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of the queen ; but Elizabeth committed her to the Tower, where wrote to Cecil, setting forth—"how unmeet it is this young coushe was afterwards delivered of a son. Lord Hertford was sum. ple should wax old in prison,” but all to no purpose. Meantime, moned home, to answer for his misdemeanour ; when, confessing Lord Hertford, by bribing his keepers, was permitted to pass the marriage, he also was committed to the Tower."
from his own apartments to those of his wife, in the Tower. Now, the pleasant comedy was turned into a tragedy: a formal Another child was born, and this roused all the wrath of the commission of inquiry was issued, at the head of which was " virgin queen.” Lord Hertford was fined in the monstrous sum Archbishop Parker, Bishop Grindal, and Sir William Petre ; of fifteen thousand pounds,-a large sum of money in those days. " when the parties being unable, within a time prescribed, to This fine was divided into three parts, and was alleged to be produce witnesses of the marriage, a definitive sentence was pro- | inflicted for a triple crime: five thousand for the original offence, nounced against them; and their imprisonment ordered to be five thousand for breaking his prison, and five thousand for continued during the queen's pleasure." So, because the priest repeating his vicious act. who married them probably thought it prudent to keep out of the But death came to release Lady Catherine from her arbitrary way, the young couple, who mutually acknowledged their marri. and cruel imprisonment. A copy of a manuscript, entitled "the age, and were willing to live together as loving man and wife, were Manner of her Departing,” is given by Sir Henry Ellis ; and he committed to the Tower, at the pleasure of an arbitrary shrew ! adds, very justly, “the reader will peruse it with a feeling of
The families of the parties stirred themselves in behalf of the pity." After describing the prayers and pious ejaculations which young couple. Lady Catherine's uncle, Lord John Grey, of she uttered, the narrative mentions that Lady Hopton said to her, Pyrgo, in Essex, wrote to Sir William Cecil (Lord Burleigh) in Madam, be of good comfort, for with God his favour you shall behalf of his niece. “In faith,” says he, “I would I were the live and escape this ; for Mrs. Cousen saith you have escaped many queen’s confessor this Lent, that I might join her in penance to dangers, when you were as like to die as you be now."
“No, no, forgive and forget; or otherwise able to step into the pulpit, to my lady, my time is come, and it is not God's will that I should tell her highness that God will not forgive her, unless she freely live any longer; and his will be done, and not mine." Then, forgive all the world.” But Elizabeth was not a woman to be looking upon those that were about her " As I am, so shall you either intimidated or cajoled; and therefore, when we find Lady be; behold the picture of yourselves !'' After conversation on one Catherine removed from the Tower to the custody of her uncle in or two matters, “calling unto her woman, she said, “Give me the Essex, we are not to infer that the independent language of the box wherein my wedding ring is ;' and when she had it, she uncle was the sole cause of the change. “The ravages of the opened it, and took out a ring with a pointed diamond, and said, plague, says Sir Henry Ellis, “in London, in 1563, induced Here, Sir Owen, deliver this unto my lord; this is the ring that Queen Elizabeth to relax somewhat of her severity toward Lord I received of him when I gave myself to him, and gave him my Hertford and Lady Catherine. Secretary Cecil, writing to Sir faith.' •What say you, madam,' said Sir Owen, was this your Thomas Smith in France, in the month of August of that year, wedding ring?' 'No, Sir Owen,' she said, “this was the ring of says, "My Lord of Hertford and my Lady Catherine, by cause of my assurance unto my lord; and there is my wedding ring,' the plague, are thus delivered : he vith his mother, as a prisoner ; taking another ring, all of gold, out of the box, saying, Deliver she with her uncle, my Lord John Grey; He adds— They die this also my lord, and pray him, even as I have been to him, (as in London above a thousand in a week.'"
I take God to witness I have been,) a true and a faithful wife, that While Lady Catherine was with her uncle at Pyrgo, several he would be a loving and a natural father unto my children, unto letters were sent from them both to Cecil, entreating the queen's whom I give the same blessing that God gave to Abraham, Isaac, forgiveness. With one of Lord Grey's letters was sent a petition and Jacob. And then took she out another ring with a death's from Lady Catherine to the queen, the style of which, if judged by head, and said, “This shall be the last token unto my lord that our modern ideas, is quite offensive. Only think of one woman ever I shall send him : it is the picture of myself.' The words asking another woman forgiveness for a venial offence in the fol- about the death's head were theseWhile I live, yours !' and so, lowing language-language, we might almost think, borrowed from looking down upon her hands, and perceiving the nails to look the Liturgy :
purple, said, 'Lo, here he is come !' and then, as it were with a “I dare not presume, most gracious sovereign, to crave pardon joyful countenance, she said, “Welcome, Death !' and embracing for my disobedient and rash matching of myself, without your herself with her arms, and lifting up her eyes and bands unto highness's consent,-I only most humbly sue unto your highness heaven, knocking her hands upon her breast, she brake forth, and to continue your merciful nature toward me. I knowledge myself said, • O Lord, for thy manifold mercies, blot out of the book all a most unworthy creature to fail so much of your gracious favour mine offences !' Whereby Sir Owen, perceiving her to draw as I have done. My just felt misery and continual grief doth towards her end, said to Mr. Bockeham, Were it not best to send teach me daily, more and more, the greatness of my fault, and to the church, that the bell* may be rung?' and she herself hearing your princely pity increaseth my sorrow, that have so forgotten my him, said, 'Good Sir Owen, let it be so.' Then, immediately duty towards your majesty. This is my great torment of mind. perceiving her end to be near, she entered into prayer, and said, May it therefore please your most excellent majesty to license me O Lord, unto thy hands I commend my soul ! Lord Jesus, reto be a most lowly suitor unto your highness, to extend toward ceive my spirit !' and so, putting down her eyes with her own my miserable state your majesty's favour and accustomed mercy, hands, she yielded unto God her meek spirit, at nine of the clock which, upon my knees, in all humble wise I crave, with my daily in the morning, the 27th of January, 1567." prayers to God, long to continue and preserve your majesty's reign “ The marriage,” says Sir Henry Ellis, “ between Lady Catheover us.-From Pyrgo, the 7th of November, 1563."
