath a courtier-like --something in physical and mental appearance, and constitution, propensity to bend the knee ; and with a customer he can “hang by which its members or professors may be, speaking generally, a tongue." His knees are indeed miracles of felicitous facility. at once known. Each trade has also its technical dialect—its They can twine, and twine, and twine ; on the street they seem peculiar phraseology-its free-masonry of words and signs, which to be ever longing to be on the stretch. They have a retiring stamp the individuals as belonging to a class. Some of these propensity, for their general inclination is inwards—but like a phrases find their way into the language of common life, and are bashsul man turned bravo, they affect an air of indifference, used, as many things are used, without reference to their origin. and bend backwards or forwards, inwards or outwards. Oh, those Thus individuals, when they feel themselves not quite themselves, miraculous knees ! will say, that they are “all out of sorts :" but nobody but a Has the reader ever observed that the tailor's coat, we mean compositor can enjoy the double meaning of the phrase; and if his dress coat-the coat that is, for the time, the pride of his our readers are curious respecting this double meaning, they will, heart—is always too well made? This may seem paradoxical, but, no doubt, get a full and ample explanation from any unfortunate we think, there is truth in the remark. There is in the tailor's compositor who has been doomed to turn for six months.

coat a jimminess, a mathematical precision of cut, an apparent The trade which presents the most numerous salient points, over-anxiety about the fit, that imparts to it a detestable sort of on which everybody thinks himself or herself qualified to crack accuracy. There is something offensive to good taste even in its a joke, is, of course, that of the tailor. The tailor! "time out perfection. It wholly wants the ease and grace of what we would of mind” the but and target of every witling in the community call a well-made coat. But this is perhaps as much the fault of -the ubiquitous, the mercurial, the speechifying, the all-accom- the man as the making-round shoulders would spoil the bestplished tailor! In London we have, to use the style of a vendor made coat in the world. of bruised oranges and rotten apples, tailors “ of all sorts and all The tailor is a lively, merry fellow, and not unfrequently a sizes, all kinds and all prices." What a stride is there between witty dog. He is much given to social meetings, and in these the tailor of the “east” and the “west” ends! How finely distinguishes himself by a great flow of animal spirits, an amusing diversified and how nicely graduated are the classes —"small by versatility, and, we may add, volubility of tongue. He sings, degrees," but not “ beautifully less," from the aristocrat who spouts, speechifies, talks, and argues, with a spirit and vivacity flourishes in full dress in St. James's Street, to the miserable wholly and peculiarly his own. He is, however, apt to get stitcher for a slop-dealer in Poplar, who may be seen emerging quarrelsome in his cups—the merry meetings of the profession from a dingy door, with his rags fluttering in the breeze, and so very often ending in a general row, preceded by a stormy debate, full of the milk of human kindness, so exclusively occupied in which gives warning of the coming strife. clothing the nakedness of others, that he has apparently got no The tailor is much given to theatricals, and generally prefers time to tack his own duds together! We once saw such a rascal heroic characters. There is, in truth, a dash of heroism and in Fleet-street in the middle of a fine sunshiny day; he was in romance in his own composition, which quite belies the base company with one or two of his species, rather better clothed insinuation that he is a near approach to a decimal fraction, the than himself ; but none of them had the sagacity of the great ninth part of a man. He is fond of the warlike, and delights in body of their brethren, who carefully strap down their trousers, witnessing, or simulating in his own person, this particular to hide the bulge at the knee; they therefore proclaimed them- development of the human constitution. The tailor, in short, selves tailors by every motion of their knee-pans and calves. seems always to have a hankering disposition to "follow to the They evidently soon felt themselves uncomfortable in the public field some warlike lord," although we are not sure that he is gaze ; and slunk up a passage which led to a tap-room.

