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will also penetrate deeper, for shot not only penetrate in propor- of fine powder, and several cwt. of lead, for making more, when tion to their diameter, but as the squares of their velocities. The these are exhausted. advantage of larger calibre moreover descends to the grape, When the reader becomes acquainted with the imposing force canister, &c., all which are composed of heavier materials. which a ship possesses, not only as regards her artillery, but

The eighteen-pounders on the main deck battery are nine feet capable of being detached under cover of her guns, or, if need be, long, and forty cwt. Their distance charge of powder is six lbs., to a considerable distance, he will the more fully appreciate the gradually reduced to four lbs., the lowest three lhs. The carriage value of fleets, which contain within themselves the elements for is six cwt., and the tackling, breeching, &c., about one cwt., making successful attacks upon places that are not strongly fortified ; and altogether forty-seven cwt. The recoil (about six feet six inches it will also account for the conquests we have made and retained on a level platform) is regulated on the same principle as already by our naval supremacy, in all parts of the world. An old described, the circumference of the breechen to sustain the shock author has truly remarked, that he who commands the sea will being five and a half inches, and this is often broken, or the bolts always be obeyed on shore ;" and it is a fact, that, in the year that secure it to the ship's side drawn out, by the violence of the 1747, the Dutch, with a squadron of ships, and 4000 troops on recoil. The grape for these guns is composed of balls of one lb. board, alarmed the whole coast of France, giving employment to eight oz., and weighs nearly sixteen lbs. The canister contains full 100,000 soldiers, who were marched and countermarched from forty. two balls of six oz., and the bag of musket-balls about four point to point, and harassed extremely, whilst the squadron sailed hundred. The range of 18's, 24's, and 32's, not varying very alongshore, now threatening one position and now another. But much, is generally taken under one head, called the range of long the estimation in which a ship of war should be considered, is guns. The crew of the eighteen-pounder consists of ten men and more strongly portrayed by Monsieur Dupin, than in any lanà boy. We next arrive at the two nine-pounders on the fore- guage that we can express it ; we shall therefore give a translation castle ; these are eight and a half feet long, and weigh twenty-three of his words. “ If we would appreciate the real force of a ship of cwt. one qtr. The full charge is three lbs. of powder, reduced to war, we must not say a ship is in battle a floating battery, with two lbs. four oz., the lowest one lb. eight oz. The windage of which we can securely kill or wound more than a fourth, or a fifth, these and the other long guns, already described, being great, is or a tenth of the seamen of another ship of equal force. We the reason for such large charges of powder, for a considerable should say a modern ship of war is a floating battery, which can portion of its expansive force is wasted by passing off around the only be compelled to yield to batteries of the same description. sides of the shot. The carriage of the nine-pounder weighs four It is a fortress which is able to resist the sea, in all seasons, in the cwt., and the breechen is four and a half inches, weighing with the midst of every tempest. It is a fortress which transports itself tackles about half a cwt. ; being altogether about twenty-eight with a rapidity infinitely superior to that of the lightest troops of cwt. The capacity of this gun is much less than the heavier ones a land army, in such a way, as to run over a fourth part of the below, and its range smaller, for the reasons already explained ; great circle of the globe in less time than a continental army can it is principally used for firing at suspicious vessels when in chase, pass from Spain to Poland, or from France to Russia. Now, to oblige them to heave-to (stop) to undergo an examination. when such immense marches are undertaken, the naval army The balls in the grape-shot for the nine-pounder weigh thirteen experiences neither fatigues, nor privations, nor wants, nor the oz., and the whole complete seven lbs. six oz. The canister epidemics which destroy so many land armies. Without accident contains forty-four of three oz., and the bag of musket-balls about to her crew a ship of war passes the winter in the midst of the two hundred. The crew of the nine-pounder consists of eight polar ice, in a degree of cold exceeding that which caused the men and a boy.

destruction of the finest army that modern times have seen. In The seven carronades on each side of the quarter-deck are of short, a naval force not only transports itself, exempt from sufferthirty-two ponnder calibre, four feet long, and weighing seventeening and fatigue, it also transports the land army, and communicwt. "The full charge is one-twelfth of the shot's weight, or two cates to it its own movements. By means of it the powers who lbs. ten oz. ; the immense difference between this and ten lbs. have only a small number of soldiers, are enabled to multiply them eleven oz., the full charge of the long gun, is, first, on account of by sudden and unexpected disembarkations, on the vulnerable

the smaller windage, and secondly, that these pieces are not points of an enemy's coast.” . designed to act at long ranges, but principally for close quarters,

when, owing to their great calibre, they are much more destruc- EXPLANATION OF SOME TERMS IN NAUTICAL tive than long guns, for a long gun of this weight would only take

GUNNERY. a shot of six lbs. Carronades are not mounted on carriages like guns, but on