rine Grey and the Earl of Hertford was not established till 1606; Perhaps Elizabeth might have relaxed in her despotic and harsh when the priest who had joined them being produced, and other treatment of Lord and Lady Hertford, if a Marplot had not come circumstances agreeing, a jury at common law found it a good in the way. One John Hales, who had been clerk of the hanaper marriage.” Lord Hertford was nine years in prison. in the reign of Henry the Eighth, wrote a book on the ticklish We may conclude this touching and even tragic story with subject
of the succession to the crown, and introduced the claims something approaching to farce. "Lady Mary Grey, a sister of of the Grey family, as well as the debateable point of the marriage. Lady Catherine, who is described as having been the most dimi. “Here,” says Secretary Cecil, " is fallen out a troublesome fond nutive lady about the court of Elizabeth, imitated her sister in the
John Hales had secretly made a book in the time of the matter of secrecy in her marriage. She was married privately last parliament, wherein he had taken upon him to discuss no to Henry Keys, the queen's gentleman porter. The marriage does small matter,- viz. the title to the crown after the queen's ma- not seem to have been a very romantic one, nor, on the lady's part, jesty. Having confuted and rejected the line of the Scottish a very dignified one ; but the insignificance of it might have shel. queen, and made the line of the Lady Frances, mother to the Lady tered the couple from the royal virgin's vengeance.
That Catherine, only next and lawful. He is committed to the Fleet “omnibus" secretary, Cecil, writing all the way to France, says for this boldness, specially because he hath communicated it to to Sir Thomas Smith—" Here is an unhappy chance, and mon. sundry persons. My Lord John Grey is in trouble also for it. strous. The serjeant porter, being the biggest gentleman in this Beside this, John Hales hath procured sentences and counsels of court, hath married secretly the Lady Mary Grey, the least of all lawyers from beyond seas to be written in maintenance of the the court. They are committed to several prisons. The offence Earl of Hertford's marriage. This dealing of his offendeth the is very great." Sir Henry Ellis gives copies of two letters from queen's majesty very much."
Lady Mary Grey to Cecil, begging for pardon. No doubt it did ; the royal sbrew was not to be trifled with, and so poor Lord Hertford and his wife were sent back to the Tower
• The “passing bell." It was rung at the passing from life to death,
with the intention that those who heard it should pray for the person again. Anne, Duchess of Somerset, mother of Lord Hertford, 'dying,
“ The sheriffs are already seated in their own pew, accompanied THE CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT.
by their under-sheriffs, and two friends drawn thither by curiosity. The visitor of London who walks along the narrow street called Not far from them appear two tall footmen, swelling with pride at the Old Bailey, leading from Ludgate Hill, and crossing Newgate their state liveries. The ordinary is in his desk : his surplice is street, would find it hard to fancy that a portion of the wall of the evidently fresh from the mangle: and those who see him every day city once ran along it. Yet, so it was ; and the prison of New
observe an air of peculiar solemnity, and perhaps of importance,
in his face and manner. The clerk is busied, searching out the gate preserves in its name the memorial of a new gate having been psalms proper for the occasion. struck through the wall, Lud-gate not being a sufficient thorough- “ The tragedy begins. Enter first the school-master and his fare. Prisoners were, in ancient times, contined in apartments pupils; then the prisoners for trial ; next the transports, amongst adjoining or over the gate of the city or castle, if they were not whom are the late companions of the condemned men ; and then removed to a place of greater security. Hence, when the prison the women. Lastly come the condemned. They are four in was built in the room of the prison of the gate, it retained the name number. The first is a youth, about eighteen apparently. He is of Newgate.