more guilty than his neighbours of actually perpetrating this But the tailor we wish to describe is not the “ west-end" folly. dandy, or exquisite, who deems it requisite to display in his own Did the reader ever pay any particular attention to his shocproper person all the elegances of a perfect “fit," nor yet the maker's accounts ? We mean did he ever do so, considering ragged wretch whose money, spirit, health, and time, are squan- them abstractly, and merely as specimens of caligraphy. If he dered in the tap-room, and whose very pointless needle seems did, he must have been struck, we think, with their extraordinary ashamed of the rents in its master's clothes. We wish to describe

sameness as regards the hand-writing, or rather scrawling, and the average tailor, who stands between the extremes, and may be the perfect similarity in the particular of orthography, that marks taken as the symbol of his race--the human personification of every one of these interesting documents. the spirit of stitch. First, then, as to his physical characteristics. Let it be observed, however, that we do not speak of your Your genuine tailor is generally a thin, pale personage, with a flashy shoemaker- your fashionable boot and shoe warehouseman, nose which has an upward tendency. If he is diminutive, and whose windows and doors are radiant with plates and bars of dresses tolerably, then he is a smart, dapper man, who looks up polished brass. We do not speak of him, for all his business is in your face with a smirking smile, his knees apparently doing done after a ship-shape fashion. His bills are as smart as copperyou homage. If he is tall, then, in spite of all his efforts to the plate and fine writing can make them. They are all right. contrary, he stands on uneasy legs, and swings about in such Our shoemaker is your respectable old tradesman, who was in a way, that you dread he is about to drop down upon you. business long before shoemakers dreamt of flashy establishments. Whenever we see a robust member of the profession, we feel a His shop is a little dingy place, well filled though, and, in despite difficulty in believing him to be a tailor, and cannot at all associate of its dinginess, exhibiting very marked signs of substantial him with his calling. He is a moving exemplification of an in- wealth. congruity, a practical solecism, a living lie. A stout man a tailor! Our friend himself is a little, stout, thickset, elderly man, ofA thumping piece of mortality devoting its energies to the tacking we must confess it-rather fierce aspect. Have a care of him, ye


dilatory payers ; he is not a man to be trifled with,-his round, at least, two or three young men could scarcely be restrained from full face, partaking much of the complexion of his own leather, to jumping in. But when they saw the monster—and a very large which it seems, in process of time, to bave assimilated, having bending the rod like a willow wand, gradually lose his strength,

fellow he was,-after running away with some fathoms of line, and acquired a sort of light dry brown colour. A leathern apron, a

and sail reluctantly towards the shore, I really thought they would scratch wig, brown also, and a pair of spectacles, raised high on have gone crazy with delight. They jumped about, swore, and his forehead, completes the picture of our shoemaker-our ancient, shouted like mad people, and made such a plunge into the shal

lows to bring him out, that we had well nigh lost him. The scene unpretending shoemaker.

was altogether quite irresistible. But it is with his accounts, his yearly or half-yearly bills, as

“There was no work performed that day in the iron foundry. the case may be, that we have particularly to do on the present Every soul belonging to it, from the superintendant down to the occasion. And we ask, did any man ever see the slightest differ- errand.boy, came forth to swell our train ; and we walked up the

Iser, attended as never Highland chief was, even in the good old ence, excepting perhaps in amount, between the account of one

times of heritable jurisdictions. Nor was this all. A religious such shoemaker as we bave described and another, during, if his procession that is to say, a numerous body of peasants from experience goes so far back, the last half century; and, however some of the villages pear, bound on a pilgrimage to the shrine of different or distant the parties from whom they emanated might St. James, in Starkenback,- happened to descend the hill just as be, are they not all distinguished by precisely the same cramp quite as miraculous as could have been brought about by the saint

I was playing a fish; and the effect produced upon them was hand, and all show a similar spirited independence of orthography, himself. The sound of their psalmody ceased ; the crucifix was as the following

lowered ; and man and woman, boy and maiden, breaking loose

£ s. d. from their ranks, flocked down to ascertain the cause of the pheTo hailing and souling your Bots

3 10 nomenon." To too peaces on your Shos .

13 To pare Shos for the childde



1 10

OTHELLO murders his wife; he gives orders for the murder of To sowling pare Shoos

6 his lieutenant ; he ends by murdering himself. Yet he never loses &c. &c. &c.

the esteem and affection of a Northern reader-his intrepid and We wish we could conveniently exhibit here a fac-simile of this ardent spirit redeeming everything. The unsuspecting confidence

with which he listens to his adviser, the agony with which he If we could, we are very certain the reader would at

shrinks from the thought of shame, the tempest of passions with once recognise it.

which he commits his crimes, and the haughty fearlessness with However ungainly or uncouth our worthy friend's bills may be which he avows them, give an extraordinary interest to his chain appearance, they are always sufficiently correct in the matter Many are inclined to suspect that Shakspeare had been reduced

racter. lago, on the contrary, is the object of universal loathing. of calculation. In this, the main thing, the old boy makes few into an exaggeration unusual with him, and has drawn a monster mistakes. His summations are correct to a farthing. Catch him which has no archetype in human nature. Now, we suspect that erring there!