WEIGHT OF METAL signifies the weight of iron which the slides, weighing six cwt. two qtrs. fourteen lbs., on these they are

whole of the guns are capable of projecting at one round from worked, with great facility and quickness, by seven men and a

both sides, when single shotted. boy; and, when not in use, these slides are so arranged as to

BROADSIDE Weight of Metal means the same discharged take up but little space across the deck. The point blank range from one side only, and in large ships amounts to just half of of a thirty-two pounder carronade is two hundred and fifty yards, which traverse all around, and can be discharged on either side,

the former. In open vessels, armed with guns on circular sweeps, and its long range, at five degrees elevation, one thousand yards,

In short, which is about the range of a long gun, with one degree of eleva: the weight of metal is included in both broadsides. tion only; giving the latter a far greater facility of aiming broadside weight of metal means the weight that can be projected

from one side. correctly in distant firing. There is no specified reduced charge for this piece, but the charge is generally reduced as the gun also the diameter of the shot. Thus we speak of a “ship’s

CALIBRE, or caliber, is the diameter of the bore or barrel, and warms, and sometimes it is loaded with two shots, which is a dangerous practice, and strains the tackling and ship's side. As calibre” by the known weight which her armament represents. this gun has but a small recoil, its breeching is very stout, being

In. dec. pts. nine inches in circumference, notwithstanding which it is fre

The calibre of an 84-pounder is 10 00 quently broken. The shot of different sorts used for carronades,


8 05 are precisely similar to those fired from the long guns.


6 84 Having now described the nature and capability of the artillery


6 41 on board, we shall enumerate the various weapons supplied for


5 82 the use of the boarders, and small-armed men, postponiog the


5 29

12 manner of distributing them to be described under the head of

4 62 Exercise." Over and above the muskets of the marines, one


4 20 to each individual, one hundred muskets and bayonets, with


3 66

3 20 cartridge boxes, &c., complete, are allowed for arming the seamen. These are somewhat lighter than soldiers' muskets, being only


3 11 eleven lbs. four oz. Besides these, there are seventy pairs of


2 01

} pistols, weighing six lbs. eight oz. per pair, two hundred cutlasses

1 80 about five lbs. each, one hundred boarding-pikes, seven feet long, The reader will observe that sea ordnance is always distinweighing four lbs., and sixty pole-axes, or tomahawks, weighing guished by the above enumeration of weight, there being no such seven lbs. each. Seven thousand musket-ball cartridges, and two guns in the British service as 48-pounders, or 74-pounders, as thuasund pistol ditto, are supplied for the above, with some casks frequently stated by persons palming their assumed knowledge on


the ignorant. This is one of the many touchstones by which

THE ART OF PUFFING pretension to nautical information is easily detected.

In order to afford facility in loading, the diameter of the shot is The skill, ingenuity, and profound knowledge of the weaker always somewhat smaller than the bore of the piece, and this points of human credulity brought into play in the exercise (now difference is styled

universal) of puffing, places it at once in the rank of an art. Windage, being usually thirty decimal parts of an inch in Indeed, it had attained that distinction seventy years ago ; for guns, and half that quantity in carronades, but varying materially, Dr. Johnson writes on "The Art of Advertising" in the fortieth owing to the rusting of the shot, its inequality of surface, or mal number of “ The Idler," and says, “ The trade of advertising is formation in the original casting:

now so near perfection, that it is not easy to propose any improve. The Axis is, as its name implies, an ideal line supposed to run ment.” But when he was congratulating the puffers of his day along the centre of the bore.

on the perfection to which they had brought their art, it was, in Point-Blank is a term often confounded with horizontal, or reality, only in its infancy. The man whom he mentions as rather used to imply horizontal firing, but it signifies that the gun advertising “ a wash-ball that had the wonderful quality of giving is directed straight to the object, the mark aimed at being on a an exquisite edge to the razor," is immeasurably surpassed by the plane with the axis, which may be either above or below the most common-place productions of the present generation of horizon.

puffers : and the vendor of “the beautifying fluid” he records Point-BLANK Distance is therefore no fixed measure, although "who, with a generous abhorrence of ostentation, confesses that it is generally implied by the space of three hundred yards, being it will not restore the bloom of fifteen to a lady of fifty," would the distance the majority of guns are capable of projecting their be utterly ashamed of his modesty had he lived to witness the shot in a straight line, before the action of gravity becomes percep. chemico-literary efforts of that genius whose “ Macassar oil" tible ; but this space varies not only with the quality of the guns, covers bald heads with luxuriant locks, and fills newspapers with but the amount of the charge of powder and nature of the missile. attestations of the fact. In short, if advertising was an art in