to die for stealing in a dwelling-house goods valued at more than The origin of the term “ Bailey," the reader, if he is curious in 51. His features have no felonious cast : on the contrary, they etymology, may trace from one of two words, or from a combination
are handsome, intelligent, and even pleasing. Craft, and fear, and of them both. It may come from “ ballium," an outer bulwark; debauchery, have not yet had time to put decided marks on him. a portion of the ditch outside the city wall lay along the site of the He steps boldly, with his head upright, looks to the women's galstreet called the Old Bailey, and the term " ballium.” was applied lery, and smiles. His intention is to pass for a brave fellow with to a ditch as well as to outworks. “The Old Bailey," say the those who have brought him to this untimely end; but the attempt antiquarians, “ Dear Lud Gate in London, received its name from fails ; fear is stronger in him thun vanity. Suddenly his head its relative position in regard of the antient wall of the city;" droops ; and, as he sits down, his bent knees tremble and knock But perhaps the name was perpetuated by its association with the together. The second is an older criminal, on whose countenance French “ Baillé," signifying to be delivered to the care of one's villain is distinctly written. He has been sentenced to death keeper or bail. For, as a man accused of crime is held, by our old before, but reprieved, and transported for life. Having incurred common law, to be innocent until proved to be guilty, so, strictly the penalty of death by the act, in itself innocent, of returning to speaking, no man should be imprisoned, or suffer bodily restraint England, he is now about to die for a burglary committed since or coercion of any kind, until sentence is pronounced against him. his return. His glance at the sheriffs and the ordinary tells of To prevent, however, the escape of the guilty, accused persons scorn and defiance. But even this hardened ruffian will wince at were required to be buillé, or bailed-to find sureties who would the most trying moment, as we shall see presently. The third is be answerable for their appearance when called upon to take their a sheep-stealer, a poor ignorant creature, in whose case there are trial ; and those who could not find friends or neighbours willing mitigating points, but who is to be banged in consequence of some to undergo this responsibility, were, of course, committed to report having reached the ear of the Secretary of State, that this prison for security.
is not his first offence; and, secondly, because of late a good many The Old Bailey, with the adjoining prison of Newgate, have been sheep have been stolen by other people. He is quite content to as famous in the annals of crime, as London is in the history of die : indeed, the exertions of the chaplain and others have brought Britain. The prison, until just the other day almost, was pre- him firmly to believe, that his situation is enviable, and that the eminent as a school of iniquity; other prisons might have been gates of Heaven are open to receive him. Now observe the bad, but considering that Newgate was the criminal receptacle of fourth--that miserable old man in a tattered suit of black. He is such a city as London, it was abominable. Every body has heard already half dead. He is said to be a clergyman of the Church of of the labours of Mrs. Fry; and this consideration should cheer England, and has been convicted of forgery. The great efforts all philanthropic labourers, that even if their aims are only indi. made to save his life, not only by his friends but by many utter vidual, yet those very individual aims may powerfully help forward strangers, fed him with hope until his doom was sealed. He is great general good. The main object of Mrs. Fry and her fellow- now under the influence of despair. He staggers towards the workers was doubtless the immediate personal reformation of the pew, reels into it, stumbles forward, flings himself on to the ground, unhappy victims of iniquity confined in prisons; but in doing so, and, by a curious twist of the spine, buries his head under his tbey powerfully aided the progress of the great question of prison body. The sheriffs shudder, their inquisitive friends crane forreform.
ward; the keeper frowns on the excited congregation; the lately We have already given in the London SATURDAY Journal smirking footmen close their eyes and forget their liveries ; the (No. IV., pp. 60—62), some details respecting the gradual ameli. ordinary clasps his hands; the turnkeys cry • hush !' and the oration of the Criminal Law, and the numbers who were executed old clerk lifts up his cracked voice, saying, ' Let us sing to the annually till within a very recent period, as contrasted with the praise and glory of God.' milder administration of the law in the present day. As a sort of People of Loudon ! is there any scene in any play so striking as finish to those statements, we here present the reader with a pic, this tragedy in real life, which is acted eight times a year in the ture of “The Condemned Sermon," as it used to be performed midst of your serene homes ? eight times a year within the prison of Newgate, over criminals “They sing the Morning Hymn, which of course reminds the condemned to die at the Old Bailey. The writer of this sketch condemned of their prospect for to-morrow morning. Eight is Mr. E. G. Wakefield, the well-known political economist, and o'clock to-morrow morning is to be their last moment. They author of “ England and America.” He was himself confined in come to the burial service. The youth, who alone, of those for Newgate, and had ample opportunity for studying the details, of whom it is intended, is both able and willing to read, is, from which he has composed his picture. Some of our readers may be want of practice, at a loss to find the place in his prayer-book. familiar with it, as it has repeatedly appeared in print; and others The ordinary observes him, looks to the sheriffs, and says aloud may think that there is exaggeration in the statements.
the · Service for the Dead !' The youth's hands tremble as they have his own authority that not a circumstance is stated which he did hold the book upside-down. The burglar is heard to mutter an not witness : it was written so recently as 1830, and may be taken angry oath. The sheep-stealer smiies, and, extending his arms as a powerful dramatic sketch of scenes, the memory of which is upwards, looks with a glad expression to the roof of the chapel. already fading away, but which, only a very few years ago, were The forger has never moved. performed, at intervals of six weeks or two months each, within
“ Let us pass on.