an Italian audience, in the fifteenth century, would have felt very Wherefore should the baker be such a reckless, wild, and differently. Othello would have inspired nothing but detestation

and contempt. The folly with which he trusts to the friendly proroving blade? Is it because he works in a hot-house ? Or why fessions of a man whose promotion he had detracted—the credulity should the butcher—the “ bold butcher"--go bare-headed, and with which he takes unsupported assertions, and trivial circum. carry his meat in a wooden tray or trough on his shoulder ?

stances for unanswerable proofs—the violence with which he We once saw a collision between a " doctor's boy'

silences the exculpation, till the exculpation can only aggravate his and

misery, would have excited the abhorrence and disgust of the specbutcher's boy: the one had a basket full of little phials, nicely tators. The conduct of Iago they would assuredly have conlabelled ; the other a tray full of meat. After the shock, they demned; but they would have condemned it as we condemn that both turned about and looked at each other, like a couple of of bis victim. Something of interest and respect would have

mingled with their disapprobation. The readiness of his wit, the grinning bull-dogs : but “meat" beat “doctors' stuff” all to

clearness of his judgment, the skill with which he penetrates the pieces, sundry bottles being smashed in the fray. On reviewing dispositions of others and conceals his own, would have ensured to the field of battle, we picked up the neck of a phial, containing a him a certain portion of their esteem.Edinburgh Review. cork, with a label attached, on which was written, " The mixture

INDESTRUCTIBILITY OF MIND. -two tea-spoonsful to be taken every four hours." Taking a

Man, at the age of twenty, retains not a particle of the matter hint from this, we will not present our readers with the whole of in which his mind was invested when he was born. Nevertheless, our “ mixture once, but give it to them in moderate doses. at the age of eighty years, he is conscious of being the same indivi.

dual he was as far back as his memory can go-that is to say,

the period when he was four or five years old. Whatever it be, FLY FISHING AT EISENHAMMER.

therefore, in which this consciousness of identity resides, it cannot The Rev. Mr. Gleig, in his Visit to Bohemia and Hungary, in consist of a material substance, since, if it had been material, it 1937, enjoyed a day's fishing at Eisenhammer :-"A more unpro- must have been repeatedly changed; and the source of identity pitious day for the angler can scarcely be imagined ; for a cold east must have been destroyed. It is, consequently, an ethereal spirit, wiod blew, and from time to time a thin, drizzling rain beat in and as it remains the same, throughout all the alterations that can our faces. Still we determined to make the attempt; and truly take place in the body, it is not dependent on the body for its we had no cause to repent of our resolution. In the course of existence; and is thus calculated to survive the ever-changing four hours, which we devoted to the sport, we caught upwards of frame by which it is encircled. That frame becomes stiff, cold, and ten pounds of trout; the number of fish killed being at the same motionless, when the circulation of the blood ceases; it is contime only eleven,--a clear proof that the Bohemian Iser deserves signed to the earth, and is separated by insects into a thousand just as much praise as Sir Humphrey Davy, in his charming little other forms of matter; but the mind undergoes no such transforbook, has bestowed upon its namesake near Munich. But killing | mation. It is unassailable by the worm. If matter, subject as it the trout constituted by no means the sole amusement which we is to perpetual changes, do not, and cannot possibly, perish, how that day enjoyed. An English fishing-rod and fishing tackle were can the mind perish, which knows of no mutation? There is no objects quite as novel to the good folks of Eisenhammer as they machinery prepared, by which such an object could be accomplished; had been to the citizens of Gabel ; and the consequence was, that nor could machinery be prepared for such a purpose, without an we had the entire population of the village and hamlets round in entire subversion of the laws of nature. But as these laws have our train. When first I hooked a trout, there was a general rush emanated from the wisdom of the Creator, they could not be to the river's side ; the movement being produced, manifestly altered, much less subverted, without involving an inconsistency, enough, by alarm lest the line should break; and, while the into which it is impossible for Divine wisdom to fall.-Dublin animal was floundering and springing about in twelve feet of water | Review, No. I.