HORIZONTAL Firing presumes the gun to be discharged when Johnson's time, it has become, in the present day, one of the the axis is parallel to the surface of the water, and when the shot | finest of the fine arts. will (within the point-blank distance) strike any object if not Resources of so high a character, and of such infinite variety, higher than the platform from which it is fired. When the distance are drawn upon for the exercise of this art, that there is scarcely is greater it becomes necessary to resort to :

a branch of the sciences or a department of literature which is ELEVATION, which is attained by sinking the breech of the not employed in it. A physician, for instance, whose practice gun, and pointing the axis above the object, so that the shot may scarcely pays for the shoeing of the horses to his carriage (a puff describe a parabola or curve (counteracting the action of gravity upon wheels), writes a book upon physiology, or the measles, and during its flight), and alighting upon the target. The amount of may, perchance, like Byron, " wake one morning and find himself elevation necessary for the distance, which is either measured or famous." An elaborate puff in a dozen volumes octavo, consistassumed, is known by reference to tables calculated for guns and ing of an English version of a Greek play, with notes, (aided by charges of all descriptions, and founded on the mean of a set of a laudatory critique in a leading review by the same hand), bas practical experiments.

been known to translate the translator from a lean rectory to a Sights, or more properly speaking, disparts, are now inva- fat bishopric; and Mr. Robert Warren, of number thirty in the riably tixed on the guns, on the top of the second reinforce ring Strand, owes his celebrity and his affluence as much to the black (about the middle of the piece), in ships whose guns are dis- muses as to the less ethereal article in which he trades; for, charged through port-holes. In open vessels, and steamers with from the anthology he has published from time to time, may be heavy guns on circular sweeps, they should be placed on the top selected epigrams better than Martial's, and lyrics equal to of the muzzle. Wherever placed, the height is easily obtained by Moore's:--so excellent indeed, that it becomes a question whether measuring the gun at the breech, and the spot selected for the anything that poets have sung in praise of love and war surpasses sight, and setting up half the difference of the diameter, which the verses which have been written to immortalise-blacking. gives a line parallel with the axis of the piece at a single view, The grand end and aim of puffing is, of course, notoriety, and and dispenses with the necessity for referring to the side notches. never did any invention so completely work out its object. Some

Sighis are made further available by means of a sliding pillar, men are celebrated for their greatness, either of soul or achieve. on which is engraved a scale graduated to tangents of degrees; ment; others again become celebrated (by dint of the utmost and thus as much elevation as the carriage and the port will admit perseverance in puffing) merely for their notoriety; among the can be set whenever required, regulated by the table of ranges, the former we may number the Duke of Wellington and Lord Byron; distance being measured or assumed.

with the latter must be classed a famous auctioneer and the proThe space between the graduated lines upon the sliding pillar prietor of “ Dalby's Carminative.” Now, as to mere notoriety

, is governed by the length between it and the dis part patch, and there is no question but the auctioneer is nearly as well known the scale is formed by the following rule :-Multiply the length by name to multitudes of readers as is the hero of Waterloo

. in feet by twenty-two, the tangent of one degree to one foot being Nay, even in the matter of greatness, the comparison bolds decimal twenty-two, or very nearly so; and observing this ratio good; for frequent perusals of the hammer-man's advertisements the product will be the distance between each degree upon the have convinced us that he is as great in his walk of life, – that is scale, which may afterwards be graduated to half and quarter to say, in auctioneering—as the great captain” is eminent in degrees.

The principle described is that known as “ Millar's Sight,” Hence, we need hardly add, Dr. Johnson was quite wrong : which is simple and as good as any, and this the sort usually for the trade of advertising has been improved upon, and 69 selected. The sights are fitted by workmen from the gun-whart, extensively, we boldly affirm, as to have reached its acme. It but most officers take the precaution to test their accuracy by the may be just possible some century hence to travel faster than one above rule, or by constructing a mathematical figure.

now does on the Birmingham railway ; future voyagers may get to America in one week, instead of two, or lately six ; and perhaps

some future Watt may construct a machine to teach little children Or this fair volume which we“ World” do name,

spelling, or to work out astronomical calculations, by means of If we the sheets and leaves could turn with care,

cog-wheels; but the art of puffing is, we again assert, positively Of Him who it corrects, and did it frame,

incapable of further improvement ; for to such a pitch has it We clear might read the art and wisdom rare,

arrived, that it is impossible to eat, to drink, to walk, to ride

, Find out His power, which wildest powers doth tame, to dress, to read, to write, or (since the invention of the patent His providence extending everywhere ;

respirators) to breathe, without encountering a puff

. His justice, which proud rebels doth not spare,

A double sheet of puffs is necessary to every Englishman's breakIn every page, no period of the same :

fast. We eat our dinners off so many vehicles for the puffs of the But silly we, like foolish children, rest

late respected Mr. Wedgewood. Every possible variety of bere; Well pleas’d with colour'd vellum, leaves of gold,

rage, from champagne to humble porter, is contained in a vessel Fair dangling ribbands, leaving what is best,

adorned with advertisements, whether stuck on a Burgundy bottle, On the great writer's sense, ne'er taking hold;

or engraved on a pewter pot. We cannot walk through a single Or if by chance, we stay our minds on aught,

street without observing that it is lined with puffs, either exhi

. It is some picture on the margin wrought.