All have sung the · Lamentation of a Sinner,' the heart of the City of London,
and have seemed to pray, especially for those now awaiting the " The condemned service is conducted with peculiar solemnity, awful execution of the law.' We come to the sermon. being attended by the sheriffs in their great gold chains, and is in " The ordinary of Newgate is an orthodox, unaffected Church of other ways calculated to make a strong impression on the minds of England divine, who preaches plain homely discourses, as fit as the congregation, who may be considered as representing the cri- any religious discourse can be fit for the irritated audience. The minals of the metropolis. Whether the impression be a good or sermon of this day, whether eloquent or plain, useful or useless, a bad one, I leave the reader to decide : but in order that he may must produce a striking effect at the moment of its delivery. The have the necessary materials for deciding justly, I lay before him text, without another word, is enough to raise the wildest passions the following description of a condemned service, premising only of the audience, already fretted by an exhibition of gross injustice, this — that not a circumstance is stated which i have not and by the contradiction involved in the conjunction of religion witnessed.
with the taking away of lives. The sacrifices of God are a broken
broken and contrite heart, O God! thou wilt not despise.' We may easily learn the fact of the Court being in session by the For a while the preacher addresses himself to the congregation at scene presented in Old Bailey street. Straw is laid down in the large, who listen attentively-excepting the clergyman and the narrow street, to deaden the noise of passing carriages; while burglar, of whom the former is still rolled up at the bottom of the groups of idling or curious individuals, policemen and witnesses in condemned pew, whilst the eyes of the latter are wandering round attendance, may be seen swarming about the entrances of the the chapel, and one of them is occasionally winked, impudently, at Court, or crossing over to the public-houses. In the earlier part some acquaintance amongst the prisoners for trial. At length the of the session, the Grand Jury are busy in their own room, exaordinary pauses : and then, in a deep tone, which, though hardly mining the bills of indictment; in the Old Court," two of the above a whisper, is audible to all, says—Now to you, my poor Judges may be presiding; and, in the “New Court," the fellow-mortals, who are about to suffer the last penalty of the law.' Recorder or Common Serjeant : so that, in fact, during each ses. But why should I repeat the whole? It is enough to say, that in sion of the Central Criminal Court, there may be said to be three the same solemn tone he talks for about ten minutes of crimes, tribunals sitting, investigating and trying offences. punishments, bonds, shame, ignominy, sorrow, sufferings, wretched- The “ Old Court" is the chief or main court at the Old Bailey; ness, pangs, childless parents, widows, and helpless orphans, here the judges, from choice or predilection, generally choose to broken and contrite hearts, and death to-morrow morning for the sit, the “ New Court" never being honoured with the presence of benefit of society. What happens ? The dying men are dreadfully a judge, unless there is a pressure of business. In the ** Old agitated. The young stealer in a dwelling-house no longer has the Court," therefore, the more serious crimes are tried, and to it the least pretence to bravery, He grasps the back of the pew; his public attention is more generally directed. The Recorder and legs give way; he utters a faint groan, and sinks on the floor. Common Serjeant of the Corporation of the City of London preWhy does no one stir to help him? Where would be the use ? side in the "New Court," and also in the absence of the judges, The hardened burglar moves not, nor does he speak ; but his face in the “Old Court;” sometimes in the mornings before the is of an ashy paleness; and, if you look carefully, you may see judges arrive, and in the evenings, if they go away early. blood trickling from his lip, which he has bitten unconsciously, or Formerly, the Recorder used personally to report to the King from rage, or to rouse his fainting, courage. The poor sheep in Council the cases of all those tried at the Old Bailey, against stealer is in a frenzy. He throws his hands far from him and whom sentence of death was recorded. The sentences of the shouts aloud, Mercy, good Lord ! mercy is all I ask. The various prisoners were also pronounced by him after the trials were Lord in his mercy come! There! there! I see the Lamb of God! over. The accession of her present Majesty rendered necessary Oh ! how happy! Oh! this is happy!'. Meanwhile, the clergy, a change in the practice of reporting in Council the cases of those man,
still bent into the form of a sleeping dog, struggles violently, - against whom sentence of death was recorded; there being, of his feet, legs, hands, and arms, even the muscles of his back, move course, many cases the details of which could not be, with prowith a quick jerking motion, not naturally, but, as were, like the priety, gone into in presence of the Queen. An act was therefore affected parts of a galvanized corpse. Suddenly he utters a short passed, soon after her accession, assimilating the practice of the sharp scream, and all is still.