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POVERTY. John Bull is certainly a strange specimen of humanity when contrasted It is the usual plea of poverty to blame misfortune, when the ill-finisbed with other nations. It is impossible for one moment to mistake him ; he cause of complaint is a work of their own forging. I will either make my has an air and manner peculiar to himself; he enters the saloon of the hotel fortunes good, or be content they are no worse. If they are not so good as I with a sturdy step and straightforward look, taking no notice of the saluta- would they should have been, they are not so bad as I know they might have tion that foreigners usually make when a stranger enters. John says to been. What though I am not so happy as I desire ? 'tis well I am not sa himself, “ I don't know the fellows, then why should they bow to me? or if wretched as I deserve.- Warwick's Spare Minutes. they choose to do so, that is no reason why I should bow to thein!" You can read his supreme contempt for foreigners and everything foreign on his

CHOICE OF A PURSUIT. brow. He has an unconquerable antipathy to taking off his hat, either in Every day, every hour of our existence raises some new topic which saluting in the street, or entering a public room. Hence, from a neglect of awakens a rational curiosity to discuss and master it; the difficulty lies ia this easily adopted custom of the Continent, he gets the credit of being a finding the ability to comprehend, illustrate, and embody it. He who purmannerless cub. In England, a gentleman never thinks of taking off his sues unsubstantial ornament, like vapoury shadows will find himself mocked hat, except it be to salute a lady; whereas all over the Continent, the custom by perpetual delusions, till he sinks into languor, and at last into impoprevails, from the highest to the lowest rank. How an English bar-maid tence. The struggle to outdo nature, or give a sickly substitute for it, which would stare if my Lord This or That were to take off his hat, and make her may secin more beautiful to a corrupt taste, ends not merely in disappointa profound salutation in walking past her little realm! Yet so it is ment, but in despair.-Sir E Bryiiges. throughout the Continent; and the Englishman who, froin ignoravce, or,

ETIQUETTE ON THE SCAFFOLD. most likely, from thinking it humbug, neglects this formality, is at once set down as entirely deficient in the breeding of a gentleman.—Dr. Cumming's

On the 9th of March, 1640, in pursuance of a sentence passed by Cromwell Notes of a Wanderer.

and the Commonwealth, the Royalist leaders, the Duke of Hamilton, the

Earl of Holland, and the Lord Capel, were executed in front of Westminster THE REWARD OF TOIL.

Hall. They were brought to the block and beheaded one at a time, each of What men most covet, wealth, distinction, power,

them addressing the people; and the Lord Capel being the last of the three, Are baubles nothing worth, that only serve

as soon as he ascended the scaffold, he looked very vigorously about, and To rouse us up, as children in the schools

asked whether the other lords had spoken to the people with their hats on Are roused up to exertion. The reward

and being told that they were bare, he gave his hat to his servant, and then Is in the race we run, not in the prize ;

with a clear and strong voice he spoke.—Clarendon.
And they the few, that have it ere they earn it,
Having by favour or inheritance

These dangerous gifts placed in their idle hands,

“Grey hairs," says the wise man, "are a crown of glory," if the owner of And all that should await on worth well triod,

thein“ is found in the way of righteousness." All in the glorious days of old reserved

“A hoary head, with sense combined,
For manhood most mature, or reverend age,

Clainis veneration from mankind;
Know not, nor ever can, the generous pride

But-if with folly joined-it bears
That glows in him who on himself relics

The badge of ignominious years."
Entering the lists of life.-Rogers.


The milk of the camel forms a prominent article of diet amongst the There is, or ought to be, a commerce or interchange of counsel and know

Arabs. They drink it either fresh or sour. They are fond of sour inilk, and ledge as well as of other things; and where men have not these of their ouen

it seems that the milk of the camel turtis sour sooner than that of most other growth, they should thankfully receive what may be imported from other

animals. Butter and cheese are very seldom made of this milk, It is quarters.- Wollaston's Religion of Nature.

remarkable that some of the tribes refuse to sell milk to the towns-people,

the epithet “milk-seller" being regarded as a term of great opprobrium. It AN IDLE MAN'S BOOK.

is also observable, that the Arabs not only drink the camel's milk thetaMontaigne's Essays have been called by a cardinal, “ The Broviary of selves, but give great quantities of it to their horses. Foals also are weaped Idlers;" it is therefore the book for many men.

from their dams in thirty days, and for the next hundred days are fed

exclusively on camel's milk; and during the ensuing hundred, they receive A PHILOSOPHER'S CONVERSATION.