bited in shop-windows, or inscribed upon brass plates ; the dead Drummond of Hawthornden. walls are plastered with puffs, and the trottoirs are pared with





settle upon us,


them. We cannot ride in an omnibus or a cab without finding cloak, and his faithful sword in his hand. He approaches the an advertisement hung up in it, or travel a few miles into the window, defended with strong bars on the outside and shutters country, without encountering the persevering efforts of wall within. But the shutters are gently unclosed, and the lovely chalkers. As to dress, we are covered all over with puffs from Spaniard appears : her trembling voice awakes the low echoes of the crown of the head to the sole of the foot; we tread upon a the night in a murmured inquiry if none is waiting beneath her shoemaker's puff carefully pasted upon the inner sole, and are window ; her lover answers, vows are exchanged, and even kisses tiled with hatters' puffs stamped upon the lining of our beavers, pass between the envious gratings. But the day is breaking-they or our gossamers, as the case may be ; a tailor's puff is stitched must part: an hour is spent in breathing forth their passionate under the collar of every coat, and we can't keep out the wet adieus; and they separate, leaving unsaid a multitude of things most without advertising the house of Macintosh and Co. Then for necessary to be imparted. reading : what is a book written for but to puff off either the Celestina's window was at the back of the house, and looked author or the subject? Books of travels are puffs for the living; upon a piece of waste ground, around which were a few poor illbiographies puffs for the dead; poetry is the medium for the built houses belonging to the lowest class of people. Don Pedro's pufis of sentimentalists; and a modern novel is the vehicle of old nurse happened to live in a room immediately opposite to puffs for patricians, and anti-puffs for “the vulgar ;” many a Celestina's window. This he determined to secure ; he went to medical book has been written to puff a patent medicine, and his nurse, and after blaming himself for having so long neglected many a mechanical one to recommend a favourite invention; in her, he insisted on removing her to his own house. The poor fact, a book is an epitome of puffs. Lastly, to prove that one woman, affected even to tears by the kindness of her foster-son, cannot write without a host of puffs impeding the current of refused his offer at first; but, at length giving way, she left her old thought, we need only mention that we are at this moment scrib- apartments to his care, and was installed at Don Pedro's house. bling with a pen having " Tanner, London," impressed upon it, Never was king more happy at taking possession of a throne, and that it is fixed into a holder which heralds the ingenuity of than was Don Pedro when he found himself installed in the mise"S. Mordan and Co.," while the maker's name is either woven into, rable apartment abandoned by his nurse. He spent the day in or stamped upon, every sheet of our paper in four different places. watching the movements of his mistress, and the night in conversing In short

, whatever we do, wherever we go; whether we stand, beneath her window; but this happiness was suddenly interrupted sit, or lie; in sickness or in health ; hungry or thirsty; at home by the arrival of Henriquez, the intended husband of Celestina, or abroad, multitudinous legions of puffs surround, envelop, and who made his appearance bearing in his hand a declaration of love,

" thick as the leaves that strew the vales of written for him in Latin by his tutor. Valombrosa."

That night an earnest consultation was held at the window, and meantime the contract of marriage was in preparation, and the

marriage-day was fixed. A flight to Portugal was determined on CELESTINA, A SPANISH STORY, BY FLORIAN.

as the only means to avoid so direful a catastrophe, and it was (Jean Pierre Claris de Florian was born of a noble family in the Cevennes, settled that they should get married as soon as they should reach in 1735. His uncle was married to a niece of Voltaire ; and, while young, Lisbon, and make terms with her guardian afterwards. Celestina Florian was taken to Ferney, and had the satisfaction of hearing Voltaire speak encouragingly of his talents. Afterwards he became page to the Duc

was to provide herself with a casket of jewels which had been left de Penthièvre, who introduced him into the army, and otherwise befriended

her by her mother; this was of considerable value, and on its prohim. He quitted the army, and devoted himself to literature, producing,

ceeds they were to support themselves until their affairs were in 1783, the romance of “Galatea," in imitation of Cervantes : his mother

settled. Nothing was needed but the key of the grating, which being a Castilian, he was, by her means, familiar with the Spanish lan

Celestina undertook to procure. Eleven o'clock the next night guage. This work was followed by other productions; but for some time was fixed for the escape. Pedro was to provide horses outside the they did not attract much attention, until his fables, comedies, and short gates, and was to meet Celestina at that hour, assist her in her tales, made him exceedingly popular. He was imprisoned during the descent, and fly with her to Portugal. Never was there a betterrevolutionary period, writing, during his incarceration, the romance of planned elopement. "Guillaume Tell.” He died in 1794. Though Florian is deficient in power, and his “plots" are very inarti