Central Criminal Court to those of other criminal courts, which “ The silence is short. As the ordinary proceeds 'to conclude' bas somewhat diminished the personal importance of the Recorder. the women set up a yell, which is mixed with a rustling noise, The “ Old Court" is an oblong room, along one side of which occasioned by the removal of those whose hysterics have ended in is the “Bench,”-a range of crimson-cushioned seats, the central fainting. The sheriffs cover their faces; and one of their inquisi- seat having a canopy over it, on which is the royal arms. The tive friends blows his nose with his glove. The keeper tries to act of Parliament creating the Central Criminal Court, makes the appear unmoved; but his eye wanders anxiously over the com- Lord Mayor and Aldermen judges of the court, but they take no bustible assembly. The children round the communion-table part beyond being present. There are seldom more than two or stare and gape with childish wonder. The two masses of three members of the Corporation on the bench at a time. On prisoners for trial undulate and slightly murmur; while the the right hand of the bench is the jury box ; in the centre of the capital convicts, who were lately in that black pew, appear faint room is a table, round which sit the counsel; and opposite the with emotion.
bench is the “dock".
- square box, the front of which is tech. “ This exhibition lasts for some minutes, and then the con- nically called the "bar." Over the dock is a small gallery for gregation disperses ; the condemned returning to the cells; the visitors, who must pay for admission, from one shilling and sis. forger carried by turnkeys; the youth sobbing convulsively, as a pence and upwards each, according as the door-keeper estimates passionate child; the burglar muttering curses and savage expreso the importance of the trial, or the eagerness of the persons to be sions of defiance ; whilst the poor sheep-stealer shakes hands with admitted. This is a disgraceful practice. By the common law, the turnkeys, and points upward with madness in his look !" courts of justice ought freely to be open ;-you can walk with.
Such scenes are now of rare occurrence: the year 1838 (as out obstruction into the space below the bar in the House of was remarked in the article in this Journal already alluded to) | Lords, during the arguing of an appeal case; the superior passed without a "condemned sermon” having been preached in courts at Westminster Hall are as freely open as a place of Newgate, and without an execution in the metropolis.
worship; but the doors of the Old Bailey are only unlocked by The Old Bailey was the great criminal court of the metropolis, silver keys. and derived its importance from that circumstance. The chief We have entered, we will say, during the progress of a trial.part of London lies in Middlesex, and the large population of the A witness is under examination in the witness-box; one or two of metropolis afforded ample employment to the court. But its the counsel are eagerly consulting together ; others are carelessly jurisdiction did not extend beyond the county; and, therefore, as reading newspapers ; and perhaps the prisoner at the bar trem. London began to spread on the other side of the Thames, great bling for his fate. Enter the grand jury, accompanied by an anomalies presented themselves. A prisoner who committed an officer bearing a wand : the trial is interrupted; the clerk of the offence on the Middlesex side of the Thames, would be committed court reads aloud the “ true bills'' returned against prisoners ; to Newgate, and tried, probably, in a few weeks, for the sessions and the frequent recurrence of the word “ felony," as he reads, at the Old Bailey were held eight times a year ; while, if he crossed soon tells the unpractised stranger that the larger portion of the the river, and committed an offence in Lambeth, or at Greenwich, business of the Central Criminal Court arises from those mean he would be transferred to the Surrey or Kent assizes, and might and petty crimes which spring from the combined influence of be in prison four or five months before trial. To remedy this and ignorance, vice, and poverty. When the grand jury retire, the other inconveniences, an act of parliament was passed in 1834, trial is resumed ; and after its conclusion, a crowd of men, women, creating a CENTRAL CRIminal Court, to be held at the Old and youths may be seen pouring into the dock, ascending by a Bailey, which has jurisdiction over offences committed in all places staircase, through a covered passage, from the adjoining prison of within ten miles of St. Paul's, -an extent which includes portions Newgate. A strange medley they seem, and a humbling spectacle of Surrey, Kent, and Essex, as well as Middlesex. Offences com- they present,—some in tatters, some decently clothed, some mitted on the high seas, within the jurisdiction of the Admiralty looking round with a frown or with an air of indifference, others of England, can also be tried in this court; so that the reader may gazing, tittering, or wondering. These prisoners are arraigned by observe occasionally in the newspapers, notices of sailors and the “ batch," to save time; their crimes being of a class. They others apprehended at such distant ports as Bristol or Liverpool, are told that they have the privilege of challenging the jury, but and brought up to be tried at the Central Criminal Court. possibly the greater number do not understand what that means. Its sittings are held twelve times a year, or once a month ; and, as Then each juryman is sworn separately by the officer of the court each session generally occupies a fortnight, and sometimes nearly "You shall well and truly try, and true deliverance make, three weeks, the space between them is exceedingly brief. between our sovereign lady the Queen and the prisoners at the
bar, whom you shall have in charge, and a true verdict give, took an oath, that justice should not be impeded, would have according to the evidence. So help you God!" After the usual transported an honest man, if he could ! To such uses may our proclamation has been made, calling upon all witnesses to come courts of justice be occasionally perverted ! forward, &c., the group in the dock are conducted back to the The number of persons tried at the Central Criminal Court prison, except the one or two whose particular case is to be taken is between three and four thousand annually. The number of first, and then a trial begins. It is only the mass of petty criminal offenders within the range of the jurisdiction of the Court thieves, and professional dealers in crime, who are thus arraigned may be taken at upwards of four thousand, or about one offender by the “lump:" important or peculiar cases generally stand by in every five hundred of the population. themselves.