a bucket of milk along with their barley. A philosopher's ordinary language and admission in general conversations

TONGUE FOR TONGUE. or writings ad populum, are his watch compared with his astronomical time-piece. He sets the former by the town-clock, not because he believes

During the war between England and Spain, commissioners on both sides it right, but because his ncighbours and his cook go by it.-Coleridge's

were appointed to treat of peace. The Spanish commissioners proposed Table Talk.

that the negotiations should be carried on in the French tongue, observing

sarcastically, that the gentlemen of England could not be ignorant of the THE BORROWED PETTICOAT.

language of their fellow-subjects, their queen being Queen of France as well Mr. Laing, who was steward to General Sharp, of Houston, near Uphall, as England. Nay, in faith, gentlemen," replied Dr. Dale, one of the had a terrier dog, which gave many proofs of his sagacity. Upon one occa- English commissioners, “ the French is too vulgar for a business of that sion, his wife lent a white petticoat to a neighbour, in which to attend a importance; we will therefore, if you please, rather treat in Hebrew, the christening. The dog observed his mistress make the loan, and followed language of Jerusalem, of which your master calls himself king, and in the woman home who borrowed the article; never quitted her, but accom- which you must of course be as well skilled as we are in French."-Book panied her to the christening, leaped several times on her knee; nor did he Table Talk. lose sight of her till the piece of dress was at last restored to Mrs. Laing.

OF HONOUR. During the time this person was at the christening, she was much afraid

A person, who had lent Mr. Fox a sum of money upon bond, under very the dog would attempt to tear the petticoat off her, as she well knew the object of his attendance.-Anecdotes of Dogs.

pressing circumstances, having learned that Mr. Fox was in possession of

cash, went and urged the payment of his debt. Mr. Fox told him he should ENNUI.

be happy to do it, but that he was bound to pay some debts of honour. A gentleman in Paris remarked that the English had no word to express

Upon this the creditor thrust his bond into the fire, and said, “ Now, sir,

mine is a debt of honour!" “ ennui,” which he thought the more remarkable as they were so subject

“By land or sea to that evil. “No," replied le Comte de L., " in England it is conceived to

Honour you.'ll find the universal plea:
be the natural state, and synonymous with existence, and therefore no
word is requisite."-A. Burr's Journal.

The cit, who cheats behind the counter-board,
Pretends as much to honour as my loril!"

Boilcau, quoted by Bucke. A FAVOURITE SERVANT. “ How long has Jervis, your butler, lived with you ?" asked I of Lord

KOORDISH ESTIMATE OF THE VALUE OF LIFE. Saltwick, Why, he lived nine years with me ; and, since then, I have The mehmaunder told me a man of a certain tribe had the day before lived five years with him," replied his lordship.-The Fergusons.

murdered his father, “He will, of course, be put to death," I observed.

"I do not think he will," said the mehmaunder; "he is himself heir, and SWANS.

there is no one to demand the blood." " Will not the prince of the country During severe cold weather, swans assemble together, and form a sort of take care that this parricide does not escape?" "The waly," he coliy commonwealth. When the frost threntens to usurp their domain, they replied, "cannot interfere in a case like this, unless appealed to; and after congregate, and dash the water with all the extent of their wings, making a all, if the affair be agitated, the murder will be compounded." Among noise which is heard very far, and which, whether in the right or the day, Koords, who are always at war, the life of an active young man is much too is louder in proportion as it freezes more intensely. Their efforts are so valuable to be taken away on account of a dead old one.-Captain Mignan's effectual, that there are few instances of a flock of swans having quitted Winter Journey. the water in the longest frosts; though a single swan, which has strayed. from the general body, has sometimes been arrested by the ice in the London: WILLIAM SMITH, 113, Fleet Street. Edinburgh: FRASER middle of the canals.-M. Grouvelle.

& Co. Dublin: CURRY & Co.-Printed by Bradbury & Erans, Whitefriars.