Don Pedro employed all the next day in making preparations for ficial, he is a pleasing writer, and his tales have considerable attraction for

his departure. Celestina arranged and re-arranged her jewel-box en minds. They were at one time very popular in England, in spite of twenty times over, and was particularly careful not to forget a the French tone of sentiment and feeling which pervade them, and which

beautiful emerald which her lover had presented to her. Celestina detract from their moral value. It must, however, be admitted, that

and her casket were quite ready by eight o'clock, and it was not Florian was a moral writer in a very immoral age ; and he was a man of quite ten when Pedro, who had sent his carriage forward, integrity, for he appropriated a portion of the profits of his writings to pay approached the rendezvous.

As he drew near, he heard a voice calling for help, and perceived CELESTINA, in her seventeenth year, was the first beauty of two men attacked by five bravos, who, armed with swords and Granada

. She was an orphan, and the heiress of a large fortune; bludgeons, were on the point of overpowering them. Pedro's and lived under the guardianship of her uncle Alonzo, an old

and natural bravery would not allow him to leave the weaker party avaricious man, who occupied his days in counting his ducats, and quickly wounded two of the assailants, and the others took to

undefended : he drew his sword and rushed to their assistance ; he his nights in silencing the serenades with which his niece was each night. What was his surprise in recognising in the men he had trening entertained. He designed her for his only son Henriquez, preserved no others than Don Alonzo and his son Henriquez! a notorious dunce. The beauty of Celestina was so great, that the young cavaliers of the town who were enamoured of Celestina, almost all the young cavaliers of Granada were in love

with her; and were aware that she was about to be married to Henriquez, and as she was never to be seen except at mass, the church had been base enough to hire assassins to destroy him; and, but for which she attended was crowded

with young men. Amongst these, the bravery of Don Pedro, would have succeeded in their design. Don Pedro, a young man of twenty, and captain

in a troop of Pedro did his best to disembarrass himself from their acknowledg; borse, was pre-eminent. Handsome, gentle,

witty, the eyes of all ments, but Henriquez, who prided himself on having acquired the ladies of Granada were attracted by him, whilst among them politeness at Salamanca

, insisted on carrying him home and keepel he saw only Celestina ; and she, who could not avoid perceiving ing him there

all night. Pedro

was in despair, for the clock had this, felt herself gradually influenced by the dumb eloquence of already struck eleven. Alas! he did not even guess the extent of bis eyes, and could not help replying by soft glances.

his misfortune. Thus passed a month, when Don Pedro found means to convey One of the bravos who ran from the fray, passed muffled up in deter to his mistress , informing her of what she already werk nis

cloak beneath Celestina's window. It was a dark night; and keri As soon as she had read this epistle, the cruel Celestina the anxious girl, who had opened the grating, perceived him, and sent it back to Don Pedro in great indignation. But she had a mistaking him for Pedro, called gently to him, and full of joy and remarkably retentive memory, and did not forget a word of what impatience handed him the casket. “ Take these diamonds, Don

I me tople to every paragraph. But Don Pedro had perseverance, and bravo, hearing these words, eagerly

snatched the casket, and made elestina had charity, and at tength Censented her taler

en heimamant bre without speaking a word, Whilst Celestina was getting out, ber window, according to the Spanish fashion, where windows are he had already fled to a distance. What was the terror and surmeeting-places of impassioned lovers. There, when the street is and could nowhere perceive him whom she had mistaken for Don nemore service by night than by day, and are the oldestablished prise of poor Celestina when she found herself alone in the street,

off family debts.]

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exciting suspicion by standing beneath the window, and she friend," said she," you have no money, and you will need it. I followed the way she supposed him to be gone, calling him softly have a few pieces of gold, which I will divide with you, if you will as she hastened along." No answer was returned, and she was give me the dress in your bundle.” The goatherd accepted her seized with terror. What should she do ? Should she return to offer. Celestina gave him twelve ducats, and, after receiving her uncle's house, or should she leave the city and endeavour to directions as to the road to Gadara, took leave of the goatherd, find the servants who were waiting for Don Pedro ! She balanced and, retiring among the rocks, put on the dress she had pur. these doubts in her mind, but could not determine. Still she chased. walked onward: she soon became bewildered, and knew not where Thus equipped, she took the road to the village, and, entering she was. Presently she met a man, and inquired of him if she was the market-place, inquired of the peasants she found assembled near the city gate. He pointed out the way to her. This gave her there, if none of them wanted a farm-servant. They gathered courage: she hastened onwards, and soon was beyond the walls of round her, and looked at her with surprise: the young girls especi. Granada, but she could not discover any one in waiting. She ally admired her beautiful fair hair, which flowed over her shoulders; had no thought of blaming or misdoubting her lover : she hoped her mild, sparkling eyes, modestly cast down; and her light, each moment was bringing her nearer to him; and she pursued the slender figure. Nobody could imagine where this beautiful young highway, trembling at each bush, and calling on Don Pedro at every man could have come from. One supposed it was a great lord in step. But the farther she went, the farther was she from the right disguise; another, that it was a prince who had fallen in love with a track. She had left the city by the gate directly opposite to the shepherdess ; and the magistrate assured them that it was Apollo, road to Portugal.