We were in the “ Old Court" the other day, when a decent. looking man was placed at the bar, charged with a paltry felony
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. the stealing of a few sovereigns. In looking at him, the first feeling was that of regret, that a man apparently so respectable
JOHN LEDYARD. an honest-looking tradesman-should have had his moral sense so blunted as to incur the chance of standing at that bar for a matter of ten or eleven pounds. Straightway the prosecutor mounted When the anchor was raised, and the sails were spread to a the witness-box, and all eyes were fixed upon him. You might fair wind, Ledyard believed that at last the wish of his heart would travel over London, and, amongst all its fops, witlings, and be fulfilled; but he seemed born for disappointment. The vessel cinnamon idiots, find it hard to match him. His shirt collar was was not out of sight of land, when it was brought back for some turned down, after the fashion stupidly called Byronic; his hair, breach of the revenue laws, and ultimately condemned. This was parted across his head, and pasted tight down, terminated in a severe blow to poor Ledyard : he rallied manfully against it, and most elaborately-formed curls behind. Some of the male portion renewing his project of a journey through Siberia, and thence to of the audience sneered, and some of the ladies smiled-possibly America, a subscription was raised for the purpose of enabling him one or two might have thought him a nice-looking young man. to carry his design into execution. Sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Hunter, The book was put into his hand by the officer, who began-"The Sir James Hall, and Colonel Smith were his chief patrons. The evidence which you shall give" — when he was stopped by the amount raised could not have been very large, since we find that, witness informing him that he affirmed. What was he? on his arrival at Hamburgh, he had but ten guineas left. Here Quaker? He was a Quaker in the matter of affirmation. That he found that Major Langbain, a very eccentric American traveller, would not do : did he now belong, or had he ever belonged, to had recently been at the hotel where Ledyard lodged, and that he the Quakers ? No. Well, then, what was he? a Separatist, or had gone off to Copenhagen without his baggage, taking with him a Moravian ? No-he was a Christian. He must be more only one spare shirt, and very few other articles of clothing. His explicit. What sect did he belong to? He was an Israelite. trunks were to be sent after him, but, being accidentally delayed, "Oh, then," exclaimed the counsel for the defence, (a well-known he had written for them in terms which induced Ledyard to Irish barrister, who may be said to take the lead in the Central believe he was in want of money. Ledyard hastened to relieve Criminal Court,) “swear him on the Old Testament." Ah! but the imagined distress of his countryman, and, although it was far he was not a Jew-he was a Christian Israelite : the result of the out of his way, he went straight to Copenhagen, where he found trial did not prove him to be “an Israelite indeed, in whom was Langbain in a very awkward situation, without money or friends, no guile.” Search was now made in the books, to see under what and shut up in his room for want of decent apparel to appear act he could claim exemption from taking an oath ; and, during abroad in. Ledyard's ten guineas soon vanished. He spent two the delay, the Israelite looked around him, now folding his arms, weeks with Langbain, but could not persuade him to join him in now leaning on the brass railing which surmounts the witness- his expedition even as far as Petersburg; Langbain refused, box, and seemed to enjoy his self-importance. At last the judge saying——“No! I esteem you ; but I can travel in the way I do informed him, that none of the acts of parliament which permitted with no man on earth.”. Ledyard consequently prepared to set certain classes of dissenters to give evidence on affirmation could out for Petersburg by himself ; but how was he to do this withbe interpreted as reaching him, and that therefore his evidence out a farthing? He drew a small bill on Colonel Smith, and he must be given on oath, or not at all. “ Well, then,' exclaimed had the good fortune to meet with a merchant who consented to the magnanimous Israelite, "rather than justice should be cash it for him. A sum had been left in the colonel's hands to defeated, I will take the oath !" A new difficulty arose, started answer such an exigence, but not to the full amount of the bill ; by the ingenious counsel for the defence. How had he given his which was, however, duly honoured when it came to hand. Thus evidence before the grand jury? On affirmation. Then, it was furnished, he set out, and arrived at Stockholm about the end of contended, the indictment was a nullity—as worthless as a piece January, 1787. The common route from Stockholm to Petersof waste paper. The grand jury bad no right to take his evidence burg is across the Gulf of Bothnia to Abo in Finland, touching on affirmation, seeing he was not legally entitled to the privilege ; at the isles of Aland on the passage, –a journey performed over therefore, their “true bill” was no bill at all. This was a poser; the ice in winter ; but the season was so mild that the ice was too it gave rise to a tedious search in the books for precedents and insecure to risk a passage, and no alternative remained but travelcases in point, nearly all the law library of the Court having been ling round the gulf into Lapland, and thence through the whole brought down, to be thumbed and turned over. During the extent of Finland to Petersburg, or staying at Stockholm till the delay, the Israelite tried to shed light on the darkness; he more passage to Abo was open. He did not long hesitate, but set out than once began a speech with—“My lord, and gentlemen of the at once, alone and on foot, for Tornea, at the head of the Gulf of jury," but was promptly silenced; the judge, on one occasion, Bothnia, but a few miles south of the arctic circle, and thence he saying—" Hold your tongue, sir! don't you interfere.” At last proceeded to Petersburg, where he arrived before the 20th of the objection was reserved, for the purpose of allowing the trial to March, without money, and almost destitute of clothes. How he go on; the Israelite was sworn, and gave his evidence. He deposed performed this surprising journey is not known, nor even the route to having left a carpet-bag in a lodging which he had quitted ; and which he took from Tornea ; but, in a letter to Mr. Jefferson, he on returning, found it had been rifled, and eleven sovereigns taken speaks of passing through the most unfrequented parts of Finland, from a purse. The money, he affirmed, was found on the prisoner, from whence it is concluded that he did not follow the usual coast when his person was searched by officers whom he had introduced, road to Abo. It is a most astonishing fact, that he was able to in order to apprebend him. The result of the trial may be told in accomplish this formidable journey within seven weeks of the time a few words. The prosecutor, who turned out to be a hawker, of leaving Stockholm, making the average distance travelled about (a title, however, he would not acknowledge,) lodged in a house, two hundred miles a week. sharing half a bed, at the rate of one shilling and sixpence a week! He had letters of introduction with him, and soon found friends -(his appearance presenting a most remarkable and ludicrous at Petersburg, and, venturing to draw for twenty pounds on Sir contrast to this statement)—and had concocted his villanous Joseph Banks, was (for him) well supplied with money:
Mr. charge for the purpose of gratifying some malignant revenge. William Brown, a Scotch physician, was proceeding to the proThe money was clearly proved to be the property of the prisoner, vince of Kolyvan, in the employment of the Empress. Ledyard while the prosecutor was not worth a sixpence. The jury stopped joined him, and thus had a companion on his tour for more than the case, and the judge told the intended victim that he left the three thousand miles. From this arrangement he enjoyed an bar without an imputation on his character : and yet, perhaps, important advantage, for Dr. Brown travelled at the expense of but for the exertions of counsel, this oily-looking, affected, and the Government; and, as Ledyard went with him by permission sanctimonious pretending rascal, who swallowed his scruples, and of the proper authority, his travelling charges were probably defrayed-in part at least-from the public funds. The party Jn a letter to Mr. Jefferson, written from Bamaoul on the 29th left Petersburgh on the 1st of June, and in six days arrived at of July, 1787, he thus expresses himself :Moscow, where they hired a person to go with them to Kazan, a “ How I have come thus far, and how I am to go still farther, distance of 550 miles, and drive their kibitka with three horses. is an enigma that I must disclose to you on some happier occa.
They staid a week at Kazan, and then commenced their journey sion. I shall never be able without seeing you in person, and to Tobolsk, where they arrived on the 11th of July, having crossed perhaps not then, to inform you how universally and circum. the Ural mountains, and passed the frontiers of Europe and stantially the Tartars resemble the aborigines of America. They Asia. The face of the country had hitherto been level, with are the same people; the most ancient and the most numerous hardly an eminence springing from the great plain which spreads of any other ; and had not a small sea divided them, they would over the vast territory from Moscow to Tobolsk. The ascent of all have been still known by the same name. The cloak of civili. the Ural mountains was so gradual as scarcely to form an excep- sation sits as ill upon them as upon our American Tartars. They tion to this general remark, and nothing could be more monoto- have been a long time Tartars, and it will be a long time before nous and dreary than the interminable wastes over which their they will be any other kind of people. I shall send this letter to route had led them since leaving Kazan, with here and there a Petersburgh, to the care of Professor Pallas. He will transmit it miserable village, and unproductive culture of the soil. Tobolsk to you, together with one for the Marquis *, in the mail of the is a city of considerable interest, having been once the capital of Count Ségur. My health is perfectly good ; but notwithstanding all Siberia. It stands at the junction of two large rivers, the the vigour of my body, my mind keeps the start of me, and I Tobol and Irtish. It is a handsome, well-built town, and some anticipate my future fate with the most lively ardour. Pity it is, good society is to be found there, as it is the chief place of resi- that in such a career one should be subjected, like a horse, to dence for persons exiled for political offences ; and, as has been the beggarly impediments of sleep and hunger." naïvely remarked by Captain Cochrane, in his account of this It was arranged that he should travel from Bamaoul to Irkutsk, place, no government banishes fools." But, as it was the a distance of 1732 versts, or 1155 miles, three versts being equal to object of both our travellers to push on with the utmost expedi- two miles, with the courier who carried the mail. This was another tion, they made but a short stay at Tobolsk, and proceeded fortunate circumstance, and enabled the traveller to proceed much forward to Bamaoul, the capital of the province of Kolyvan, more rapidly than it would otherwise have been possible, and it ap. where Dr. Brown was about to take up his residence. This place pears that all the expenses were defrayed by the goveroment. Beis, in many respects, one of the most agreeable places of residence tween Bamaouland Tomsk, the first halting-place, a distance of about in Siberia. The province, of which it is the capital, is a rich 300 miles passed over in two days and three nights, the effects of the mining district, and this brings together in the town persons of violent winds, which frequently desolate whole districts, were very science and respectability, who are employed as public officers to perceptible. At Tomsk, a miserable town, the abode of the vilest superintend the working of the mines. The surrounding country, and most wretched convicts, they were detained two or three days, moreover, is well suited to agriculture, abounding in good lands but were hospitably entertained by the governor, a Frenchman. for pasture and grain, supporting vast herds of cattle, and pro. In ten days from the time of leaving Tomsk, they arrived in ducing vegetables in great profusion. In consequence of these Irtusk, over a road of which he speaks in no terms of cominenda. bounties of nature, there is an overflowing and cheap market, an
tion. From Tomsk to Yenessey the country exhibited rather án absence of want, and much positive happiness among the people. agreeable aspect and marks of cultivation, and in this region be It is in the fifty-third degree of north latitude.