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these papers.

iron balls bound together, somewhat in the form of a bunch of THE BRITISH NAVY.

grapes. Canister shot is a lot of still smaller iron balls inclosed in a tin case or canister, and the double-headed shot is

a casting of two half spheroids connected by a strong iron bar, "With roomy decks, and guns of mighty strength,

and used for firing at masts and rigging, for the purpose of disWhose low-laid mouths each mounting billow laves, Deep in her draught, and warlike in her length,

mantling an opponent. The size and weight of the materials She seems a sea-wasp flying o'er the waves."-DRYDEN.

composing each of these, we shall presently describe. BEFORE entering on a general description of the ship's arma- And first of the guns. The form of those in general use, as well ment, it will be proper to explain, once for all, the meaning of as the carriages on which they are mounted, is pretty accurately the popular terms used in gunnery, in order to enable the un- represented by the small brass cannon exhibited in toy-shops. initiated reader to understand their application on this and other Before being turned out of the lathe, after boring, the piece is occasions, when the mention of them may occur in the course of lined by the workmen into four equal divisions, and a notch cut

at the breech and muzzle, to denote the quarterings; this is done Guxs are the ordnance with which ships are armed ; they are to assist the marksman in taking aim. By casting the eye along never called cannon or artillery, neither are the missiles projected the side notches, and bringing these to bear upon the object therefrom called cannon-balls : such terms are not to be found in aimed at, the height or elevation is ascertained, but not the the seaman's vocabulary.

direction ; for the piece being conical, such line is not parallel to Guns vary very much in length, weight, and calibre, and some- the axis, but converging thereto; it therefore becomes necessary what in form, but in the latter respect they all approach to the to take another view along the top of the gun *, and bring the shape of a cone, the largest and strongest part being the breech, notches to bear on the object for direction, so that in fact two near to which the gunpowder in exploding exerts the greatest operations are required to point the gun. force, and gradually tapering until the charge is ejected at the Now, to the artilleryman, who practises upon dry land, and whose muzzle. It may be therefore laid down as a general rule, that a platform is immovable, this is not very material ; because, after cone is the most perfect form for a piece of ordnance, and that he has once taken his elevation, he may dispense with any further raised rings, swell muzzles, or ornaments, add to the weight, and trouble on that account as long as the object fired at is stationary, but little to the strength or utility of a gun; being only useful for or not materially increasing or diminishing its distance ; but to affording facilities in lashing or securing it, and often adopted for the sea gunner, whose platform, being the ship's deck, is conno other purpose than to improve the symmetry of its appear-stantly undulated by the motion of the waves, or inclined more or ance. All ships' cannon are therefore called indifferently guns, less according to the force of the wind, this double operation is except CARRONADES ", another sort of ordnance, differing in many | perplexing in the extreme. When he has secured the elevation, essential properties, being short pieces of large calibre, and com- and fixed his quoin (a species of wedge) under the breech of the paratively light weight, calculated for the upper decks of ships, or gun, he finds that the ship's rapid motion, or an alteration of her the general armament of small vessels, which are not of sufficient line of progress, has made a considerable deviation in his line of stability to sustain heavy guns. The carronade was designed by direction ; and when that is adjusted by training the piece, a look the late Mr. Millar of Dalswinton, and introduced by his friend

at the side notches will convince him that the elevation must be General Melville, about the year 1779. They take their name again amended : and thus considerable time is lost in the fruitless from the Carron iron-works in Stirlingshire, where they were

endeavour to accomplish both matters, so that very often the gun originally cast, and where all the iron ordnance used by Govern- is fired at random, and the shot thrown away. ment is now manufactured.

It is remarkable that so obvious an impediment as this preThe term Shot is used indifferently for every species of missile, sented to gun-practice at sea, was never remedied until nearly the distinguished as round shot, grape shot, canister shot, double- close of last war, particularly as the means for doing so were headed shot, and chain shot, which latter has been discontinued palpably simple, and had been, in fact, promulgated by Robins in the British service for many years, but is still used by foreigners. in a paper entitled, “On pointing or directing of Cannon to strike Round shot is as nearly spherical as it can be produced by casting, distant Objects,” published in his “ Mathematic Tracts" in 1761. as its name implies. Grape shot is composed of a number of Indeed, so far back as 1731, the manner of obviating this impedi.

ment, produced by the conical form of a gun, is recommended in * When carronades were first cast, they were all of sixty-eight pounder

Gray's Treatise of Gunnery," in the following words :—“ But calibre, and called smashers. One of the first ships armed with them was the Rainbow, and afterwards the Glatton, 50, Captain, now Admiral, Sir when the object is so near that you can take aim (which always Henry Trollope, who, at his pressing request, was permitted to substitute happens in firing point-blank, or in battering walls) you need Emashers for the eighteen-pounder long guns on the lower deck of those ships. Their superiority was established shortly afterwards, when in the first ship only dispart your piece, by fixing notched sticks, or something of he captured a French frigate, and in the Glatton beat off six French vessels that kind, on its muzzle or trunnion rings, and of such lengths that had purposely come out of the Texel, anticipating the easy capture of the British ship. Carronades were adopted in the navy about the year

* This vicw along the notches on the top of the gun is called the The 1792 , after a tedious correspondence between the Boards of Admiralty and Line of Metal.” When adopted it gives an elevation more or less according

to the difference in diameter between the breech and the muzzle.