who had returned a second time to take care of their sheep. Meantime, Don Pedro could not disengage himself from Celestina, who had taken the name of Marcelio, was not long in Henriquez and his father. They would not quit him, and abso- finding a master ; no other than the old alcalde of the village, lutely forced him to enter the house with them; and Pedro, hoping who was regarded as the most worthy man in all the country. that Celestina would hear of his arrival, reluctantly complied. This good farmer (for the alcaldes of the villages are not of higher Alonzo went directly to his niece's room, to tell her of the danger rank) soon conceived a great friendship for Marcelio. Before a from which her intended husband had so fortunately escaped. He month had elapsed, he took him from the care of his flock, and called, but received no answer : he entered, and was horrified put all his household under his charge ; and Marcelio acquitted when he beheld the open window. His cries soon brought the himself with such mildness and fidelity as to be beloved by both servants, and the alarm was givent all over the house. Pedro, in master and servants. At the end of six months, the alcalde, who despair, declared he would run to seek her; and Henriquez, thank was more than eighty years old, left the whole care of his property ing him for his friendly sympathy, prepared to accompany him. to Marcelio ; he even consulted him on the causes which came But Pedro avoided this by proposing that they should take different before him for his decision, and he had never made such just roads; and not doubting that Celestina had taken the road to decrees as since he had been directed by Marcelio. Marcelio was Portugal, he offered to seek her in that direction, and proposed the pattern and the delight of the village ; his mildness, his grace, that Henriquez should pursue the opposite path.

his wisdom, gained all hearts. “ Behold," said the mothers to The unhappy Celestina was on the road to the Alpuxaras, when their sons, - behold this handsome Marcelio: he is always with she thought she heard the sound of horses' feet. Her first thought his master ; he is unceasingly occupied in making his old age was that Don Pedro was seeking her, but her second was the fear happy, and does not, like you, leave his work to run after the of travellers or brigands; and, trembling with terror, she crept village girls.” behind a bush by the road-side, from whence she beheld Henri. Thus two years passed away. Celestina, whose thoughts were quez and several attendants pass by. Dreading to fall once more always occupied with Don Pedro, had secretly sent a shepherd, on into the power of Alonzo, she turned from the high road, and whom she could rely, to make inquiries at Granada concerning her plunged into the surrounding wood. The Alpuxaras are a chain lover, Alonzo, and Henriquez.' The shepherd reported that of mountains extending from Granada to the sea ; they are inha- Alonzo was dead, that Henriquez was married, and that nothing bited only by shepherds and labourers. An arid and stony soil, a had been heard of Don Pedro for two years. 'Celestina now lost few chesnut-trees scattered here and there, torrents, and roaring all hope of ever seeing him again, and endeavoured to accustom waterfalls, and a few goats wandering among the summits of the herself to her lot, and to find happiness in the peace and friendmountains, were the objects beheld by Celestina in the first light ship she enjoyed in the village. The old alcalde at length fell of the morning. Worn out with grief and fatigue, and her feet dangerously ill. Marcelio paid him all the attentions of the most wounded by the rough stones, she seated herself on a rock, beside affectionate son, and the good old man behaved like a grateful which trickled a little rill. The silence of the place, the wild father, and at his death left all his property to his faithful country around her,-the sound of many waterfalls subdued by Marcelio. distance, and the murmur of the rill falling into the basin it had All the villagers mourned their alcalde, and, after rendering him worn, all united to remind poor Celestina of her unhappy fate the funeral honours with more tears than pomp, they assembled abandoned in a desert by all the world. Her tears fell fast as she to elect his successor. In Spain, certain villages possess the reflected on her situation, but she thought more of Don Pedro. privilege of electing their alcaldes, - that is to say, the magistrate " It was not to him," thought she, “ that I gave the diamonds. who judges all suits, takes cognizance of all crimes, causes the How was it that I could mistake him? Ah! why did not my guilty to be taken into custody, examines them, and delivers them heart warn me that I was wrong? I know he is seeking me; he over to the superior jurisdiction, which generally confirms the weeps far away from me, and I shall die far from him !"