first found the “real craggy peaked bill or mountain,” and from The following extract is from that part of Ledyard's journal Krasnojarsk to Irkutsk was the first stony road which he had which he wrote at Bamaoul :
passed over in the Russian dominions. The streets of Tobolsk, “ The face of the country, from Petersburgh to Kolyvan, is one
and some of the other towns on his route, were paved with wood. continued plain. The soil, before arriving at Kazan, is very well
From Irkutsk, where he was delayed for some days waiting for cultivated ; afterwards, cultivation gradually ceases. On the the post, he proceeded to the river Lena, and there embarking in route to Kazan we saw large mounds of earth, --often of twenty, a bateau, arrived at Yakutsk, after a fatiguing voyage of twenty: thirty, and forty feet elevation ; which I conjectured, and on in- two days. When he left Irkutsk, it was just in the midst of quiry found, to be ancient sepulchres. There is an analogy harvest-time, and the reapers were in the fields; but, when he between these and our own graves and the Egyptian pyramids ; entered Yakutsk, the snow was six inches deep, and the boys and an exact resemblance between these and those piles, supposed were whipping their tops on the ice. Here his travels in prosé. to be of monumental earth, which are found among some of the cution of his favourite scheme were put an end to. Under pretribes of North America. We first saw Tartars before our arrival tence that the season was too far advanced, the governor at first at Kazan; and also a woman with her nails painted red, like the threw difficulties in his way, and at length absolutely prevented Cochin Chinese.
him from proceeding. Ledyard made several unavailing attempts "Notwithstanding the modern introduction of linen into Russia, to proceed, as he believed, and truly, that the difficulties were the garments of the peasantry still retain not only the form, but exaggerated, but he was forced to give way, and occupied binself the manner of ornamenting them, which was practised when they during his sojourn in inquiries upon the condition of the country wore skins. This resembles the Tartar mode of ornamenting, and its inhabitants ; holding ever before his eyes his favourite and is but a modification of the wampum* ornament, which is idea, that the Tartars. and the North American Indians were the still discernible, westward from Russia to Denmark, among the
same race ; he was also curious in his inquiries respecting the Finlanders, Laplanders, and Swedes. In the United States of variation of colour in different races, and the causes of those America, as in Russia, we have made an effort to convert our variations, as he felt a strong desire to prove that these were Tartars to think and act like us : but to what effect ? Among us, caused by exterior circumstances, and not from an organic Sampson Occum was pushed the farthest within the pale of civili distinction. His notes on this subject are loose and undigested; sation ; but just as the sanguine divine, who brought him there, and we cannot afford room for them at present. Whilst at was forming the highest expectations he fled, and sought his own Yakutsk he met with Captain Billings, the commander of a Ruselysium in the bosom of his native forests. In Russia they have sian expedition of discovery, and an old fellow companion in none so distinguished; here they are commonly footmen, or
Cook's voyage. Billings had been assistant to Bayly the astro. lackeys of some other kind. The Marquis de la Fayette had a nomer, attached to Cook's expedition, and had had the good young American Tartar of the Onandago tribe,' who came to see fortune to be employed by the Empress Catherine in the explohim, and the Marquis at much expense equipped him in richration of the North-eastern regions of her territories. Billings Indian dresses. After staying some time, he did as Occum did. was going up to Irkutsk, and, without any idea of the fate that When I was at school at Mount Ida (Dartmouth College], many awaited his friend, persuaded him to accompany him, merely to Indians were there, most of whom gave some promise of being pass away the time in society. One evening Ledyard was sudcivilised, and some were sent forth to preach ; but as far as i denly arrested by the Russian police, acting
under an order just observed myself, and have been since informed, they all returned received from the Empress ; he was hurried into a kibitka, and to the home and customs of their fathers, and followed the incli- carried as fast as post-horses could convey him to the frontiers of Lations which nature had so deeply enstamped on their character:" Poland, where he was coolly turned adrift, and told that it was
at the risk of his life if he ever attempted to enter Russia agaio. * The peculiar ornament of the North American Indians; it will be At first sight such a proceeding, after the great facilities that bad again mentioned hereafter. Ledyard's favourite theory was, that the North American Indians and Tartars were the same race, and he here adduces * The Marquis de la Fayette, who had shown Ledyard much attention at the wampum as an evidence of its correctness.