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VOL. 1.


Bradbury and Evans, Printers, Whitefriars.

(heights) as to equal the gun's thickness at the base ring." guns, and is therefore denominated a seventy-four gun ship. The Again : “ Some sort of rule might also be contrived for directing principal battery is on the lower deck, and, as the whole twenty

. guns in sea engagements, such as viewing by sights raised, on eight pieces of ordnance there arranged are precisely alike, a ordnance, to a just height near the trunnion and muzzle rings. description of one will suffice. If a sea gunner would accustom himself to use them on all The length of these pieces is pine feet and a half, their weight occasions, and had capacity enough to make reasonable allow. between fifty-five and fifty-six cwt.; they cannot be cast of exactly ances, he would find them of very great service in time of action.” the same weight, and therefore, roundly speaking, they are esti.

Notwithstanding all this, the generality of naval officers--we mated at the latter sum. The carriage weighs eight cwt. one gr. may say the whole, with the exception of the present Admiral six lbs.; the rope, blocks, and other matters connected with it, Sir P. Vere Broke*, then captain of the Shannon frigate, and Sir weigh above one cwt. more, so that altogether the mounted gun John Pechellt, commanding the St. Domingo about the close of may be taken at sixty-five cwt. The distance charge used for the last war-were either ignorant, or entirely disregarded this essen- longest range, with a single shot, is one-third the weight of the tial point ; which is the more remarkable, as many were educated latter, or ten lbs. eleven oz. of coarse-grained powder, and this is in the Naval College at Portsmouth, an institution established inclosed in a flannel bag, called a cartridge *, tied at the end, and expressly for the purpose of affording to cadets the instruction also in the middle, to preserve its oblong shape. For decreased adapted for their profession, and where both the theory and prac. distance and close quarters the charge is diminished to six lbs., tice of gunnery were taught.

and when double shotting with two round shot, or a round and The gun is fixed upon its carriage, or rather laid thereon, being grape shot (a favourite charge), to four lbs. This gun is capable suspended by two strong projecting pieces near the balance of its of projecting two shot through the sides of a ship of equal force centre, denominated truonions, and these are covered over with when within point blank distance. The various duties of the iron patches called cap-squares, secured by forelocks; the piece is thirteen men and a boy, which compose the crew of this gun, we thus at liberty to be oscillated with slight exertion, and to have shall describe under " Exercise.". its extremities raised or depressed at pleasure ; this is performed The length to which a long thirty-two pounder recoils upon a at the breech by means of quoins or wedges sliding upon a bed of level platform has been ascertained to be eight feet, but as this is wood, which latter may be removed to lower the breech to the inconvenient, and moreover unnecessary, because no more recoil greatest extent, and elevate the muzzle as far as the port hole is required than just sufficient to bring the muzzle within the portwill admit.

hole, for the greater facility of loading, it is limited to the extent The carriage is formed of strong side-pieces of elm called of between three and four feet by the breechen, a stout rope, eight brackets, which are bolted to oaken axle-trees, resting on wooden inches in circumference, the strain upon which is very considertrucks, for the convenience of moving the whole back and fore. able when the gun gets warm, for it then recoils with greater The gun is discharged by means of a lock screwed on to the side violence t, and the force is increased when the platform becomes of a vent-patch near the touch-hole, and its recoil is limited by a inclined by the heel of the ship, when fired from the weather side. stout piece of rope called a breechen, which is rove through a ring The range of the thirty-two pounder, with a full charge, and at the breech, the ends being secured to bolts on each side of the point blank, single shotted, is about three hundred and fifty yards. port-hole. The gun is moved (or run, as it is called,) in or out By elevating the gun to the greatest extent that the port-hole of the port by means of tackles, and more nicely adjusted by will admit (about eleven degrees), it is increased to two thousand direction of the captain of the gun (the marksman) by handspikes: five hundred yardst, and at one thousand yards very good practice, the process of loading, pointing, firing, spunging, &c., we shall as it is called, may be made ; that is, the shot directed by a skil. describe under the head " Exercise.''