sentence passed by the alcalde. Her mournful thoughts were suddenly interrupted by the sound The assembled villagers unanimously elected him whom the old of a flute, and presently she heard a sweet but uncultivated voice alcalde had designed for his successor. The old men, followed by singing a rustic air, in which the fleeting pleasures of love are all the youngsters of the village, went in formal procession to carry deplored, and the inconstancy of a lover was complained of. the ensign of his dignity, a white wand, to Marcelio. Celestina Celestina rose to discover the musician, and at no great distance accepted it; and, affected even to tears with this testimony of the she discovered a young goatherd, sitting beneath a willow, watch- affection of these honest people, she resolved to consecrate her life, ing with tearful eyes the water that flowed at his feet: he held a formerly destined for love, to their happiness. flute in his hand, and by his side lay a stick and a small bundle Leaving the new alcalde busy with the cares of office, let us wrapped up in a goat-skin.

return to the unfortunate Pedro, whom we left galloping on the "You seem to be abandoned and cast off,” said Celestina to the road to Portugal, and at each

step increasing the distance from his stranger : "take pity on one who, like yourself, is so also. Direct beloved. me, I beg of you, to some house or village among these mountains, He reached Lisbon without obtaining any intelligence of where I may find, not repose,--that, alas! is impossible,—but Celestina. He retraced his steps, and made every possible refood."

search, and returned again to Lisbon with no better fortune. “Alas, madam !" replied the goatherd, “ I would with pleasure After six months of fruitless inquiry, he felt satisfied that Celesconduct you myself to Gadara, which lies behind these rocks; but tina had not returned to Granada, and he resolved to go to you would not desire me to return, if you knew that my mistress Seville, where he knew she had relations. He found, on his is to be married this day to my rival. I am about to leave these arrival

, that they had just sailed in the Mexican fleet; and, mountains, never more to return ; and I carry nothing with me doubting not that there he should recover his long-lost

mistress in but my flute, a suit of clothes in this bundle, and the remembrance Mexico, he hastened on board the last vessel in the fleet, which of my lost happiness."

was on the point of sailing. He arrived safely, discovered the These words inspired Celestina with a new design. “My relations of Celestina, but they knew nothing concerning her. He


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returned to Spain : the vessel encountered a storm, and was will think themselves your equals ;- here, each virtuous inhabitant wrecked on the coast of Granada. Don Pedro and some others of will look upon you as a father." the passengers escaped, and, proceeding into the mountains in Pedro, whose wanderings had made him well inclined to rest, search of shelter, were led by chance or Cupid to Gadara. and who loved the people by whom his Celestina was so honoured,

Don Pedro and his companions went into the first inn they consented. Two days after, the lovers were married, and never came to; and they were congratulating each other on their escape, was a bridal feast celebrated more blithely. Pedro paid one more when a dispute arose between one of the passengers and a soldier, visit to cities, and then bade adieu to them for ever. He visited concerning a casket which the soldier had saved and the passenger Granada, and, after a tedious process, succeeded in recovering his claimed as his property. Don Pedro, who endeavoured to settle wife's fortune from Henriquez: he then retired to Gadara, where the quarrel, proposed that the passenger, in order to prove his he and Celestina lived long, well, and happily. They were claim, should state what the box contained ; which was done, and mourned for by those who looked upon them with love and venethe box opened to ascertain if what was said were true : but what ration, and their memory is revered to this day. was the surprise of Don Pedro when he recognized Celestina's jewels, and among them the emerald he had given her! " How did you come by these jewels ?” he demanded of the

HISTORICAL EPISODES. passenger, in a voice of fury.

CLANDESTINE MARRIAGE OF THE EARL OF HERTFORD AND What is that to you?" replied the pretended owner, “it is enough that they belong to me;"—and so saying, he attempted to HENRY THE SEVENTH-he who wou the fight of Bosworth, snatch them from Don Pedro, who repulsed him, and both draw. and twined the roses of York and Lancaster-had a daughter ing their swords, they fought, and after a few passes the passenger (sister, of course, of Henry VIII.) who, after being married for fell wounded. Don Pedro was seized and hurried to prison, and three months to Louis XII. of France, married the Duke of the master of the inn sent his wife to fetch the curé to attend the dying man, whilst he himself ran with the casket to the alcalde, Suffolk. From this marriage sprang a daughter, who married and informed him of what had happened.

Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, afterwards created Duke of What was the surprise, the joy, the terror of Celestina, on Suffolk; and these were the parents of a family of daughters, the recognizing her diamonds, and hearing that they had been chal. eldest of whom—the accomplished, amiable, and unfortunate lenged by the gentleman who was in custody! She went at once Lady Jane Grey,—is well known to all readers of English histo the inn, where the curé had already arrived ; and the wounded

tory. man, who believed himself dying, affected by his exhortations,

It was the ambition of her parents that caused the ruin of Lady acknowledged to the alcalde that, two years before, as he was passing at night through a street in Granada, a woman at a win. Jane Grey. The hereditary right to the throne, though very well dow gave him the casket, telling him to hold it while she came understood, and even acted on, was still not so distinctly defined down ; that he ran away with the jewels, and he begged pardon of as to prevent attempts to secure that glittering temptation, the God for the robbery. Celestina hastened to the prison : how her crown. The wars between the houses of York and Lancaster heart beat as she went! She quickened her steps : everything were waged on mingled notions of hereditary right and the right proved that it was Don Pedro whom she was about to behold, but of power or possession ; and, though Henry VII. may be said to she feared being recognised by him. She pulled her hat down have settled the succession, and to have left a secured crown to over her eyes, muffled herself in her cloak, and, preceded by a

his son, Henry VIII., the latter, by his repeated marriages, turnkey who carried a light, she entered the dungeon.