ful marksman within the rim of a target, eight or ten feet square, Ships aro rated according to their size and complement of men, with one degree or a little more of elevation. but third-rates, such as we are describing, are denominated 70's, The grape (never used but at close quarters, for they will not 72's, 74's, 76's, or 78's, (eighty-gun ships are second-rates,) penetrate the sides of stout ships,) are formed of nine cast balls according to the actual number of cannon mounted. The follow of three lbs., covered with painted canvas, and tied round a spike ing is the regulation :

having an iron bottom of the calibre of the piece ; the weight is "The ships and vessels of her Majesty's fleet shall be established thirty-four lbs. one oz. ; the lashing is torn away by the explosion with such proportion, and nature of ordnance, as the Lords Com- of the powder, and they spread as they leave the gun, proving missioners of the Admiralty may from time to time direct, in highly destructive in cutting the masts, sails, and rigging, penepursuance of such regulations as her Majesty may make in that trating the sides of small vessels, or against boats. behalf.

Canister shot, for thirty-two pounders, consist of seventy iron Although her Majesty's ships and vessels are rated according balls of eight oz. inclosed in a tin case, and they are used against to their complements, they shall be denominated as to their men or boats unsheltered, or against troops ; and for this purpose ordnance, according to the number of guns and carronades which bags of musket-balls, six hundred in a bag, are also used, which they actually carry.” "-Naval Instructions, p. 2.

being fired from a broadside of guns, produce a shower of destruc During the last war, it was the custom to distinguish ships, tion fatal to all within its reach. The double-headed shot will and to rate them in classes, as follows :--120's, 100's, 98's, 84's, range with tolerable accuracy up to six hundred or seven hundred 80's, 74's, 64's, 50's, 38's, 36's, 32's, and so on; and the ships yards, but not to penetrate a ship's side, and they are generally always carried several (sometimes 15 or 20) more guns than were directed at the masts and rigging. So much for the lower battery: thus expressed; but such a practice afforded no clue to the real the next, upon the main deck, is composed of thirty long eighteen. force of the ship. In foreigo navies the plan is still continued, pounders, and these guns, although not much inferior in their and some of the American rated 76's carry upwards of 100 guns. range, are greatly so in their effect, on account of the reduced

Since these papers were commenced, a new scale of armament weight of the missile, it being a law in projectiles that, with prohas been promulgated by the Lords of the Admiralty, to be hence- portionate charges, and the same elevation and windage—the forth adopted in all her Majesty's ships. It is a very great resistance of the air to bodies passing through it, is as the squares improvement, assimilating as nearly as possible the calibre on all of their diameters, but the weight of the bodies, or power to over. the decks, and giving to every vessel some guns capable of dis- come such resistance, increases with their density, being as the charging shells horizontally. We shall hereafter refer particularly cubes of their diameters. Heavy missiles (their form being alike) to this alteration, and the improvement it is calculated to effect; but for the present confine our description to the old armament, * Formerly strong paper cartridges were used with flannel bottoms; the upon which the calculations we have already set forth, as to adoption of entire flannel is a great improvement, not being so liable to weights, &c., are founded.

tear and to spill the powder, or to leave ignited fragments in the gun when (" London Saturday JOURNAL," No. XII.,) mounts exactly 74 piece of ordnance should recoil with greater violence, and consequently Our vessel, as we have already stated in our Fifth Article, discharged:

† No satisfactory reason has ever been shown why a cannon or any other • The officer who captured the American frigate, Chesapeake, in such project the shot with greater force, when it becomes heated. Some have attrigallant style; an exploit to be attributed to the care with which he had buted this to the warmth of the metal acting upon the powder, and making trained his crew to the practice of gunnery. A single broadside threw the it stronger; but guns are discharged so rapidly that such effect must be enemy into confusion, killed or wounded the principal officers, drove the very small, and insufficient to produce the effect. men from their quarters, and enabled him to carry her, by boarding, in In situations where the gun can be elevated up to forty-five degrecs, fifteen minutes.

much longer range might be obtained, probably little short of three miles, † This officer published a small tract in 1814, giving ample directions on there are many cases on record where shot have been projected to that this and some other important points of practical sea gunnery.

distance; but their force is then spent.

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