divorces, and the passing of acts of illegitimacy against his own She was scarcely at the foot of the stairs when she recognised children, did much to disturb opinion about the right of succes, Don Pedro. Joy almost took away her senses. She leaned sion. Moreover, when Edward VI. was dying, he was prevailed against the wall; her head declined on her shoulder, and the tears

upon by the Duke of Northumberland to make a will, excluding flowed down her cheeks. By a great effort she repressed her his sisters, Mary and Elizabeth, from the throne, and settling the emotion, and forcing herself to speak boldly, she approached the

crown on Lady Jane Grey, the eldest daughter of the Suffolk prisoner. “Stranger," said she, in a feigned voice, and often family, who was married to a son of Northumberland's. Lady pausing to take breath," you have wounded your companion, it Jane Grey's mother, who was a niece of Henry VIII., gave up is feared to death. What have you to say to excuse such an

her right in favour of her daughter ; but Lady Jane herself gave action?" After speaking these words she could no longer support

a very reluctant assent to the ambitious scheme of her father and herself, but, sitting down on a stone, covered her face with her father-in-law. Mary became queen, almost without a struggle ; hands.

and Lady Jane Grey, along with her young husband, was involved Alcalde," replied Don Pedro, “ I have committed no crime; in the ruin of a project to which she could hardly be said to have it was but an act of justice ; but I desire death, for death alone been a party. can end the misfortunes of which that wretch was the first cause.

Some years afterwards, we find Lady Catherine Grey, a sister He said no more, but the name of Celestina was heard upon his of Lady Jane's, at Elizabeth's court, in the capacity (seemingly) lips.

of a maid of honour. She had been married to Lord Herbert, a Celestina trembled when she heard him pronounce her name :

son of the Earl of Pembroke ; but the earl, fearful of all connexion she was no longer mistress of her transport; she rose, and was on with royal blood, especially under such a jealous reign, procured the point of throwing herself into the arms of her lover, when the

an immediate divorce. But Lady Catherine herself, doubtless, presence of the gaoler restrained her. She turned away her eyes, and, stiling her sobs, desired to be left alone with the prisoner. be a cause of exclusion from a participation in the enjoyments of

saw no reason why the “ blood royal" that ran in her veins should She was obeyed. Suffering her tears of joy to flow more freely, social and domestic life ; so she entered into a secret contract she now approached Don Pedro, and taking him by the hand, she with the Earl of Hertford, whose sister, Lady Jane Seymour, was said, in a voice interrupted by her sobs, “You still love her, who

a companion of Lady Catherine's at court. ". The queen went one lives but for you?"

morning to Eltham to hunt, when Lady Jane and Lady Catherine, At that voice, at those words, Pedro raised bis head, and according to previous concert

, leaving the palace at Westminster scarcely dared to believe his eyes : " Oh, heaven, is it you? is it by the stairs at the orchard, went along by the sands [it would be my Celestina, or an angel who takes her figure ? Ah, it is hard to go along the river-side by the sands now-a-days,] to the thee! cried he, pressing her in his arms, and bathing her with earl's house in Canon-row. Lady Jane then went for a priest, his tears : " it is my wife, my friend--all my misfortunes are

and the parties were married. The earl accompanied them back ended."

to the water-stairs of his house, put them into a boat, and they And it was so. As the wounded man proved likely to recover, returned to the court time enough for dinner in Master ComptrolCelestina had power to restore Don Pedro to liberty, and, assem ler's chamber. Having consummated his marriage, Lord Hertford bling all the villagers, she publicly declared her sex and her adven- travelled into France. tures, and resigned her office ; and presenting Don Pedro to them

But whisperings began to run through the court ; and Lady as her intended husband, requested the curé to complete her Catherine, aware that the matter could not be kept from the sharp happiness by uniting them. But now one of the old villagers ears of the queen, “ first confessed it privately to Mrs. Sentlowe, stepped forth. “Oh, stranger,” said he, “why will you take from and afterwards sought Lord Robert Dudley's chamber, to break us our alcalde ? his loss we cannot repair. Condescend to remain out to him that she was married, in the hope of softening the anger with us; be yourself our alcalde, our master, our friend. In a great city, the cowardly and the wicked, who have the same rank,

Ellis's Original Letters, Second Series, yok. il.

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